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119 Cards in this Set

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What is the neuraxis?
An imaginary line drawn through the center of the length of the central nervous system, from the bottom of the spinal cord to the front of the forebrain.
Define anterior.
With respect to the central nervous system, located near or toward the head.
Define posterior.
With respect to the central nervous system, located near or toward the tail.
Define rostral.
"Toward the beak"; with respect to the central nervous system, in a direction along the neuraxis toward the front of the face.
Define caudal.
"Toward the tail"; with respect to the central nervous system, in a direction along the neuraxis away from the front of the face.
Define dorasal.
"Toward the back"; with respect to the central nervous system, in a direction perpendicular to the neuraxis toward the top of the head or the back.
Define ventral.
"Toward the belly"; with respect to the central nervous system, in a direction perpendicular to the neuraxis toward the bottom of the skull or the front surface of the body.
Define lateral.
Toward the side of the body, in a direction at right angles with the neuraxis and away from it.
Define medial.
Toward the neuraxis, away from the side of the body.
Define ipsilateral.
Located on the same side of the body.
Define contralateral.
Located on the opposite side of the body.
What is a cross section?
With respect to the central nervous system, a slice taken at right angles to the neuraxis.
What is a frontal section?
A slice through the brain parallel to the forehead.
What is a horizontal section?
A slice through the brain parallel to the ground.
What is a sagittal section?
A slice through the brain parallel to the neuraxis and perpendicular to the ground.
What is the midsagittal plane?
The plane through the neuraxis perpendicular to the ground; divides the brain into two symmetrical halves.
What is the central nervous system (CNS)?
The brain and spinal cord.
What is the peripheral nervous system (PNS)?
The nerves and ganglia located outside the central nervous system.
What is the function of the vertebral artery?
An artery whose branches serve the posterior region of the brain.
What is the function of the internal carotid artery?
An artery whose branches serve the rostral and lateral portions of the brain.
What are the meninges (singular: meninx)?
The three layers of tissue that encase the central nervous system: the dura mater, arachnoid membrane, and pia mater.
What is the dura mater?
The outermost of the meninges; tough, flexible, unstretchable.
What is the arachnoid membrane?
The middle layer of the meninges between the outer dura mater and inner pia mater. The subarachnoid space beneath the arachnoid membrane is filled with cerebrospinal fluid, which cushions the brain.
What is the pia mater?
The layer of the meninges adjacent to the surface of the brain.
What is the subarachnoid space?
The fluid-filled space between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater.
What is the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)?
A clear fluid, similar to blood plasma, that fills the ventricular system of the brain and the subarachnoid space surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
What is a ventricle?
One of the hollow spaces within the brain, filled with cerebrospinal fluid.
What is a lateral ventricle?
One of the two ventricles located in the center of the telencephalon.
What is the third ventricle?
The ventricle located in the center of the diencephalon.
What is the cerebral aqueduct?
A narrow tube interconnecting the third and fourth ventricles of the brain, located in the center of the mesencephalon.
What is the fourth ventricle?
The ventricle located between the cerebellum and the dorsal pons, in the center of the metencephalon.
What is the choroid plexus?
The highly vascular tissue that protrudes into the ventricles and produces cerebrospinal fluid?
What is the arachnoid granulation?
Small projections of the arachnoid membrane through the dura mater into the superior sagittal sinus; CSF flows through them to be reabsorbed into the blood supply.
What is the superior sagittal sinus?
A venous sinus located in the midline just dorsal to the brain, between the two cerebral hemispheres.
What is obstructive hydrocephalus?
A condition in which all or some of the rain's ventricles are enlarged; caused by an obstruction that impedes the normal flow of CSF.
What is the forebrain?
The most rostral of the three major divisions of the brain; includes the telencephalon and diencephalon.
What is the cerebral hemisphere?
One of the two major portions of the forebrain, covered by the cerebral cortex.
What is the subcortical region?
The region located within the brain, beneath the cortical surface.
What is the cerebral cortex?
The outermost layer of gray matter of the cerebral hemispheres.
What is a sulcus (plural: sulci)?
A groove in the surface of the cerebral hemisphere, smaller than a fissure.
What is a fissure?
A major groove in the surface of the brain, larger than a sulcus.
What is a gyrus (plural: gyri)?
A convolution of the cortex of the cerebral hemispheres, separated by sulci or fissures.
What is the primary visual cortex?
The region of the cerebral cortex whose primary input is from the visual system.
What is a calcarine fissure?
A fissure located in the occipital lobe on the medial surface of the brain; contains most of the primary visual cortex.
