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124 Cards in this Set

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Freud’s term for his theory of personality and his therapy for treating psychological disorders
Three Levels of Psychoanalysis
 Conscious- the thoughts feelings, sensations, or memories of which a person is aware at any given time
 Preconscious- the thoughts, feelings, and memories that a person is not consciously aware of at the moment but may easily be brought to consciousness
 Unconscious- the primary motivating force of human behavior, containing repressed memories as well as instincts, wishes, and desires that have never been conscious
the unconscious system of the personality, which contains the life and death instincts and operates on the pleasure principle; source of the libido
the logical, rational, largely conscious system of personality which operates according to the reality principle
- the moral system of the personality which consists of conscience and the ego ideal
most frequently used defense mechanism in which one involuntarily removes painful or threatening memories thoughts or perceptions from consciousness and prevents unconscious sexual and aggressive impulses from breaking into consciousness
a defense mechanism in which one attributes one’s undesirable thoughts impulses personality traits or behavior to others or minimizes the undesirable in oneself and exaggerates it in other
a defense mechanism in which one refuses to acknowledge consciously the existence of danger or a threatening condition
a defense mechanism in which one supplies a logical, rational, or socially acceptable reason rather than the real reason for an action or event
a defense mechanism in which one reverts to a behavior that might have reduced anxiety at an earlier stage of development
a defense mechanism in which one expresses exaggerated ideas and emotions that are the opposite of one’s disturbing unconscious impulses and desires
Reaction Formation
a defense mechanism in which one substitutes a less threatening object or person for the original object of a sexual aggressive impulse
a defense mechanism in which one rechannels sexual aggressive energy into pursuits or accomplishments that society considers acceptable or admirable
a series of stages through which the sexual instinct develops; each stage is defined by an erogenous zone around which conflict arises
Psychosexual Stages
arrested development at a psychosexual stage occurring because of excessive gratification or frustration at that stage
the layer of the unconscious that contains all of the thoughts perceptions and experiences accessible to the conscious as well as the repressed memories wishes and impulses
Personal Unconscious
the most inaccessible layer of the unconscious which contains the universal experiences of humankind throughout evolution
Collective Unconscious
existing in the collective unconscious an inherited tendency to respond to universal human situation in particular ways
inferior feelings are so strong they prevent personal development
Inferior Complex
alder’s theory stresses the uniqueness of each individuals struggle to achieve superiority and refers to the “creative self” a conscious self aware component of an individuals personality
Individual Psychology
the perception a person has of his or her ability to perform competently whatever is attempted
Self Efficacy
 Rotter’s concept of a cognitive factor that explains how people account for what happens in their lives- either seeing themselves as primarily in control of their behavior and its consequences or perceiving what happens to them to be in the hands of fate luck or chance
Locus of Control
a trait theory that attempts to explain personality using five broad dimensions each of which is composed of a constellation of personality traits
Five Factor Theory
The Big Five
 Extroversion, neuroticism, conscientiousness, agreeableness, & openness to experience
a paper and pencil test with questions about a person’s thoughts feelings and behaviors which measures several dimensions of personality and can be scored according to a standard procedure
the most extensively researched and widely used personality test which is used to screen for and diagnose psychiatric problems and disorders
Minnesota mutiphastic personality inventory
a highly regarded personality test developed especially for normal individual aged 13 and older
California Personality Inventory
a personality inventory useful for measuring normal individual differences; based on Jung’s theory of personality
Myer's- Briggs Type Indicator
a personality test in which people respond to inkblots drawings of ambiguous human situations or incomplete sentences by projecting their inner thoughts feelings fears or conflicts onto the test materials
Projective Tests
a projective test composed of 10 inkblots that the test taker is asked to describe; used to assess personality make differential diagnosis plan and evaluate treatment and predict behavior
Rorschach inkblot method
a projective test consisting of drawing of ambiguous human situations which the test taker describes; thought to reveal inner feelings, conflicts, and motives which are projected onto the test materials
Thematic Apperception Test
mental processes and or behavioral patterns that cause emotional distress and or substantial impairment in functioning
Psychological Disorders
a psychological disorder is a symptom of an underlying physical disorder cause by a structural or biochemical abnormality in the brain by genetic inheritance or by infection
Biological Perspective
psychological disorders result from a combination of biological psychological and social causes
Biopsychosocial Perspective
psychological disorders stem from early childhood experiences and unresolved unconscious sexual or aggressive conflicts
Psychodynamic Perspective
abnormal thoughts feelings and behaviors are learned and sustained like any other behaviors or there is a failure to learn appropriate behaviors
Learning Perspective
faulty thinking or distorted perceptions can cause psychological disorders
Cognitive Perspective
the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders 4th edition, a manual published by the American Psychiatric Association which describes the criteria used to classify and diagnose mental disorders
 A persistent irrational fear of some specific object situation or activity that poses little or no real danger
an intense fear of being in a situation from which escape is not possible or in which help would not be available if one experiences overwhelming anxiety or a panic attack
