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62 Cards in this Set

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What is Sensation?
Sensation refers to the detection and basic sensory experience of environmental stimuli, such as sounds, objects, and odors.
What is Perception?
Perception occurs when we integrate, organize, and interpret sensor information in a way that is meaningful.
Give an example of Sensation.
Light rushing into the eye, sending information to the brain.
Give an example of Perception.
Interpreting lines and splotches of color as being a painting.
What are Sensory Receptors?
Sensory Receptors receive sense data, examples are eyes, ear, nose, tongue, and the nerve endings found within the skin.
How do sensory receptors work?
They convert energy into electrical impulses that can be received and understood by the brain.
What is transduction?
The conversion of energy (waves) into coded neural signals that can be processed by the nervous system and brain.
What is Absolute Threshold?
The smallest amount of stimuli that can be detected half of the time.
What is Sensory Adaptation?
The gradual decline in sensitivity to a constant stimulus.
What is the cornea?
The clear membrane that covers the front of the eye.
What is the Sclera?
The white area of the eye.
What is the Pupil?
The black opening in the center of the.
What is the Iris?
The colored muscle that expands and contracts to allow more and less light in.
What is the Lens?
The Lens is a curved transparent structure that thins or thickens (a process called Accomodation) to bend or focus incoming light, so that the light falls on the Retina.
What is Nearsightedness?
Also known as Myopia, light from distant objects is focused in front of the retina.
What is Accomodation?
The thickening or thinning of the lens inside the eye.
What is Farsightedness?
Farsightedness or "hyperopia" occurs when light from a near object is focused behind the retina.
What is Presbyopia?
Presbyopia is caused when the lens becomes brittle and inflexible.
What is an Astigmatism?
An Astigmatism occurs when lines in a particular direction become blurry as a result of an abnormally curved eyeball.
What is the Retina?
A thin, light-sensitive membrane located at the back of the eyes that contains the sensory receptors for vision.
What are Rods?
Rods are located within the Retina, and are long, thin, blunt sensory receptors within the eye, that are highly sensitive to light but do not detect color. Rods are primarily responsible for peripheral vision and night vision.
What are Cones?
Cones are short, thick, pointed sensory recepter within the eye that detect color and are responsible for color vision and visual accuity.
What is the Fovea?
The small area in the center of the retina, composed entirely of cones, where visual information is most sharply focused.
What is the Optic Disk?
The area of the retina without rods or cones, where the optic nerve exits the back of the eye.
What is the Blind Spot?
The point at which the optic nerve leave the eye, producing a small gap in the field of vision.
What is Color?
The perceptual experience of different wavelengths of light, involving hue, saturation (purity), and brightness (intensity).
What is Hue?
The property of wavelengths of light known as color; different wavelengths correspond to our subjective experience of different colors.
What is Saturation?
The property of color that corresponds to the purity of the light wave.
What is Brightness?
The perceived intensity of a color, which corresponds to the amplitude of the light wave.
What is the Trichromatic Theory of Color Vision?
There are three variaties of cones : "red" "green" and "blue" - "sensitive".
What is the Opponnent-Process Theory of Color Vision?
There are four basic colors, red, green, blue, and yellow. They oppose each other as red-green and blue-yellow. If green is stimulate, red is inhibited. If blue is stimulated, yellow is inhibited.
What is Audition?
The technical term for the sense of hearing.
What is an Afterimage?
A visual experience that occurs after the original source of stimulation is no longer present.
What is Loudness?
Loudness is determined by the amplitude of the sound wave, and is measured in units called Decibels.
What is Pitch?
The "highness" or "lowness" of a sound, and is determined by Frequency (Number of waves per second, measured in Hertz)
What is Timbre?
The combination of different sound-waves/frequencies creates a distinctive quality to a sound called Timbre.
What is the Outter Ear?
The Outter Ear includes the Pinna, the Ear Canal, and the Ear Drum.
What is the Pinna?
The oddly shaped flap of skin and cartilage attached to each side of the head. The pinna's primary role is to catch sound waves and funnel them down the ear canal to the ear drum.
What is the Ear Drum?
The Ear Drum is a tightly stretched membrane. When sound waves hit the eardrum, the ear drum vibrates, matching the vibrations of the sound wave in intensity and frequency.
What is the Middle Ear?
The Middle Ear consists of three bones that vibrate : the Hammer, the Anvil, and the Stirrup. The stirrup transmits the amplified vibration through the Oval Window.
What is the Oval Window?
A small membrane that vibrates and relays the sound to the inner ear structure the Cochlea.
What is the Cochlea?
The Cochlea is a fluid-filled tube that's coiled in a spiral.
What is the Basilar Membrane?
The Basilar Membrane runs the length of the Cochlea, and contains the sensory receptors for sound, "Hair Cells". These fibers make up the auditory nerve.
What is the Frequency Theory of Hearing?
The theory that the hair cells on the auditory nerve (in the Basilar Membrane) vibrate at the same frequency as the original sound.
What is the Place Theory of Hearing?
The theory that vibrations of different frequencies, cause vibrations in different places along the Basilar Membrane and Auditory Nerve.
What are the two "Chemical Senses" ?
Olfaction (smell) and Gustation (taste)
What is Olfaction?
Smell
What is Gustation?
Taste
What are Pheromones?
Chemical signals released by an animal that communicate information and affect behavoir of other animals of the same species.
What is the Olfactory Bulb?
The enlarged ending of the Olfactory Cortex at the front of the brain where the sensation of smell is registered.
What are Taste Buds?
The specialized sensory receptors for taste that are located on the tongue and inside the mouth and throat.
How many basic taste categories are there, and what are they?
There are Five (5) : Sweet, Salty, Sour, Bitter, and Umami ("Yummy")
What are Nocicpetors?
Pain Receptors
What is Substance P?
Substance P stimulates free nerces endings at the site of an injury, and increases pain messages within the spinal cord. (produced by "C Fibers")
What is "Phantom Limb Pain" ?
Occurence in which a person continues to experience intense painful sensations in a limb that has been amputated.
What is Kinesthetic Sense?
The sense that involves location and position of body parts relative to one another. (Literally means "feelings in motion")
What are Proprioceptors?
Proprioceptors are specialized sensory neurons located in muscles and joints, that constantly communicate information to the brain about changes in body positiona nd muscle tension.
What is Vestibular Sense?
Sense of balance or equilibrium.
What is "Bottom-Up Processing" ?
Also called "data-driven processing", the flow of sensory data from the sensory receptors to the brain.
What is "Top-Down Processing" ?
Top-Down Processing occures when we draw on our knowledge, experiences, expectations, and other cognitive processes to arrive at meaningul perceptions, such as people or objects in a particular context.
What is Gestalt Psychology?
Wertheimer's idea that the whole is always greater than the sum of it's parts.
What is the "Figure-Ground Relationship" ?
The figure-ground relationship is our tendency to recognize a figure, and a background (we rely on recognition of shapes to identify objects, as well as some top-down processing).