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174 Cards in this Set

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a favorable or unfavorable ecvaluative reaction toward something or someon, exhibited in one's beliefs, feelings or intended behavior.
ABC's of attitude
Affect, Behavior cognition
"Someone who BELIEVES a particular ethnic group is lazy amnd may FEEL dislike for such people and ACT in a discriminitory manner.
Do attitudes determine our behavior?
It depends. Generally NO. but there are factors that increase the correlation between true attitude and behavior.
Festinger cocncluded people's expressed attitudes hardly predicted their
varying behaviors.

F.E: religious individuals who DONT go to church.
4 cases where attitudes predict behavior:
1.) When social influnce on what we say are minimal.
2.) When other influences on behavior are minimal.
3.) When attitudes specific to the behavior are examined
4.) when attitudes are potent.
When attitude predicts behavior:

When social influence on what we say are minimal.
Expressions of attitudes are vulnerable to outsider scruitny. "we say what we think others want to hear"
U.S House of representatives and salary
Demonstrate social influence on attitudes.

Annomously voted to raise their salaries, but overwhelmingly defeated the bill on a roll-call vote.
Bogus pipeline in social influences on attirutdes.
A procedure used to fool participants into disclosing true attirudes when they believe a machine can read their "true" attitudes when in fact it predicts attitude based on an earlier personality test.
Additudes predict behavior
When other influences on behavior are minimal
The situation we face often hinders our attitudes from predicting our behavior. IN this case general attitude DO explain general behavior.
What is meta analysis and what is its purpose in evaluating attitudes?
Meta analysis is the statistical comparison of many studies. It found that attitudes do NOT accurately reflect behavior.
Lapier- study of chinesse imigrant and american researcher.
Traveled the U.S when anti-chinesse sentiment was bad. all establishments except 1 tended to the customers. Later in a survey mailed to them (128/251 returned) 90% said they woiuld not accomodate.
Attitudes do not predict behaviors very well. In fact the correlation is about...
r= 0.3
Attitudes predict behavior when attitudes specific to the behavior are examined
Whether or not people will jog more closely correlates with their attitudes on jogging and not on health fitness in general.
Attitudes predict behavior
When attitudes are potent

(salient or when you ask them to reflect on thier attitudes)
Jury study- students were asked their opinion on affirmitive action. then assigned to hear "reflect on your attitudes" or not. Those who didnt reflect judged less often according to their attitudes.

Cheating study- nearly all students said cheating is wrong. they were asked to take an intelligence test and to STOP when the bell rang. assigned to room with or without mirror. Those with mirror more often stopped at the bell (no cheating). Mirror= self-conscious
From the notes attitudes better predict behavior when the attitude is formed by active experience. (Sleeping on Cot study)
due to few housing shortages some students were forced to sleep on cots. although those sleeping on beds or cots had equally negative attitudes, those who were sleeping on cots were more likely to complain or write letters (take action~ Behavior)
According to the notes attitudes are more likely to correlate with behavior when it is personally relevant.
Tuition increases ussually do not phase students in their senior year however requiring a graduate exam does.
students' tuition
Attitudes are LESS LIKELY to predict behavior when the ABC components...
dont match. For example: garden snake

Cognition is it dangerous- no
Affective i am afraid- yes
Behavior- will you touch it (?)
Importance of how attitude is measured.