an irrational fear and avoidance of any social or performance situation in which one might embarrass or humiliate oneself in front of others by appearing clumsy foolish or incompetent
Social Phobia
a marked fear of a specific object or situation; a general label for any phobia other than agoraphobia and social phobia
Specific Phobia
An anxiety disorder in which a person suffers from recurrent obsessions and or compulsions
Obessive Compulsive Disorder
persistent involuntary though image or impulse that invades consciousness and causes great distress
persistent irresistible and irrational urge to perform an act or ritual repeatedly
a mood disorder marked by feelings of great sadness despair and hopelessness as well as the loss of the ability to experience pleasure
Major Depressive Disorder
 A mood disorder in which manic episodes alternate with periods of depression usually with relatively normal periods in between
Bipolar Disorder
 A severe psychological disorder characterized by a loss of contact with reality, hallucinations, delusions, inappropriate or flat affect, some disturbance in thinking, social withdrawal, and or other bizarre behavior
a type of schizophrenia characterized by delusions of grandeur or persecution
Paranoid Schizophrenia
the most serious type of schizophrenia marked by extreme social withdrawal, hallucinations, delusions, silliness, inappropriate laughter, grotesque mannerisms, and other bizarre behaviors
Disorganized Schizophrenia
a type of schizophrenia characterized by complete silliness or stupor or great excitement and agitation; patients may assume an usual posture and remain in it for long periods of time
Catatonic Schizophrenia
a catchall term used when schizophrenia symptoms either do not conform to the criteria of any one type of schizophrenia or conform to more than one type
Undifferentiated Schizophrenia
disorders in which physical symptoms are present that are due to psychological causes rather than any known medical condition
Somatoform Disorders
a somatoform disorder in which persons are preoccupied with their health and fear that their physical symptoms are a sign of some serious disease despite reassurance from doctors to the contrary
a somatoform disorder in which a person suffers a loss of motor or sensory functioning in some part of the body; the loss has no physical cause but solve some psychological problem
Conversion Disorder
 Sexual disorders in which recurrent sexual urges, fantasies, or behavior involve nonhuman objects, children, other non consenting persons, or the suffering or humiliation of the individual or his or her partner
 A long-standing, inflexible, maladaptive pattern of behaving and relating to others, which using begins in early childhood or adolescence
Personality Disorder
Personality Disorder Clusters
Cluster A- odd behavior
Cluster B- erratic, overly dramatic behavior
Cluster C- anxious, fearful behavior
any type of treatment for emotional and behavioral disorders that uses psychological rather than biological means
approaches to psychotherapy based on the notion that psychological well-being depends on self-understanding
Insight Therapies
the first psychodynamic therapy which was developed by Freud and uses free association, dream analysis, and transference
a psychoanalytic technique used to explore the unconscious by having patients reveal whatever thoughts, feelings, or images come to mind
Free Association
Freud believed that areas of emotional concern repressed in waking life are sometimes expressed in symbolic form in dreams
Dream Analysis
an emotional reaction that occurs during psychoanalysis in which patient displays feelings and attitudes toward the analyst that were present in another significant relationship
psychotherapies that attempt to uncover childhood experiences that are thought to explain a patient’s current difficulties
Psychodynamic Therapies
 Therapy involving an entire family with the goal of helping family members reach agreement on changes that will help heal the family unit, improve communication problems, and create more understanding and harmony within the group
Family Therapy
 Focus on a single problem such as substance abuse or depression--- not run by professional therapists instead by groups of people who share a common problem and meet to give and receive support
Self-Help Groups
 A treatment approach that is based on the idea that abnormal behavior is learned and that applies the principles of operant conditioning, classical conditioning, and or observational learning to eliminate inappropriate or maladaptive behaviors and replace them with more adaptive responses
Behavior Therapy
an approach to therapy that uses learning principles to eliminate inappropriate or maladaptive behaviors and replace them with more adaptive ones- change the troublesome behavior without changing the individuals personality structure or to search for the origin of the problem behavior
Behavior Modification
a behavior therapy that exposes patients with obsessive compulsive disorder to stimuli that triggers obsessions and compulsive rituals for progressively longer periods of time
Exposure and Response Prevention
a behavior therapy that is based on classical conditioning and used to treat fears by training clients in deep muscle relaxation and then having them confront a graduated series of anxiety producing situations (real or imagined) until they can remain relaxed while confronting even the most feared situation
Systematic Desensitization
a behavior therapy based on classical conditioning and used to treat phobias by exposing clients to the feared object or event (or asking them to imagine it vividly) for an extended period until their anxiety decreases
a behavior therapy in which an aversive stimulus is paired with a harmful or socially undesirable behavior until the behavior becomes associated with pain or discomfort
Aversion Therapy
a behavior therapy in which an appropriate response to a feared stimulus is modeled in graduated steps and the client attempts to imitate the model step by step encouraged and supported by the therapist
Participant Modeling
Therapies that assumes maladaptive behavior can result from irrational thoughts beliefs and ideas
Cognitive Therapies
seek to change the way clients think and they determine the effectiveness of their interventions by assessing the clients behavior
Cognitive Behavioral Approaches
a directive form of psychotherapy developed by Albert Ellis and designed to challenge clients’ irrational beliefs about themselves and others
