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95 Cards in this Set

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What is psychopharmacology?
The study of the effects of drugs on the nervous system and on behavior.
What are drug effects?
The changes a drug produces in an organism's physiological processes and behavior.
What are sites of action?
The locations at which molecules of drugs interact with molecules located on or in cells of the body, thus affecting some biochemical processes of these cells.
What is pharmacokinetics?
The process by which drugs are absorbed, distributed within the body, metabolized, and excreted.
What is an intravenous (IV) injection?
Injection of a substance directly into a vein.
What is an intraperitoneal (IP) injection?
Injection of a substance into the peritoneal cavity - the space that surrounds the stomach, intestines, liver, and other abdominal organs.
What is an intramuscular (IM) injection?
Injection of a substance into a muscle.
What is a subcutaneous (SC) injection?
Injection of a substance into the space beneath the skin.
What is oral administration?
Administration of a substance into the mouth, so that it is swallowed.
What is sublingual administration?
Administration of a substance by placing it beneath the tongue.
What is intrarectral adminstration?
Adminstration of a substance into the rectum?
What is inhalation?
Administration of a vaporous substance into the lungs.
What is topical administration?
Administration of a substance direction onto the skin or mucous membrane.
What is intracerebral administration?
Administration of a substance directly into the brain.
What is intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration?
Administration of a substance into one of the cerebral ventricles.
What is depot binding?
Binding of a drug with various tissues of the body or with proteins in the blood.
What is albumin?
A protein found in the blood; serves to transport free fatty acids and can bind with some lipid-solube drugs.
What is the dose-response curve?
A graph of the magnitude of an effect of a drug as a function of the amount of drug administered.
What is the therapeutic index?
The ratio between the dose that produces the desired effect in 50% of the animals and the dose that produces toxic effects in 50% of the animals.
What is affinity?
The readiness with which two molecules join together.
What is tolerance?
A decrease in the effectiveness of a drug that is administered repeatedly.
What is sensitization?
An increase in the effectiveness of a drug that is administered repeatedly.
What is a withdrawal symptom?
The appearance of symptoms opposite to those produced by a drug when the drug is administered repeatedly and then suddenly no longer taken.
What is a placebo?
An inert substance given to an organism in lieu of a physiologically active drug; used experimentally to control for the effects of mere administration of a drug.
What is an antagonist?
A drug that opposes or inhibits the effects of a particular neurotransmitter on the postsynaptic cell.
What is an agonist?
A drug that facilitates the effects of a particular neurotransmitter on the postsynaptic cell.
What is a direct agnoist?
A drug that binds with and activates a receptor.
What is a receptor blocker?
A drug that binds with a receptor but does not activate it; prevents the natural ligand from binding with the receptor.
What is a direct antagonist?
A synonym for a receptor blocker.
What is noncompetitive binding?
Binding of a drug to a site on a receptor; does not interfere with the binding site for the principal lingand.
What is an inverse agonist?
A drug that attaches to a binding site on a receptor and interferes with the action of the receptor; does not interfere with the binding site for the principal ligand.
What is an indirect agonist?
A drug that attaches to a binding site on a receptor and facilitates the action of the receptor; does not interfere with the binding site for the principal lingand.
What is a presynaptic heteroreceptor?
A receptor located in the membrane of a terminal button that receives input from another terminal button by means of an axoaxonic synapse; binds with the neurotransmitter released by the presynaptic terminal button.
What is acetyl-CoA?
A cofactor that supplies acetate for the synthesis of acetylcholine.
What is choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)?
The enzyme that transfers the acetate ion from acetyl coenzyme A to choline, producing the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
What is botulinum toxin?
An acetylcholine antagonist: prevents release by terminal buttons.
What is black widow spider venom?
A poison produced by the black widow spider that triggers the release of acetylcholine.
What is neostigmine?
A drug that inhibits the activity of acetylcholinesterase.
What is hemicholinium?
A drug that inhibits the reuptake of choline.
What is a nicotinic receptor?
An ionotropic acetylcholine receptor that is stimulated by nicotine and blocked by curare.
What is a muscarinic receptor?
A metabotropic acetylcholine receptor that is stimulated by muscarine and blocked by atropine.
What is atropine?
A drug that blocks muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.
What is curare?
A drug that blocks nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.
What is monoamine?
A class of amines that includes indolamines such as serotonin and catecholamines such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine.
What is catecholamine?
A class of amines that includes the neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine.
What is dopamine?
A neurotransmitter; one of the catecholamines.
What is L-DOPA?
The levorotatory form of DOPA; the precursor of the catecholamines; often used to treat Parkinson's disease because of its effect as a dopamine agonist.
What is the nigrostriatal system?
A system of neurons originating in the substantia nigra and terminating in the neostriatum (caudate nucleus and putamen).
What is the mesolimbic system?
A system of dopaminergic neurons originating in the ventral tegmental area and terminating in the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, and hippocampus.