Attitudes should be measured _________________. Using ______________
at the same level of specificity. Multiple act criterion.
Zimbardo Stanford Prison experiment
ollege males are subjects that voluntarily became prison inmates in the basement of the psychology building. No one with mental illness or physical.
o Do people make a place violent or does a place make people violent? Randomly assigned to prison guards or prisoners. Given a billy club, sun glasses and don't use physical violence but KEEP ORDER. Were picked up at home (humiliation). Were forced to where outfits and caps and were not a name only #. Making prisoners inhuman. People fell into their roles. Guards treated prisoners badly and escalated quickly. Prisoners became apathetic and broke down. It was 2 weeks long and after 6 days the study was called off because a grad student said it was unethical.
In Zimbardo's study why were the students picked up at home?
To begin the humiliation of being arrested before their family members and neighbors.
Why were prisoners left blindfolded?
to limit their distraction and ponder the mess they had gotten themselves into. Real criminals would have a crime to think of.
Consider the police procedures which make arrestees feel confused, fearful, and dehumanized.
Note that this policeman is wearing sunglasses just like those we had our "guards" wear. Serve as a way of allowing dehuminization with annonimity. Guards are more likely to be dehumanizing with glasses.
What are the effects of living in an environment with no clocks, no view of the outside world, and minimal sensory stimulation?
Living with no clocks makes the time seem longer. Like one long block of time instead of shorter managable pieces.
What was the purpose of stripping the prisoners naked?
To further humiliate them. also they were told they were being checked for germs and lice.
Consider the police procedures which make arrestees feel confused, fearful, and dehumanized. Note that this policeman is wearing sunglasses just like those we had our "guards" wear
What are the effects of living in an environment with no clocks, no view of the outside world, and minimal sensory stimulation?
Consider the psychological consequences of stripping, delousing, and shaving the heads of prisoners or members of the military. What transformations take place when people go through an experience like this?
The humiliation makes the prisoner feel dehumanized and eventually deserving of the punishment. The shaving of the heads also takes away any individuality and personage.
Why were the prisoners forced to where a chain with a lock if these are not even required in prisons.
The idea was to simulate a functional simulation not a literal prison. This was just a constant reminder of their oppressiveness.
Prisoners were referred to by number to...
strip them of their identity. It worked at the end several prisoners had to be convinced they were not prisoner # 413 they were a name.
What was unique about the guards schedules in prison.
they took their job seriously. No guard was ever late to their shift and often stayed past their shifts end.
The guards began to make their own forms of punishment as they settled into the role. Why did push ups become more aversive as the experiment progressed?
At first the prisoners were just participants in a study being asked to do push ups. later they were already degraded and being forced to comply with the officers who caused the degradation causes more aversiveness. ?
When there was a rebellion the guards acted
Angered and frustrated. Guaards were really beginning to take hold of their role not understanding why the priosners just couldnt comply with orderliness and took it out on the prisoners.
To help keep order the guards knew they would have to appease the prisoners so they...
made a "privellege cell" that gave the prisoners their clothes back, got their beds back, and had the right to a shower and brushing their teeth. Also special food.
What did the appeasing of prisoners do to the prisoners morale?
it wained. Formerly the prisoners stuck together. now, certain prisoners who would not be appeased were labeled as troublemakers and their name was given to be sent to "solitary confinement".
Why were good prisoners but in bad cells and bad prisoners put in good cells?
once again to break unity amongst prisoners. By now the prisoners were suspicious of the other prisoners.
Most prisoners later believed that the guards were choosen because they were bigger. why is this?
The guards were not much bigger. it was randomly assigned the prisoners percieved the guards as bigger probably because they were in authority and stronger in the prison situation.
The first prisoner was released why? what did the exprimenters think of the subject?
The first prisoner was experiencing major distress and acute emotional disturbance. The researchers thought he was faking it to get out PRIOVING they to fell into the prison state of mind.
There was a second rebellion/prison escape planned. How was this percieved? what turned out? and how was this handled?
The rumor of another break out angered the staff and guard. the rumor never materialized and still the prionsers were made to suffer by push-ups and cleaning of toilets.
When a priest was invited to the prison how did the prisoners identify themselves?
50% identified themselves by number NOT name.
Prisoner 819 was released because he was clearly sick. What did the guards do?
They had the prisoners recite "prisoner # 819 is a bad prisoner" then 819 began to cry and asked to go back to his cell. At which point zimbardo had to convince him he wasnt prioner 819.
Foot in the door technique
the tendency for peopl who have complied with a small request to be more willing to comply with larger requests later.
Drive carefully study
Foot in the door hypothesis. Drivers were either asked to put a big ugly drive safely sign on their property or a small bumber sticker on their car. 17% allowed the sign and nearly all put the little sticker. Later those who complied with the sticker were more likely to allow the big ugly sign.
Loyalty oath (Bush/Cheney ticket)
Conformity on a small task leads to better prediction of behavior. Even those who might not vote for Bush were more likely to vote for him now that they complied with a small request.
Low-ball technique
people who agree to an initial request will odten comply when the requester ups the ante.
where is low ball technique very common?
Car salesman and Mechanics.
Palmistry study.
A perosn who did not believe in palm reading did it to make money. then they began to believe in it until someone asked them to reverse everything the palm reading actually said and the palm reader was surprised when my readings were still as successful as before.
Early intro psych study
Foot in the door phenomema: When psychology students were invited to participate in a study at 7 AM... 24% showed up. When they were asked to sign up then told it was at 7 AM 53% came.
In evil acts how does the aggressor justify the act?
ussually the aggressor justifies the action by disparaging their victims and labeling them. As is done in wartime when all our enemies are given derogatory labels.
TOY study and children
Children were left in a room with an inticing toy and they were either told mildly or harshly to not play with the toy. Both deterred the children. several weeks later those with the mild threat were more likely to not play with the toy "having earlier chosen consciously not to play with the toy deterred children more effectively.
Moral action feeds moral attitudes. This was exemplified in what US Supreme court case.
Brown vs Board of education. Most americans believed in segragation until the ruling which began to segragate races.
Why do our behavior affect our attitude?

