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17 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is dualism?
The belief that the body is physical but the mind (or soul) is not.
What is monism?
The belief that the world consists only of matter and energy and the mind is part of it.
What is blindsight?
The ability of a person who cannot see objects in his or her blind field to accurately reach for them while remaining unconscious of perceiving them; caused by damage to the "mammalian" visual system of the brain.
What is the corpus callosum?
The largest commissure (place where two things are joined) of the brain, interconnecting the areas of the neocortex on each side of the brain.
What is a split-brain operation?
Brain surgery occasionally performed to treat a form of epilepsy; surgeon cuts the corpus callosum, which connects the two hemispheres of the brain.
What are the cerebral hemispheres?
The two symmetrical halves of the brain; constitute the major part of the brain.
What is generalization?
A type of scientific explanation; a general conclusion based on many observations of similar phenomena.
What is reduction?
A type of scientific explanation; a phenomenon is described in terms of the more elementary processes that underlie it.
What is a reflex?
An automatic, stereotyped movement produced as the direct result of a stimulus.
What is a model?
A mathematical or physical analogy for a physiological process; for example, computers have been used as models for various functions of the brain.
What is the doctrine of specific nerve energies?
Muller's conclusion that because all nerve fibers carry the same type of message, sensory information must be specified by the particular nerve fibers that are active.
What is experimental ablation?
The research method in which the function of a part of the brain is inferred by observing the behaviors of an animal can no longer perform after that part is damaged.
What is functionalism?
The principle that the best way to understand a biological phenomenon (a behavior or a physiological structure) is to try to understand it useful functions for the organism.
What is natural selection?
The process by which inherited traits that confer a selective advantage (increase an animal's likelihood to live and reproduce) become more prevalent in the population.
What is mutation?
A change in the genetic information contained in the chromosomes of sperms or eggs, which can be passed on to an organism's offspring; provides genetic variability.
What is a selective advantage?
A characteristic of an organism that permits it to produce more than the average number of offspring of its species.
What is a physiological psychologist?
A scientist who studies the physiology of behavior, primarily by performing physiological and behavioral experiments with laboratory animals.