What is the mesocortical system?
A system of dopaminergic neurons originating in the ventral tegmental area and terminating in the prefrontal cortex.
What is Parkinson's disease?
A neurological disease characterized by tremors, rigidty of the limbs, poor balance, and difficulty in initiating movements; cuased by degeneration of the nigrostriatal system.
What is AMPT?
A drug that blocks the acitivity of tyrosine hydroxylase and thus interferes with the synthesis of the catecholamines.
What is reserpine?
A drug that interferes with the storage of monoamines in synaptic vesicles.
What is apomorphine?
A drug that blocks dopamine autoreceptors at low doses; at higher doses blocks postsynaptic receptors as well.
What is methylphenidate?
A drug that inhibits the reuptake of dopamine.
What is monoamine oxidase (MAO)?
A class of enzymes that destroys the monoamines; dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin.
What is deprenyl?
A drug that blocks the activity of MAO-B; acts as a dopamine agonist.
What is chlorpromazine?
A drug that reduces the symptoms of schizophrenia by blocking dopamine D2 receptors.
What is clozapine?
A drug that reduces the symptoms of schizophrenia, apparently by blocking dopamine D4 receptors.
What is norepinephrine (NE)?
One of the catecholamines; a neurotransmitter found in the brain and in the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system.
What is epinephrine?
One of the catecholamines; a hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla; serves also as a neurotransmitter in the brain.
What is fusaric acid?
A drug t hat inhibits the activity of the enzyme dopamine-Beta-hydroxylase and thus blocks the production of norepinephrine.
What is moclobemide?
A drug that blocks the activity of MAO-A; acts as a noradrenergic agonist.
What is the locus coeruleus?
A dark-colored group of noradrenergic cell bodies located in the pons near the rostral end of the floor of the fourth ventricle.
What are axonal varicosities?
Enlarged regions along the length of an axon that contain synaptic vesicles and release a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator.
What is serotonin (5-HT)?
An indolamine transmitter substance; also called 5-hydroxytryptamine.
What is PCPA?
A drug that inhibits the activity of tryptophan hydroxylase and thus interferes with the synthesis of 5-HT.
What is the D system?
A system of serotonergic neurons that originates in the dorsal raphe nucleus; its axonal fibers are thin, with spindle-shaped varicosities that do not appear to form synapses with other neurons.
What is the M system?
A system of serotonergic neurons that originates in the median raphe nucleus; its axonal fibers are thick and rounded and appear to form conventional synapses with other neurons.
What is fluoxetine?
A drug that inhibits the reuptake of 5-HT.
What is fenfluramine?
A drug that stimulates the release of 5-HT.
What is LSD?
A drug that stimulates 5-HT2A receptors.
What is glutamate?
An amino acid; the most important excitatory transmitter substance in the brain.
What is a NMDA receptor?
A specialized ionotropic glutamate receptor that controls a calcium channel that is normally blocked by Mg2+ ions; has several other binding sites.
What is a AMPA receptor?
An ionotropic glutamate receptor that controls a sodium channel; stimulated by AMPA and blocked by CNQX.
What is a kainate receptor?
An ionotropic glutamate receptor that controls a sodium channel; stimulated by kainic acid and blocked by CNQX.
What is a metabotropic receptor?
A metaobotropic gultamate receptor.
What is PCP?
Phencyclidine; a drug that binds with the PCP binding site of the NMDA receptor and serves as an inverse agonist.
What is GABA?
An amino acid; the most important inhibitory transmitter substance in the brain.
What is allylglycine?
A drug that inhibits the activity of GAD and thus blocks the synthesis of GABA.
What is muscimol?
A direct agnonist for the GABA binding site on the GABAa receptor.
What is bicuculline?
A direct antagonist for the GABA binding site on the GABAa receptor.
What is benzodiazepine?
A category of anxiolytic drugs; an indirect agonist for the GABAa receptor.
What does anxiolytic mean?
An anxiety-reducing effect.
What is beta-CCM?
A direct agonist for the benzodiazepine binding site of the GABAa receptor.
What is glycine?
An amino acid; an important inhibitory transmitter substance in the lower brain stem and spinal cord.
What is strychnine?
A direct agonist for the glycine receptor.
What is an endogenous opioid?
A class of peptides secreted by the brain that act as opiates.
What is enkephalin?
One of the endogenous opiodis.
What is naloxone?
A drug that block opioid receptors.
What is anandamide?
A lipid; the endogenous ligand for receptors that bind with THC, the active ingredient of marijuana.
What is adenosine?
A nucleoside; a combination of ribose and adenine; serves as a neuromodulator in the brain.
What is caffeine?
A drug that blocks adenosine receptors.
What is nitric oxide (NO)?
A gas produced by cells in the nervous system; used as a means of communication between cells.
What is nitric oxide synthase?
The enzyme responsible for the production of nitric oxide.