Self-presentation theory
our behavior affects our attitudes because we are eager to appear socially desirable.
Cognitive dissonance
tension that arises when one is simultaneously aware of two inconsistent cognitions.
Festinger and Calsmith (PEG TURNING STUDY)
urn each peg 90 degrees to many pegs on the board. Turn each peg back 90 degrees back. You're told how expectations about a task will effect how you perform. Researcher disaperared and researcher says he needs the next participant to THINK its interesting (1.00 vs 20.00).
ALL agreed to tell the next person (confederate). You were asked to scale how interesting the study was. Expect those who were paid 20.00 to like the study more. IN FACT, those that were paid 1.00 liked the study more.

Festinger said "insufficient justification" They all lied and would feel bad (Dissonance) but those that got 20.00, 20.00 was enough to justify behavior 1.00 was not so they changed their cognition to justify the behavior.
2 ways to reduce cognitive dissonance
2.) Justify your behavior by changing cognitions.
Justification of effort. What theory explains it.
This is the tendency to increase the liking for something that was hard to achieve. Cognitive dissonance theory.
Jodi's PhD despite getting paid less than her "rich" friends
Aronson and Mills Sex discussion group initiation study. what does this exemplify?
Sex discussion group initiation study- Female participants who volunteer women are told there is going to be a screening. One group told don't worry you don't need the screening. Moderate initiation- other group had to in front of a male researcher had to read off biological terms. Severe initiation- Women had to read an essay (very explicit/embarrassing) in front of a male researcher. Everyone did it. Before being allowed in they had to hear a discussion on tape. The discussion was BORING. When asked how much they liked it. Those who had to work hard to get IN thought it was interesting

This exemplifies the justification of effort effect where when you work hard for something it is more meaningful.
Justification effect is also common in...
Fraternities and Sorrorities... where hazing rituals to get in make the experience more rewarding and bonding.
think college students...
Post decisional dissonance
A state if dussibabce that often occurs after making an important decision.
Brehan- spreading of alternatives and post descisional dissonance
First published dissonance experiment:

studied post decisional change in the ranking of household products. 8 items to rank ~ how much you like each. After they made a decisions originally they were told they would give # 4 or 5. after distraction task were asked to rearrange. The rankings changed to reduce dissonance. THIS IS AN EXAMPLE OF SPREADING OF ALTERNATIVES.
Why does Spreading of Alternatives occur
because important decisions cause more dissonance than unimpotrtant ones.
The mroe equal the attractiveness the harder the decision.
Third theory on why behavior affect our attitudes

Self affirmation
The need for individuals to restore self-esteem or adequacy drives behavior.
In self affirmation a discrepancy between behavior and attitude causes
a threat to our self esteem.
Resolving discrepancies according to self discrepancy theory requires
us to restore our self-esteem in another domain to not change our attitudes.
Steele lab coat study.
Students (business and science majors) were asked to rank albums while wearing a lab coat. distracted. then told they can take their 5th or 6th one home. Business majors experienced spreading effects as expected but scientists did not because they "restored their self-esteem in another domain".
Self perception theory
we simply interpret our attitudes from our behavior. Behavior modification by self concept.
Cognitive dissonance theory is a theory explaining attitude CHANGE, whereas self perception theory explains attitude FORMATION.
Self preception theory has a major assumption what is it?
1.) people do not have pre-existing attitudes. they are formulated by looking back at behaviors.
Fazio- leading question study

2 groups randomly assigned were asked leading questions centered at extroversion for one group and introversion for the other. When asked to rate their level of extraversion or intraversion the scores were skewed toward their group.

