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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Insulin regulates ____________ by controlling glucose uptake; facilitates membrane glucose transport
carbohydrate utilization
Insulin regulates ________ : stimulates adipose (fat) tissue uptake of carbohydrates and additional nutrients
storage of nutrients
Insulin regulates ________ : endocrine release into blood targets hypothalamus to regulate food intake (type I diabetes patients with reduced insulin experience weight gain)
energy balance
CCK stimulates __________ and ___________, resulting in release of bile into duodenum through the common bile duct
rhythmical gallbladder contractions

sphincter of Oddi relaxation
Steatorrhea occurs when pancreatic ________ release <20% of normal
Enzymes from pancreatic acini (small saccules):
Trypsin (secreted as trypsinogen)

Chymotrypsin (secreted as chymotrypsinogen)

Carboxypolypeptidase (secreted as procarboxypolypeptidase)
Pancreatic _______ hydrolyzes starches, glycogen to form disaccharides and trisaccharides
Pancreatic _____ hydrolyzes fat into fatty acids and monoglycerides
_______ hydrolyzes cholesterol esters
Cholesterol esterase
__________ reduces fatty acids to phospholipids
_____, ____ and ______ stimulate pancreatic secretion
3 phases/modulators of pancreatic secretion:
1) ___________ (20%, vagus causes ACh release/ vagotomy eliminates 60% of secretory response to food)
Larger effect on enzymatic than aqueous components
3 phases/modulators of pancreatic secretion:
2) _______ (5-10%)
Stomach distension produces vago-pancreatic drive
3 phases/modulators of pancreatic secretion:
3) ______ (70-80%)
Pancreatic secretion increases greatly following chyme entrance into small intestine and CCK release
Chyme enters duedenum -> HCl releases _______ -> causes pancreatic release of bicarbonate, which neutralizes chyme
Food in upper small intestine causes ___ release from duedenum I-cells
Hepatocytes fx to:
metabolic processing
synthesis of plasma proteins
nutrient storage
activation of vitamin D
resident liver macrophages
Kupffer cells
_______ flow of blood in sinusoids to central vein and ________ flow of bile in bile canaliculi to bile ducts
centripetal(periferal center)
centrifugal (center outward)
Fat in duodenum causes ____ release, which causes gallbladder contraction, which releases bile into duodenum
The _______ stores and concentrates the bile produced in the liver that is not immediately needed for digestion. Bile is released from the gallbladder into the small intestine in response to food. The pancreatic duct joins the common bile duct at the small intestine adding enzymes to aid in digestion.
Bile produced in liver, stored in gallbladder (20-50 ml capacity), released into duodenum during meals, helps emulsify (break up) fats, absorb vitamins _______(4)
D, E, K, A