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56 Cards in this Set

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sensory signals are transformed into neural impulses which travel to the thalamus (except smell)
transduction
decreasing responsiveness to stimuli due to constant stimulation
sensory adaptation
can only focus on one thing at a time unless a sense carries meaning, then focuses change
selective attention
brightness of objects
intensity
determines hue
wavelength
color
hue
light enters the eye
cornea
like the shutter of a camera, the iris opens, closes based on how much light should enter it
pupil
muscles that open/close the pupil to let more/less light in
iris
this is curved to accommodate and focus
lens
inverted image is projected
retina
night vision- black and white
rods
we see in color
cones
center of the retina, contains high concentration of cones
fovea
specific parts of the brain that detect form, shape, horizontal lines, etc.
feature detectors
3 types of cones in retina; blue, green, red=primary colors of light
trichromatic theory
red/green, yellow/blue, black/white pairs. explains color blindness and afterimages.
opponent-process theory
height of wave = loudness
amplitude
length of wave = pitch
frequency
sound waves from the right arrive in the right ear before the left ear
sound localization
order in which sound waves travel through the ear
ear canal, eardrum, hammer, anvil, stirrup, cochlea
structure shaped like a snail's shell filled with fluid, where transduction occurs
cochlea
conductive vs. nerve deafness
conductive = mechanical problem, nerve = damaged by loud noises
explains how we experience pain (endorphones swing gate open and messages sent to brain)
gate-control theory
taste buds are located here
papillae
what we taste is combination of both chemical systems
taste and smell
tells us about how our body is positioned
vestibular sense
where our body parts are
kinesthetic sense
smallest amount of stimulus we can detect 50% of the time
absolute threshold
stimulation below threshold
subliminal
smallest amount of change in a stimulus that is detectable
difference threshold
change needs to occur in proportion
weber's law
when we have stimuli happening at the same time we tend to detect the one that is most important to us
signal detection theory
we perceive things by filling in gaps often using background knowledge
top-down processing (perception)
mental representation of how we perceive the world
schemata
a mental predisposition to perceieve one thing and not another
perceptual set
use only the features of objects to perceive
bottom-up processing (sensation)
part of visual image is the figure and part is the background
figure ground illusion
perceptual grouping to make objects meaningful
gestalt rules
objects closer perceived to be grouped
proximity
objects similar in appearance are grouped
similarity
objects with continuous form
continuity
filling in gaps
closure
seeing objects as connected if they meet
connectedness
our ability to maintain a constant perception of an object despite changes in angle, light, distance, etc.
constancy
a series of lights turned on and off at a particular rate appear to be one moving light
phi phenomenon
measures when an infant develops depth perception
visual cliff
require only one eye for depth
monocular cues
railroad tracks being drawn as in the distance
linear perspective
larger=closer (depth cue)
relative size
objects blocking must be closer
interposition
see details=closer (depth cue)
texture gradient
looking at 3-D objects requires both eyes for depth
binocular cues
each eye sees slightly different view of object
retinal dispartiy
as object gets closer to face, moves eyes towards one another
convergence
perceptual illusions dealing with which line is longer
muller-lyer illusion