The conclusion here is that people do NOT have preexisting attitudes.
According to the book, Self perception theory and expressions can make one feel better.
why does role call work?
Overjustification effect
the case wherby people view their behavior as caused by compelling extrinsic reasons, making them underestimate the extent to which their behavior was caused by intrinsic reasons.
What does overjustification effect research suggest?
This research suggests don't reward intrinsically motivated behaviors. Encouragement but not reward (verbal praise does not undermine).
change of behavior or beliefs at the COMMAND of others in authority.
in behavior or beliefs to match others as a result of real or imagines group pressure. (Don’t notice norms until they are violated)
yielding to a request to produce certain behaviors or agreements to a particular point of view
Asch study on conformity.
participant is placed in a room with 6 other what he believes are participants (confederates). they are told to evaluate which line is most like the standard line (Answer #2). When confederates said the wrong answer, 37% of the responses from participants were conforming.
Suggestibility occurs everyday one persons bad or good mood puts others in that mood. a phenomena called
mood linkage
Mass delusions
Suggestibility on a mass scale. common in suicides, ufo sightings...
When do people conform
even with one dissenter participants are more likely to also speak in oposition.
conformity from accepting evidence provided by other people MOTIVATED BY A DESIRE TO BE CORRECT. (sheriff study)
informational influence
conformity based on a person’s desire to fulfill others’ expectations MOTIVATED BY WANTING ACCEPTANCE. (Asch’s study)
normative influence
When do people conform
Group size
Group should be about 3-5 individuals. More than 5 does not matter.
When do people conform
members of a close-knit group conform more
When do people conform
if group members are high in status, participant is more likely to conform.
When do people conform
Public response
people conform more when they must respond publicly
When do people conform-
public commitment
making a public commitment decreases conformity??? Increases conformity
Milgram's experiment
Milgram’s participants 40 men (blue collar to white collar. Another man who participants they think is a participant is a confederate (learner). The study of punishment on learning. But it was actually to see how far the participant will punish. Confederate is strapped and connected to electricity. Confederate says he has a heart condition and the researcher says “no problem”. Shock machine was labeled by danger. Learner has trouble the participant is instructed to shock the learner. How far will a participant go because they are ordered to? Psychiatrist at the time said guess 1/1000 would go to 450 volts. 63% went to 450 volts (deadly~ confederate silenced for participant to assume they passed out or died)
Milgram's long lasting effects
84% they were glad to participate. 1% sad they regretted being part of the study.
What breeds obedience?
emotional distance of the victim
milgrams participants were more likely to continue when they could not see or hear the learners.
what breeds obedience?
closeness and legetimacy of authority
when milgram was not there compliance declined even with a person not in status.
What breeds obedience?
Institutional authority
teachers claim they wouldnt have gone so far if it wasnt at YALE. but although the numbers went down outside YALE, they were still 48%.
The liberating of effects of group influences
in the presecence of other teachers, the participants were alot more likely not to perform the experiment.
Not a good predictor of who will conform. situation is alot more important. However when social influences are weak personality is mroe predicting
when do are people more likely to conform?
Do the same conformity statistics replicate for other cultures
yes, in most countries there is actually higher rates of conformity. However in the Asch study there was less conformity. Researchers believe that this is a change in era.
a motive to protect or restore one's sense of freedom when someone threatens our freedom of action.
reactance and the red dot study.
Professor had a paper on his door with a red dot. no one cared. but when he wrote underneath do not touch the center of the dot passerbys more likely touched the dot.
Underage drinking is an example of what
reactance (told you cant so you do it)
True/False westerners feel akward when they are too different or too similar to others.
The process by which a message induces change in beliefs, attitudes or behaviors
2 paths to persuasion
Central route and peripheral route
Central route to persuasion
Occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respons with favorable thoughts.
peripheral route
occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness.
Which mode of persuasion best gets info to stick long term?
central persuasion.
4 elements of persuasion
The Who
The What
The How
The audience
The Who- speaker effects
Speakers who are credible (believable and trustworthy) are more likely to be persuasive.
What is the weakness of speaker effects?
the credible source fades. Sometimes the opposite occurs a message is believed because the source is forgotten.
Delayed persuasion after people have forgotten the source is known as
Sleeper effect.
Speaker effects and percieved expertise
People are more persuasive when:

they speak what the audience wants to hear
they speak confidently
Speaker effects and trustworthiness speakers more persuasive and trustworthy if
they have good eye contact

the audience believes the speaker is NOT trying to persuade them

they talk fast
Speaker effects and attractiveness/likability
remember attractiveness (having qualities that appeal to an audience) can be physical appearance or similarities. As a general rule people respond better to a message from someone in their group.
When does someone perfer an expert vs a similar other?
People perfer experts on objective realities or fact-based decisions.