Rational-Emotive Therapy
 A therapy (drug therapy, electroconvulsive therapy, or psychosurgery) that is based on the assumption that psychological disorders are symptoms of underlying physical problems
Biological Therapies
 Drugs used to control severe psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and disorganized behavior by inhibiting dopamine activity; also known as neuroleptics
Antipsychotic Drugs
 Drugs that act as mood elevators for severely depressed people and are also prescribed to treat some anxiety disorders
work against the depression by blocking the reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin into the axon terminals thus enhancing the action of these neurotransmitters in the synapses
block the reuptake of the neurotransmitter serotonin increasing its availability at the synapses in the brain
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors
by blocking the action of an enzyme that breaks down norepinephrine and serotonin in the synapses, MAO inhibitors increase that availability of these neurotransmitters
Monoamine Oxidase
 A drug used to treat bipolar disorder at which proper maintenance dosage reduces both manic and depressive episodes
Brain surgery performed to alleviate serious psychological disorders or unbearable chronic pain---Used for serious psychological disorders—severe depression, severe anxiety or obsessions
 The only research method that can be used to identify cause and effect relationships between two or more conditions or variables
Experimental Method
prediction about a cause-effect relationship between two or more variables
in an experiment a factor or condition that is deliberately manipulated in order to determine whether it causes any change in another behavior or conditions
Independant Variable
the factor or condition that is measured at the end of an experiment and is presumed to vary as a result of the manipulations of the independent variables
Dependant Variable
in an experiment that group that is exposed to an independent variable
Experimental Group
in an experiment a group similar to the experimental group that is exposed to the same experimental environment but is not given the treatment; used for comparison
Control Group
factors or conditions other than the independent variables that are not equivalent across groups and could cause differences among groups with respect to the dependant variable
Confounding Variable
the assignment of participants to experimental or control groups in such a way that systematic differences among the groups are present at the beginning of the experiment
Selection Bias
the process of selecting participants for control and experimental groups by using a chance procedure to guarantee that each participant has an equal probability of being assigned to any of the groups; a control for selection bias
Random Assignment
the phenomenon that occurs in an experiment when a participant’s response to a treatment is due to his or her expectations about the treatment rather than to the treatment itself
Placebo Effect
a phenomenon that occurs when a researchers preconceived notions or expectations in some way influence participants behavior and/or researchers interpretation of experimental results
Experimenter Bias
a procedure in which neither the participants nor the experimenter and control groups until after the data have been gathered; a control for experimenter bias
Double-Blind Technique
a relatively permanent change in behavior, knowledge, capability or attitude that is acquired through experiences and cannot be attributed to illness, injury, or maturation
a type of learning through which an organism learns to associate one stimulus with another
Classical Conditioning
a type of learning in which the consequences of behavior are manipulated in order to increase or decrease the frequency of an existing response or to shape an entirely new response
Operant Conditioning
mental processes such as thinking, knowing, problem solving, remembering, and forming mental representations
Cognitive Processes
process of transforming information into a form that can be stored in memory
process of keeping or maintaining information in memory
process of bringing to mind information that has been stored in memory
 A German word that roughly refers to the whole form, pattern, or configuration that a person perceives
Gestault Princibles
some object (figure) seems to stand out from its background
objects have similar characteristics are perceives as a unit
objects that are close together in time or space are usually perceived as belonging together
tend to perceive objects as belonging together if they appear to form a continuous pattern
perceive figures with gaps in them to be complete
Ability to perceive the visual world in three dimensions and to judge differences accurately
Depth Perception
depth cues that depend on both eyes working together
Binocular Depth Cues
depth cues that can be perceived by one eye alone
Monocular Depth Cues
perceptions of motion tied to movements of real objects moving through space
Real Motion
perceptions of motion that seem to be psychologically constructed in response to various types of stimuli
Apparent Motion
apparent motion that occurs when several stationary lights in a dark room are flashed on and off In sequence causing the perception that a single light is moving from one spot to the next
Phi Phenomenon
apparent motion caused by the movement of the eyes rather than the movement of the objects being viewed
Auto Kinetic Illusion
 A social factor that affects prosocial behavior; as the number of bystanders at an emergency increases the probability that the victim will receive help decreases and the help if given is likely to be delayed
Bystander Effect
the feeling among bystanders at an emergency that the responsibility for making each person feel less compelled to act than if he or she alone bore the total responsibility
Diffusion of Responsibility
parents who make arbitrary rules, expect unquestioned obedience from their children, punish misbehavior, and value obedience to authority
parents who set high but realistic standards, enforce limits, and encourage open communication and independence
parents who make few rules or demand and usually do not enforce those that are made; they allow children to make their own decisions and control their own behavior
parents who are permissive and are not involved in their children’s lives
 A term used by evolutionary psychologists to denote the amount of time and effort men or women must devote to parenthood
Parental Investment Theory