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131 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
natural selection
evolutionary process by which heritable traits that best enable organisms to survive and reproduce in particular environments are passed to ensuing generations.
evolutionary psychology
the study of the evolution of cognition and behavior using principles of natural selection.
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of ppl and transmitted from one generation to the next.
standards for accepted and expected behavior. norms prescribe "proper" behavior.
personal space
the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies. Its size depends on our familiarity with whoever is near us.
in psychology, the characteristics, whether biological or socially influenced, by which people define male and female.
the vicarious experience of another's feelings; putting oneself in another's shoes.
physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone. in lab experiments, this might mean delivering electric shocks or saying something likely to hurt another's feelings.
mixing both masculine and feminine characteristics.
gender role
a set of behavior expectations for males and females.
a relationship in which the effect of one factor (like biology) depends on another factor (like environment)
2 or more people who interact and are interdependent (for a length of time)
People engaging in a common activity, but who have little interaction with each other.
rules of behavior for a group; prevailing beliefs/attitudes/values
social norms
shared expectations about how particular people are supposed to behave.
social roles
the early definition of social facilitation
presence of others facilitates performance of an individual
Zajonc's Theory of social facilitation states the the presence of others creates ______
________ increases ________ response
arousal; dominant
the dominant response depends on the task; easy tasks = ________ difficult tasks = ________
success; failure
Social loafing study
blindfolded pps w/ headphones and asked to clap or cheer as loudly as they could. IV: alone, group of 2, 4, 6. DV: how much noise they make results: as group size got larger, cheering and clapping became quieter per person
social loafing depends on the degree to which individual _________ will be evaluated

evaluation -> arousal -> social facilitation
no evaluation -> relaxation -> social loafing
the loosening of normal constraints on behavior when people are in a crowd; can lead to deviant behaviors which would not have occured w/ individuals acting alone
Baiting study
examined 21 instances of suicidal jumpers when crowds present. when crowd was big and far from victim at nighttime, baiting was much more likely.
Diener study
trick or treat; asked children to "take one". IV: alone or in groups, IV2: children were either asked their names or left anonymous. DV: who took extra candy? Results: most extra candy taken in anonymous group, but anonymous alone also showed increase from identified.
Johnson & Downing study
IV1: dressed women in KKK outfit or nurse's outfit, IV2: women wore nametage (ID) or didn't. DV: women given opportunity to increase or decrease intensity of electric shocks to another participant. Results: KKK costume showed most increase in shock levels, nurse's uniform showed decreased shock levels. Anonymous was higher in KKK and lower in nurses.
Being anonymous makes us less ________ and more _________ to cues in the situation
self-aware; responsive
if group defines itself in terms of prejudice and hatred (KKK), being anonymous causes _________
more violence
if group defines itself in terms of concern for the welfare of others (nurses), being anonymous causes ____________
more helping
Features that promote (3) deindividuation
similar appearances, anonymity, individual decision making discouraged, appeals to cohesiveness.
5 stages of group development
FSNPA forming, storming, norming, performing, adjourning
What is groupthink?
a kind of thinking in which maintaining group solidarity and cohesiveness is more important then considering the facts in a realistic manner.
Risk factors of groupthink
high cohesiveness, group isolation, high stress, directive leader, poor decision-making procedures
Symptoms of groupthink
illusion of invulnerability, self-censorship, illusion of unanimity.
Consequences of groupthink (4)
incomplete survey of alternatives, failure to examine risks of favored alternatives, poor information search, failures to develop contingency plans
Solutions for groupthink(4)
encourage/force discrepant opinions, impartial leader, create subgroups, use systematic procedures for making decisions
changes in behavior that are elicited by direct requests.
if someone does you a favor, reciprocate.
norm of reciprocity
when a person gives you something, no strings attached, then subsequently makes a request (donation, favor, vote, etc)
Solicitor first asks for a large request. When the person refuses, a smaller request (intended request) is made.
Door-in-the-Face Technique
Blood donor study
when people asked for a one time blood donation, 32% complied. When first asked to be lifetime donors, then asked for a one time donation, 50% complied.
If you are unsure of how to act, do what everyone else is doing.
Norm of social validation/social proof
People should be true to their attitudes and prior behaviors, and not contradict themselves.
Consistency Norm
You surround people with their own attitudes or past behaviors.
The four-walls technique
You get the person to agree to an initial trivial request, then ask for a bigger one (intended request)
Foot-in-The-Door Technique
Freedman and Fraser
Experimenter called housewives and asked for a small request. 3 days later-experimenter called housewives again and asked for a larger request. Results: more gave when asked first with small then big request.
After people agree to buy something, they are given a steeper price.