People perfer similar others in decisions involving subjective preference.
The What- message effects

reason vs. emotion
In well educated or analytical audiences reason is more persuasive than emotional. In less educated or distracted individuals emotional messages are more persuasive.
message effect- effect of good feelings
Being in a good mood increases persuasion. Pepsi and peanut study where those enjoying pepsi and peanuts were more likely to be persuaded.
message effects- arousing fear
fear appeal + a possible solution is more effective than just placing fear.
Message effects- how much fear?
Moderate fear appeal is best. according to mccguires reception-yielding model.
McGuire's reception and yielding model.
This theory says that in order to persuade a message must be recieved and then it MAY yield change in behavior.
recieving and yielding
High fear appeal leads to
Is when it is not so scary that it is received and scary enough to change behavior.
Discrepancy effects
Only a highly credible communicator mantains effectiveness when arguing an extreme position.
One vs two sided appeals: experiments show that if audience is aware of the other sides arguments the speaker should...
present both sides "they may say.... but...."
one sided vs two sided appeals... if audience is exclusively on your side...
present one sided appeal.
message effects- primacy effect
Information presented first ussually has the most influence.
messege effects- recency effect-
information presented last SOMETIMES (rarely) has most influence.
Which is more influential Primacy or recency if info is presented in the following order:

Message 1 Break Message2
Which is more influential Primacy or recency if information is presented:

Message 1 Message 2 Break
Which is more influential Primacy or recency if information is presented:

Message 1 Message 2 Judgement
Janice study on active and passive message effects on female smokers
Fear appeal in the form of a taped message (passive)or role playing (active). Those in the active role play condition were more likely to quit or reduce smoking 6 weeks, 6 months and 2 years later.
Yale approach to persuasion left out what
ARGUMENT QUALITY... doesnt matter who says it, how it is said, or who hears it IF it is absolutely unbelievable.
Brought about at the cognitice revolution (mid 80's) when the audience was no longer viewed as passive and nonthinking.

Elaboration likelihood model.
The ELM suggests two routes to persuasion described earlier in the chapter
centeral and peripheral
a group typically characterized by distinctive rituals and beliefs related to its devoetion to a for or a person, isolation from the surrounding "evil culture" and ussually having a charasmatic leader.
How cults lure in?
Compliance breeds acceptance. By the foot in the door phenomenon. Cults take a person in and immediately make them an active member in easy tasks such as fundraising and slowly up the ante.
Resisting persuasion- Forewarning
People do not like to be persaded so if you are being persuaded you think "they told me this would happen" and are more likely to resist the persuasion.
Resisting persuasion- being knowlegable
Being knowlegable is important so that one can argue against reasons for persuasion.
Resisting persuasion- public commitments
Remember public commitments of attitudes will better reflect your behavior and at the same time ward off persuasion.
resisting persuasion- having an ally
IS GOOD...???
Resisting persuasion- Attitude innoculation
exposing individuals to weak attacks to their beliefs so when the time comes they are prepared for counterattacks on their beliefs. Realize this is a form of role play (as in the Janice experiment.
What are two requirements for "group classification"
2 or more individuals who interact and perceive eachother as "us" vs everyone else "them."
Tripplett (1898) - first historically recorded social psychology. Cyclists study.
He was interested in how cyclists rode faster in groups than by themselves. Children were told not to compete but to reel fishing string as fast as they could. Children wound faster with others. The mere presence of others enhances performance.
Norman triplet suggested the "mere presence of others enhances our abilities in tasks." However other evidence says...
that in complex problems, the presence of others' is a hinderance.
What is unique of the mere presence of others theories, lacking in almost all other social psychology theories.
Generalizability across species. Tasks in groups have the same occurence across species.
So do groups make people work better or worst?