What is the primary auditory cortex?
The region of the cerebral cortex whose primary input is from the auditory system.
What is the lateral fissure?
The fissure that separates the temporal lobe from the overlying frontal and parietal lobes.
What is the primary somatosensory cortex?
The region of the cerebral cortex whose primary input is from the somatosensory system.
What is the central sulcus?
The sulcus that separates the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe.
What is the primary motor cortex?
The region of the cerebral cortex that contains neurons that control movements of skeletal muscles.
What is the frontal lobe?
The anterior portion of the cerebral cortex, rostral to the parietal lobe and dorsal to the temporal lobe.
What is the parietal lobe?
The region of the cerebral cortex caudal to the frontal lobe and dorsal to the temporal lobe.
What is the temporal lobe?
The region of the cerebral cortex rostral to the occipital lobe and ventral to the parietal and frontal lobes.
What is the occipital lobe?
The region of the cerebral cortex caudal to the parietal and temporal lobes.
What is the sensory association cortex?
Those regions of the cerebral cortex that receive information from the regions of primary sensory cortex.
What is the motor association cortex?
The region of the frontal lobe rostral to the primary motor cortex.
What is the prefrontal cortex?
The region of the frontal lobe rostral to the motor association cortex.
What is the corpus callosum?
The largest commissure of the brain, interconnecting the areas of neocortex on each side of the brain.
What is the neocortex?
The phylogenetically newest cortex including the primary sensory cortex, primary motor cortex, and association cortex.
What is the limbic cortex?
The phylogenetically old cortex, located at the edge ("limbus") of the cerebral hemispheres; part of the limbic system.
What is the cingulate gyrus?
A strip of limbic cortex lying along the lateral walls of the groove separating the cerebral hemispheres, just above the corpus callosum.
What is the commissure?
A fiber bundle that interconnects corresponding regions on each side of the brain.
What is the limbic system?
A group of brain regions including the anterior thalamic nuclei, amygdala, hippocampus, limbic cortex, and parts of the hypothalamus, as well as their interconnecting fiber bundles.
What is the hippocampus?
A forebrain structure of the temporal lobe, constituting an important part of the limbic system.
What is the amygdala?
A structure in the interior of the rostral temporal lobe, containing a set of nuclei; part of the limbic system.
What is the fornix?
A fiber bundle that connects the hippocampus with other parts of the brain, including the mammillary bodies of the hypothalamus.
What are the mammillary bodies?
A protusin of the bottom of the brain at the posterior end of the hypothalamus, containing some hypothalamic nuclei.
What are the basal ganglia?
A group of subcortical nuclei in the telencephalon, the caudate nucleus, the globus pallidus, and the putamen; important parts of the motor system.
What is the diencephalon?
A region of the forebrain surrounding the third ventricle; includes the thalamus and the hypothalamus.
What is the thalamus?
The largest portion of the diencephalon, located abvoe the hypothalamus; contains nuclei that project information to specific regions of the cerebral cortex and receive information from it.
What is a projection fiber?
An axon of a neuron in one region of the brain whose terminals form synapses with neurons in another region.
What is a nucleus (plural: nuclei)?
An identifiable group of neural cell bodies in the central nervous system.
What is the lateral geniculate nucleus?
A group of cell bodies within the lateral geniculate body of the thalamus that receives fibers from the retina nd projects fibers to the primary visual cortex.
What is the medial geniculate nucleus?
A group of cell bodies within the medial geniculate body of the thalamus; receives fibers from the auditory system and projects fibers to the primary auditory cortex.
What is the ventrolateral nucleus?
A nucleus of the thalamus that receives inputs from the cerebellum and sends axons to the primary motor cortex.
What is the hypothalamus?
The group of nuclei of the diencephalon situated beneath the thalamus; involved in regulation of the autonomic nervous system, control of the anterior and posterior pituitary glands, and integration of species-typical behaviors.
What is the optic chasm?
A cross-shaped connection between the optic nerves, located between the base of the brain, just anterior to the pituitary gland.
What is the anterior pituitary gland?
The anterior part of the pituitary gland; an endocrine gland whose secretions are controlled by the hypothalamic hormones.
What is a neurosecretory cell?
A neuron that secretes a hormone or hormonelike substance.
What is the posterior pituitary gland?
The posterior part of the pituitary gland; an endocrine gland that contains hormone-secreting terminal buttons of axons whose cell bodies lie within the hypothalamus.
What is the midbrain?
The mesencephalon; the central of the three major divisions of the brain.
What is the mesencephalon?
The midbrain; a region of the brain that surrounds the cerebral aqueduct; includes the tectum and the tegmentum.