Lowballing Technique
If you like someone, you should help them out.
Liking norm
Do what authority figures say
Authority norm
Scarce things are more valuable.
Scarcity norm
The process by which a message induces a change in beliefs, attitudes, or behaviors. bad = propaganda, good = education
Occurs when people focus on arguments and respond with favorable thoughts
Central Route to Persuasion
Central route to persuasion more likely to occur when _______ to think about issue; careful consideration is needed; and possible ______; creates a __________ change
motivated; counterarguing; lasting
Occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues (attractiveness)
peripheral route to persuasion
More likely when ________ or uninvolved; ____ effort, use surface cues and heuristics; effects are_________
distracted; low; temporary
every culture has these; sets of norms that apply to people in a particular position (ex. teacher, wife). our social roles can determine our behavior.
social roles
the status of a person's role can influence __________; ex. Boss vs. assistant study
behavior; women first solved math problems alone, and had assigned roles of boss or assistant. boss's performance improved, assistant's decreased.
lifelong process of internalizing societal prescriptions and proscription for gender-appropriate behavior
another word for socialization
gendery display
agents of socialization
parents, media, peers, etc.
Hospital Nursery Study
parents describe new born infants w/in 24 hours of birth.
Emotional reaction to Jack in the box study
Evaluate child's emotional reaction to Jack jumping out of his box as a function of sex of child.
Gender differences: on average women have ___% more fat, ___% less muscles, are __ inches shorter, and live ___ years longer
Gender differences: men enter puberty __ years later, ___ x more likely to be color blind, and more likely to be able to _______
2;20;wiggle their ears
women give higher priority to close relationships via gifts, report more empathy, better at decoding emotional expressions
Social Dominance
men are rated as more dominant and aggressive, tend to hold more powerful positions, tend to have a more dominant conversational style (fewer tag questions)
Do men or women interrupt more?
Women interrupt men far less than men interrupt women. The sexes interrupt same sex conversations at about the same rate as each other.
men tend to have a more positive view of casual sex; men tend to desire a larger number of partners prior to marriage
natural selection
nature selects traits that best enable organisms to survive and reproduce
evolutionary psychologists believe ____________ influences social behaviors
natural selection
We make decisions based on our desire to ____________
pass on our genes
Evolutionary psychologists believe that gender differences in ________ reflect the desire to pass on one's genes
sexuality; sperm are cheaper than eggs!
Why were men more likely to agree to have random sex?
men want to pass on genes by having sex with as many people as possible
Men desire young, healthy, beautiful women who are likely to ___________; women desire __________ men, who can provide for children
reproduce; wealthy
A change in behavior due to the real or imagined influence of others
Influence due to the belief that others are behaving correctly
Informational influence
Influence due to the desire to be liked and accepted by others
Normative influence
Sherif Norm Formation Study
informational influence; pps judge a distance of a "moving" light, on day 1 they make judgements alone, days 2-4 they make judgments in group, day 5, they make judgments alone again. Results: their perceived distances come closer to the groups answers.
informational influence occurs in the presence of _________, assumes other people are behaving/thinking _________, causes no arousal or ________, and leads to private __________.
Factors increasing informational influence (3)
ambiguity of situation, crisis, other people are experts.
Asch's Study
12 trials; all confederates give the wrong answer. what do pps do? conformity = # of errors that agree w/ confederates. Results: 75% conformed at least once, 7% conformed on every trial, people conformed 37% of the time
Normative influence: you think other people are wrong and it is __________, it involves arousal and _________, and doesn't lead to private ___________
unambiguous;discomfort; conformity
Factors increasing normative social influence (6)
bigger group, group is important or liked, no allies in dissent, group is high status, response made publicly, no prior commitment.
When behavior is influenced due to the direct commands of an authority figure
Milgram's study; what is it, results?
You sign up for a learning experiment; another pp shows up and you are randomly assigned to be the teacher. the learner is led to another room, you see the learner being hooked up to an electric shock machine. you are given mild shock as demo. Learner has heart condition, you give shocks as learner gets answers wrong. Results: 2-3% went all the way to the end of the shock generator in the control condition with no instruction to continue. with instruction to continue 65% went all the way.