ZAJONC's theory
presence of others ALWAYS produces increase in the "dominant behavior"

Increaed arousal enhances performance on easy tasks because it is the "dominant behavior (right answer is easily attained).

On complex tasks, for which the correct answer is not dominant, increased arousal causes mroe wrong answers.
Well practced skills become novel tasks and the dominant behavior becomes....
the correct one. (Jodi's piano recital students)
A supportive audience may elicit a better/poorer performance.
Poorer (evaluative apprehension.
Being in a crowd "intensifies positive and negative reactions" explain.
friendly people are liked even more; unfriendlyy people are disliked even more.
Crowding enhances arousal and therefore...
the dominant response
Cotrell and blindfolding with crowds.
If the audience is blindfolded the social facilitation does NOT occur.
other effects of crowds and a performer
Alter the characteristics of the audience (status). Increase in audience status increases physiological arousal.

The more confidence someone has in a domain, the less the group influences performance.
Joggers and attractive Research assistant study
Attractive research assistant sitting by a jogging path. Researchers observed the men jog faster when researcher was facing the path than not.
Distractions and their effect
we are driven by distraction. the distraction can be nonhuman distractions such as bursts of light.
Why else are we aroused by others
-evaluarion apprehension
- distraction
evolutionarily. Others of the same species may present a threat to safety.
Social loafing
the tendency for people to exert less effort when they pool their efforts toward a common goal than when they are individually accountable.
Social loafing- tug of war
collective effort of tug-of-war teams was but half the sum of the individual efforts.
Social loafing- cheering experiment.
Subjects were asked to cheer alone or in a group. Cheering alone produced louder responses.
Social loafing is common in everyday life. Where is social loafing NOT FOUND...
when the task is difficult individuals tend to work harder in a group.

Also when the individual feels indespensible or that the other group member is weak.
Is social loafing common cross culturally?
Yes. though the rates are lower in collectivist cultures.
Loss of self-awareness and evaluation apprehension occurs in group situations that foster responsiveness to group norms, good or bad.
Annonimity increases the likelihood of acting negatively because
it lowers arousal of being judged (evaluation apprehension).
Anonymous women delivered (more/less) shock to helpless vitims than did identifiable women.
Anonimity and haloween candy study
Children were more likely to transgress by taking extra candy when anonymous and when in a group. The rates were much higher when anonymous and in a group.
Group polarization
Group produced enhancement of members' preexisting tendencies; a strengthening of the members' average tendency, not a split in the group.
Group polarization- effects
as a tendency group discussions have a tendency to ENHANCE group members' intial leanings.
explaining group polarization there are 2 theories:
1.) informational influence
2.) normative influence
Explaining group polarization by informative influence
In groups people hear reasons to support the claim they hadnt even thought about. also actively listening and participating in a discussion magnifies the impact because of a PUBLIC VERBAL COMMITMENT.
explaining group polarization by normative influence
All of us want to fit in. according to social comparison theory, we evaluate our positions based on others.

therefore we polarize our ideas to one argument within the group.
Pluralistic ignorance
a false impression of what most other people are thinking, feeling, or responding.
group think
the mode of thinking that persons engage in when concurrence-seeking becomes so dominant in a cohesive in-group that it tends to override realistic appraisal of alternative courses of action.
Group think- illusion of invulnerability
the groups Janis studied all developed and excessive optimism that blinded them to warnings of danger.
Group think- unquestioned belief in the groups morality
group members assume the inherent morality of the group and do not individually consider ethics or moral standards.
Groups discount challenges by collectively justifying their decision.
Group think- sterotyped view of oponnetn
participants consider their enemies to weak or evil to negotiate.
Group think- conformity pressure
group members rebuffed those who raised doubts about the group's assumpion and plans, at times not by argument but sarcasm.
Group think- self censorship
Since disagreements were ogten uncomfortable and the grous seemed in consensus, members withheld or discounted their objections.
Group think- Illusions of unanimity
Seld censorhip and pressure not to puncture the consenses create anillusion of unanimity.
Group think- Mindguards
Some members protect the group from information that would call into question the effectiveness or morality of its decisions.
How to prevent groupthink?
Be impartial

Encourage critical evaluation- play devils advocate

ocasionally subdivide the group and reunite the group

Welcome critiques from outside experts and associates

Call a "second-chance" meeting to air any lingering doubts.