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35 Cards in this Set

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What is experimental ablation?
The removal or destruction of a portion of the brain of a laboratory animal; presumably, the functions that can no longer be performed are the ones the region previously controlled.
What is a synonym for a lesion study?
Experimental ablation.
What is an excitotoxic lesion?
A brain lesion produced by intracerebral injection of an excitatory amino acid, such as kainic acid.
What is 6-hydroxydopamine (6-HD)?
A chemical that is selectively taken up by axons and terminal buttons of noradrenergic or dopaminergic neurons and acts as a poison, damaging or killing them.
What is a sham lesion?
A "placebo" procedure that duplicates all the steps of producing a brain lesion except for the one that actually causes the brain damage.
What is stereotaxic surgery?
Brain surgery using a stereotaxic apparatus to position an electrode or cannula in a specified position of the brain.
What is the bregma?
The junction of the sagittal and coronal sutures of the skull; often used as a reference point for sterotaxic brain surgery.
What is the sterotaxic atlas?
A collection of drawings of sections of the brain of a particular animal with measurements that provide coordinates for stereotaxic surgery.
What is a stereotaxic apparatus?
A device that permits a surgeon to position an electrode or cannula into a specific part of the brain.
What is a fixative?
A chemical such as formalin; used to prepare and preserve body tissue.
What is formalin?
The aqueous solution of formaldehyde gas; the most commonly used tissue fixative.
What is perfusion?
The process by which an animal's blood is replaced by a fluid such as a saline solution or a fixative in preparing the brain for histological examination.
What is a microtome?
An instrument that produces very thin slices of body tissues.
What is a scanning electron microscope?
A microscope that provides three-dimensional information about the shape of the surface of an object.
What is the anterograde labeling method?
A histological method that labels the axons and terminal buttons of neurons whose cell bodies are located in a particular region.
What is PHA-L?
Phaseolus vulgaris leukoagglutinin; a protein derived from lima beans used as an anterograde tracer; taken up by dendrites and cell bodies and carried to the ends of the axons.
What is the immunocytochemical method?
A histological method that uses radioactive antibodies or antibodies bound with a dye molecule to indicate the presence of particular proteins of peptides.
What is the retrograde labeling method?
A histological method that labels cell bodies that give rise to the terminal buttons that from synapses with cells in a particular region.
What is fluorogold?
A dye that serves as a retrograde label; taken up by terminal buttons and carried back to the cell bodies.
What is computerized tomography (CT)?
The use of a device that employs a computer to analyze data obtained by a scanning beam of X rays to produce a two-dimensional picture of a "slice" through the body.
What is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)?
A technique whereby the interior of the body can be accurately imaged; involves the interaction between radio waves and a strong magnetic field.
What is a microelectrode?
A very fine electrode, generally used to record activity of individual neurons.
What is single-unit recording?
Recording of the electrical activity of a single neuron.
What is a macroelectrode?
An electrode used to record the electrical activity of large numbers of neurons in a particular region of the brain; much larger than a microelectrode.
What is an electroencephalogram (EEG)?
An electrical brain potential recorded by placing electrodes on or in the scalp.
What is 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG)?
A sugar that enters cells along with glucose but is not metabolized.
What is autoradiography?
A procedure that locates radioactive substances in a slice of tissue; the radiation exposes a photographic emulsion or a piece of film that covers the tissue.
What is Fos?
A protein produced in the nucleus of a neuron in response to synaptic stimulation.
What is positron emission tomography (PET)?
The use of a device that reveals the localization of a radioactive tracer in a living brain.
What is a functional MRI (fMRI)?
A modification of the MRI procedure that permits the measurement of regional metabolism in the brain.
What is microdialysis?
A procedure for analyzing chemicals present in the interstitial fluid through a small piece of tubing made of a semipermeable membrane that is implanted in the brain.
What is a multibarreled micropipette?
A group of micropipettes attached together, used to infuse several different substances by means of iontophoresis while recording from a single neuron.
What is microiontophoresis?
A procedure that uses electricity to eject a chemical from a micropipette in order to determine the effects of the chemical on the electrical activity of a cell.
What is in situ hybridization?
The production of DNA complementary to a particular messenger RNA in order to detect the presence of RNA.
What is double labeling?
Labeling neurons in particular region by two different means; for example, by using an anterograde tracer and a label for a particular enzyme.