Variations on Milgram's experiment were tried to determine if the effects were due to ________________
situational factors
When experiment was in an office building instead of lab, ___ went all the way
When victim was in same room, ___% went all the way
40%, learner is humanized
When pp had to touch the learner, ___% went all the way
30%, learner is humanized
When experimenter was far away from learner (telephone), ____% went all the way
20, authority is not as imposing
When experimenter was ordinary person, ___ went all the way
19, authority is not as imposing
When 2 confederates rebelled, ____ went all the way
10%, role models for defiance, norms are changed
According to Milgram, people obeyed because of 2 things
the authority norm, and gradual escalation of voltage
He found that people who resisted authority ________ were more likely to disobey
co-participants working individually on a noncompetitive activity
concern for how others are evaluating us
evaluation apprehension
people who benefit from the group but give little in return
group produced enhancement of members pre existing tendencies; a strengthening of the members' average tendency, not a split within the group
group polarization
a false impression of what most other people are thinking or feeling, or how they are responding
pluralistic ignorance
8 symptoms of groupthink
1. illusion of vulnerability, 2. unquestioned belief in the group's moreality
3. rationalization
4. Stereotyped view of opponent.
5. Conformity pressure
6. Self-censorship
7. Illusion of unanimity
8. Mindguards
Characteristics of individuals who influence groups
Consistency, self-confidence, defections from the majority, persisent
A tendency for people with minority views to express them less quickly than do people in the majority
minority slowness effect
the process by which certain group members motivate and guide the group
leadership that organizes work, sets standards, and focuses on goals
task leadership
leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support
social leadership
the characteristics, whether biological or socially influenced, by which people define male and female.
Universal friendship norms. name some:
respect the friend's privacy; make eye contact while talking; dont tell secrets.
Universal trait dimensions. People tend to describe others as (5 things)
more or less stable, outgoing, open, agreeable, and conscientious.
Universal social belief dimensions. 5 of them:
cynicism, social complexity, reward for application, spirituality, fate control
Universal status norms. What does this mean?
Wherever people form status hierarchies, they talk to higher status people in the respectful way they talk to strangers.
Incest taboo. what is this universal norm?
Parents are not to have sexual relations with children, nor siblings with one another. Makes sense evolutionarily.
What are some critiques of evolutionary psychology?
Evolutionary psychologists sometimes start with an effect and work backward to construct an explanation for it. This is hindsight reasoning and if things are imagined to be different they usually can be. .
How does social role theory explain gender differences in social behavior?
A cultural explanation for the difference between women and men are because culture socializes their behavior.
4 Predictors of obedience
1. distance/proximity between victim and authority (seen or unseen)
2. Actual phsyical presence distance (phone and in person)
3. Institutional authority (Yale vs. office building)
4. Group influence (extraordinary group loyalty such as 9/11 firefighters)
6 Predictors of conformity
1. group size
2. unanimity
3. cohesion
4. status
5. public response
6. no prior commitment
Which is more influential, reason or emotion?
It depends on the audience. Well-educated/analytical audience is more likely to respond to rationality. Also, people motivated to listen. (central route). For those who are uneducated on the topic of discussion etc. (ex voting), emotion is better (peripheral route).
Are messages more or less persuasive when good feelings are involved?
More persuasive because they enhance positive thinking and motivate people to think and also link good feelings with the message.
when people are happy, do they think more or less before making a decision?
Less, they make quicker decisions and rely more on peripheral cues than someone who is unhappy.
AAre messages effective when evoking negative feelings or fear?
Fear can be arousing and effective when trying to persuade people. however, when the fear pertains to a pleasurable activity (sex, smoking) the result is many times denial.
Fear evoking messages are more effective when they lead people not only to fear the severity and likelihood of something but also to perceive a _________ and feel capable of _______________ it.
solution; implementing
Is it better to give a one-sided argument or include the two sides of it?
If your audience will be exposed to opposing views, offer a two-sided appeal. If not, a one-sided message is more persuasive
Persuasion _______ as the significance and familiarity of the issue _________.
decreases; increase.
_________ can make things believable and increases its fluency.
Personal experience is ________ influential than media in persuasion.
How does the media influence persuasion?
They use opinion leaders (individuals perceived as experts).
The more _________ the medium media uses, the ________ influential it will be.
lifelike; more
Messages are best _________ and _________ when writte.
comprehended; recalled
How does age of an audience matter when receiving a message?
Young people's attitudes are more subject to change.
lifecycle explanation for audience age and attitude change vs. generational explanation for audience age and attitude change.
attitudes change as people become older; attitudes don't change, older people largely hold onto the attitudes they had when young and these attitudes are diff. than young people have today causing a generation gap. (evidence mostly supports generational evidence)
How does forewarning an audience affect persuasion?
Audiences that are forewarned of what they are about to hear are less likely to budge than those who were not warned.
How does distracting an audience affect persuasion?
Verbal persuasion is enhanced by something slightly distracting, esp. effective with a simple message (ex. political ads, words promote candidate and images keep us occupied so we don't analyze the words.)
Stimulating _________ make strong messages ______ persuasive and weak messages ________ persuasive.