What is the tectum?
The dorsal part of the midbrain; includes the superior and inferior colliculi.
What are the superior colliculi?
Protrusions on top of the midbrain; part of the visual system.
What are the inferior colliculi?
Protrusions on top of the midbrain; part of the auditory system.
What is the brain stem?
The "stem" of the brain, from the medulla to the diencephalon, excluding the cerebellum.
What is the tegmentum?
The ventral part of the midbrain; includes the periaqueductal gray matter, reticular formation, red nucleus, and substania nigra.
What is the reticular formation?
A large network of neurla tissue located in the central region of the brain stem, from the medulla to the diencephalon.
What is the periaqueductal gray matter?
The region of the midbrain surrounding the cerebral aqueduct; contains neural circuits involved in species-typical behaviors.
What is the red nucleus?
A large nucleus of the midbrain that receives inputs from the cerebellum and motor cortex and sends axons to motor neurons in the spinal cord.
What is the substantia nigra?
A darkly stained region of the tegmentum that contains neurons that communicate with the caudate nucleus and putamen in the basal ganglia.
What is the hindbrain?
The most caudal of the three major divisions of the brain; includes the metencephalon and myelencephalon.
What is the cerebellum?
A major part of the brain located dorsal to the pons, containing the two cerebellar hemispheres, covered with the cerebellar cortex; an important component of the motor system.
What is the cerebellar cortex?
The cortex that covers the surface of the cerebellum.
What are the deep cerebellar nuclei?
Nuclei located within the cerebellar hemispheres; receive projections from the cerebellar cortex and send projections out of the cerebellum to other parts of the brain.
What is the cerebellar peduncle?
One of three bundles of axons that attach each cerebellar hemisphere to the dorsal pons.
What is the pons?
The region of the metencephalon rostral to the medulla, caudal to the midbrain, and ventral to the cerebellum.
What is the medulla oblongata?
The most caudal portion of the brain; located in the myelencephalon, immediately rostral to the spinal cord.
What is the spinal cord?
The cord of nervous tissue that extends caudally from the medulla.
What is the spinal root.
A bundle of axons surrounded by connective tissue that occurs in pairs, which fuse and form a spinal nerve.
What is the cauda equina?
A bundle of spinal roots located caudal to the end of the spinal cord.
What is a caudal block?
The anesthesia and paralysis of the lower part of the body produced by injection of a local anesthetic into the cerebrospinal fluid surrounding the cauda equina.
What is the dorsal root?
The spinal root that contains incoming (afferent) sensory fibers.
What is the ventral root?
The spinal root that continas outgoing (efferent) motor fibers.
What is the spinal nerve?
A peripheral nerve attached to the spinal cord.
What is an afferent axon?
An axon directed toward the central nervous system, conveying sensory information.
What is the dorsal root ganglion?
A nodule on a dorsal root that contains cell bodies of afferent spinal nerve neurons.
What is an efferent axon?
An axon directed away the central nervous system, conveying motor commands to muscles and glands.
What is a cranial nerve?
A peripheral nerve attached directly to the brain?
What is the vagus nerve?
The largest of the cranial nerves, conveying efferent fibers of the parasympathetic division of autonomic nervous system to organs of the thoracic and abdominal activities.
What is the olfactory bulb?
The protusion at the end of the olfactory nerve; receives input from the olfactory receptors.
What is the somatic nervous system?
The part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the movement of skeletal muscles or transmits somatosensory information to the central nervous system.
What is the autonomic nervous system (ANS)?
The portion of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's vegetative functions.
What is the sympathetic division?
The portion of the autonomic nervous system that controls functions that accompany arousal and expenditure of energy.
What are the spinal sympathetic ganglia?
Sympathetic ganglia either adjacent to the spinal cord in the sympathetic chain or located in the abdominal cavity.
What is the sympathetic ganglion chain?
One of a pair of groups of sympathetic ganglia that lie ventrolateral to the vertebral column.
What is a preganglionic neuron?
The efferent neuron of the autonomic nervous system whose cell body is located in a cranial nerve nucleus or in the intermediate horn of the spinal gray matter and whose terminal buttons synapse on postganglionic neurons in the autonmic ganglia.
What is a postganglionic neuron?
Neurons of the autonomic nervous system that form synapses directly with their target organ.
What is the adrenal medulla?
The inner portion of the adrenal gland, located atop the kidney, controlled by sympathetic nerve fibers; secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine.
What is the parasympathetic division?
The portion of the autonomic nervous system that control functions that occur during a relaxed state.