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81 Cards in this Set

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The response of individuals to stressors/the wear and tear on the body due to the demands placed on it.
the circumstances and evants taht threaten individuals and tax their coping abilities
General Adaptation syndrome
Selye's term for the common effects on the body when stressors presist.
Hans Sely
Austrian Born founder of stress reasearch
3 stages of GAS
General Adaption Syndrome
Alarm stage
the body quickly mobilizes resources to deal with whatever is threating
Resistance Stage
the bocy adapts to the continued presence of the stressor
Exhaustion Stage
responses that were helpful in the short term may now become damaging as they presist.
Cogntive Appraisal
Lazarus' term for individuals' interpretermination of whather they have the resources to effectively cope with the events
2 types of congintive appraisal
Primary appraisal
individuals interpert whather an event involves harm or loss that has already occurred, a threat of some future danger or challenge to overcome.
Secondary appraisal
individuals evaluate their resources and determine how effectively they can be used to cope with the event.
Lazarus' Congitive Appraisal
View of stress 2 steps
step 1 perceiving a stressor as harmful and or threating and having few or no coping resources available
step 2 yields high stess. preceiving a stressor as challenging
Hans Seley
founder of stress research
2 biological pahways in stress
1) hypothalamus
2) pituitary gland
a scientific field that explores connections among psychological factore ( such as attitudes and emotions) the nervous system and the immune system
3 lines of research support the conclusion that the immune system and stress are linked
1) Acute stressors
2) Chronic Stressor
3) positive social circumstances
Acute stressors
sudden onetime life events or stimuli, can produce changes in the immune system.
Chronic stressors
those that are long lasting, are associated with increasing downturn in responsiveness of the immune system
Positive social circumstances
AND LOW STRESS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED ABILITY TO FIGHT CANCEER, having good social relationship and support is often linked with higher lievels of the type of whiet bolld ceslls called NKcells. whereas a high degree of stress is often related to lower NK cell levels. NK cells can attack tumor cells
Stress and Cardiovascular disease
emotional stress can cause a person th have a heart attack, a clear link has not been found but apparently the surge in epinephrine associated with GAS causes the blood to clot more rapidly and blod clotting i a major factour in heart attacks
Stress and Cancer
Rewsearchers have found links between stess and cancer, believes that the link between stress and cancer can best be understood by examining 3 factors
3 factors to link between stress and cancer
1) quality of life
2) behavioral factors
3) biological pahways
Quality of life
a number of studies have documented acute stress at the time of cancer diagnosed, long treatment can cause stress in life and these stressors can suppress the body's ability to fight off many types of disease, including cancer
Behavioral factors
in increase in negative health behavioursor a decrease in positive health behaviors can accompany cancer. depression, lack of interaction with positive actions can also produce depression causing the amune system to be down making a person more accatible to cancer
Biological pathways
if the immune system is not compromised, it appears to help provide resistance to cancer and slow it progress.
Environmental Factors
1) environmental factors
2) personality factors
3) work related factors
4) sociocultural factors
which occurs when we must decide between two or more incompatible options.
3 types of conflict
1) approach/approach conflict
2) avoidance/ avoidance conflict
3) approach / avoidance conflict
Approach/ approach conflict
whick is conflict in which the individual mus choose between two attractive stimuli or circumstances.
Avoidance/aviodance conflict
which is conflict involving a single stimulus or circumstance that has both positive and negative characteristic.
Approach/avoidance conflict
which is conflict involving a single stimulus or circumstance that has both postiive and negative characteristics.
Over load
which occurs when stimuli become so intense tha we can no longer cope wth them
a state of physical and emotional exhaustion that includes a hpeless feeling, chronic fatigue and low energy, occurs by gradual accumulation of everyday stresses.
Personal Factors
help people cope more effectively with stress and make them less vulnerable to illness
2 thpes of personality factors
1) type a behavior pattern
2) type b behavior pattern
Type A behavior pattern
theorized that a cluster of characteristic egin excessively competitive, hard driven impatient and hostil is related to incidence of heart desease.
Type B behavior pattern
more commonly relaxed and easygoing
Hostile and angry people
type a behavior compontent most consistently associated with coronary problems is hostility, people who are hostile outwardly or who turn anger inward are more likley to develop heart desease than their less angry counterparts. called hot reactors
hardiness is a personality style characterized by
1) a sense of commitment
2) a sense of control
3) a preception of problems as challenges
Work Related Stress
increases when job demands are higha nd the individual has little choice in deciding how to meet the demands.
is another sorce of workplace stress
some races are more porne to poverty and the stress that comes with it..
