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49 Cards in this Set

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Absolute Threshold
the minimum stimulation necessary to detect a stimulus (light, sound, pressure, odor, taste) 50% of the time.
Vision: 30 miles
Odor: 1 drop of perfume in 3 bedroom house
Sound: 20 feet
When does subliminal stimulation work?
1) forced to focus
2) highly motivated
3) lab setting
Signal detection theory
the detection of weak stimulus depends partly on a persons experience, expectation, motivation, and level of fatigue.
Sensory Adaptation
diminished sensitivity to a prolonged, unchannging stimulus
Just noticable difference
the minimum difference a person can detect between any two stimulus 50% of the time Focused on and researched by Weber.
Difference theshold
Two stimulus must differ in porportion, rather then be consistent with one another
Naive realism
Picture, compare reality to picture, two imperfect copies, Plato
Constructive Perception
Parallel processing, mind processes everything at once
Psychophysics
How the physical world gets in our brains
Affect of subliminal advertising
Subtle influence on thinking, no affect on behavior
Affects of backward masking
no influence, active construction by listener
Vision
How do we see depth?
We only see a small spectrum of what is out there
Binocular cues
Feature Detectors
Corticol neurons that recieve information from visual cortex and respond to specific features of scene such as shape, angles, or movement
Pheromones
ants, dogs, humans
Odorous secretions that transmit information.
ants: death
dogs: mark territory
humans: menstrual cycle sychro
Sislo and Limens
Sislo: two point threshold
Limens: threshold
Perception
Arises from different signals, multiple neurons, many systems, each performing a simple task
Gestalt
An organized whole, tendancy to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes. Complete even when items are missing.
Groupings
Proximity
Depth Perception
Similarity
Closure
Continuity
Connectedness
Proximity

Continuity
group elements together that are close to each other

smooth continuous patterns
Connectedess

Depth Perception
Uniform and links, spots, shapes, lines, single unit, all of them

Binocular cues
Similarity

Closure
group similar looking figures

fills in gaps to complete shape
Perceptual adaptation
We can adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field. (women in film)
Context Effect
a later stimulus determines an earlier one
"eel on the wagon" = wheel
"eel on the orange" = peel
Perceptual set
a mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another. We see things based on our experiences (i.e. role expectations)
Perceptual constancy
allows us to perceive an object as unchanging while the stimuli we recieve change.
Size constancy
size is the same, even when the distance varies
Shape constancy
familar objects have constant form even while retinal images change
ESP
Claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input

science cannot prove or disprove
Telepathy, clairvoyance, precognition
telepathy: direct communication one ming to another
clairvoyance: Perception of remote events
precognition: Perception of future events
Parapsychology
The study of unusual psychological phenonmena
Consciousness
the awareness of internal and external stimuli. Selective attention to ongoing, perception, thought, and feelings
Controlled process
demand high concentration, alertness (i.e. taking exam)
Automatic process
"auto pilot" little awareness or attention (driving a stick shift), hypnosis is the state.
How often do we cycle through variaions in consciousness
90 minutes
Daydreams
reduced eye movement, high levels of alpha activity
James
Frued
focus on consciousness
Unconsciousness
Infradian rhythems
occur less frequently than once a day (i.e. menstrual cycle)
Circadian rhythems
Once a day (i.e. sleep and wake cycle)
Ultradian rhythems
follow a 90 minute cycle throughout the day and during sleep. Shorter then circadian.
Stage one
slow, irregular waves, slow breath, hallucinations
Stage two
sleep spindles, rapid, rythmic brain activity

where you spend most of the night
Stage three
delta waves begin to emerge, hard to arrounse, trans
Stage four
complete delta waves, sleep talk, sleep walk, etc.
Rem
Heart rate increases, breathing increases, rapid eye movement, relaxed
REM rebound
go directly into REM sleep, catch up, two week balance
psychoanalytical
dreams are keys to understanding inner conflict
physiological
making sense of visual brain stimulation, preserving neural pathways
computer analogy
info processing
hypnosis
who invented it
theories
effects
Discovered by Frank Mesmer

Hightened state of suggestability

trouble distinguishing fact from truth

anesthesia, sensory distortion, disinhibition, post hypnotic suggestions