Post Tramatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
is a disorder that develops through exposure to a traumatic event
Symptoms and Developmental Course of PTSD
Flash backs
constricted ability to feel emotions
excessive arousal
difficulties with memory and constraction
feelings of apprehension
impulsive outbursts of behavior
many forms
abuse of a spouse, sexual abuse, rape or incest and emotional abuse
What is coping
is the porcess of managing taxing circumstance, expending effort to solve life's problems and seeking to master or reduce stress
2 types of coping
1)Problem Focused
2) emotion focused coping
Porblem focused
is the strategy of squarely facing one's troubles and trying to solve them
Emotion focused coping
is Lazarus's term for responding to stress in an emotinal manner, especially by using defensive mechanisms
Active Cognitive stragegies
are coping responses in which individuals actively think about a situation in an effort to adjust more effectively
Active Behavioral straegies
are coping responses in whch individuals take some type o f action to imporve their situation
Avoidance coping strategies
are responses to keep stressful circumstances out of awareness
Coping and Contexts
Coping is not a stand alone process it is influenced by the demands and resources of the enviroment
Think positively and Optimistically
thinking positively and avoiding negative thoughts is a good strategy when trying to handle stress in just about any circumstance
Congnitive restructuring
is the porcess of replacing the thoughts, ideas and beliefs that maintain an individuals problems.
Self talk-self statements
the soundless, mental speach we use then we think aboutsomething plan or solve problems is often very help fun in cognitive restructuring
Strategies for coping
1) think positively and Optimistically
2) increase Self control
3) seek social suppoot
4) use proactive coping
5) engage in enjoyable activities and use humor
6) use multiple coping stra
Self talk Strategies
1) fine tune your self talk
2) use uncomfortable emotions or moods such as stress depression and anxiety as cures for listening to yourself talk
3) cappitalizing on situations that anticipate might be difficult
4) compare your self talk predicitions
5) enlist the help of a sympathetic friend partiner or therapist
6) find out which self statements help you to cope more effectively
Optimistic Outlook
an optimistic out look on life might not be realistic for soem pople, but it often helps coping
explain bad events as athe result of external, unstable and specific causes
explain bad events as due tointernal, stable and global cuases
Becoming more Optimistic
1) identify throughts and feelings you have after something unpleasent happens
2) become aware of your pattern of thinking when you experience unpleasent events
3) distract yourself from your pessimistic thoughts
4) dispute your pessimistic thoughts
Increse Self control
1) having an internal locus of control
2) having a strong sense of self efficancy
3) having the ability to delay graitication
Thoutht stopping
is a specific self control strategy in which the individuals say "STOP" when and unwanted thought occurs and than replaces it immediately with a more plesant thought.
means assisting individuals to develop skills they need to control their own lives
Social Support
is information and feedback from others that one is loved and cared for, esteemed and valued, and included in a network of communication and mutual obligation
Pro active coping
is motivated by the preception of situations and challengies ans stmulating
relese pent up emotions and aids redefinition of a stressful circumstance in a less threating way
Emotinal Appriach coping
the strategy of activenly emotion processing emotion and expressing emotion
is the tendenc to passively and repeatedly focus on negative emotions and their consequences, is related to increased incidences of depression
Emotion regulation
the process by which individuals control which emotions they experience, when they experience them, and how they experience and show them
Emotional intelligence
as the ability to preceive and express emotion, understand emotion, and regulate emotion
Daniel Goleman
popularized the concept of emotional intelligence
Goleman believes that being emotional intelliggent consists of
developing emotional awareness
managing emotions
reading emotions
handling relationship
Positive emotions
is stressful experiences can facilitate coping in several ways
to step back from the situation and to be objective
Second Positive emotion and social support are
reciporcally linked
third positive emotion
appears toimprove our ability to cope with the physical effects of stressors
is a ssystem of mental exercises that help uth individual to attain bodily or mental control and well being as well as enlightment
Transcendental meditation
is derived form an ancient Indian technique, it involves using a mantra
the process inwhich individuals muscular or visceral activities are monitored by insturments.then the information from the instruments is given (fed Back) to the indiiduals so that they can learn to voluntarily control their physiological activities