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32 Cards in this Set

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What is an argument
is a set of statments one of which ( conclusion) is affirmed on the basis of the others (premises)
Conclusion
the point you are trying to make
Premises
supporting statment the reason for accepting the argument
an argument is valid if
it is impossible fo rhe conclusion to be false, assuming that the premises are all true
Validity
if all the premises of the argument are ture, than the conclusion must be true as well
Knowledge
Justified, tue blue
Belief
having a though about something , beleaving it to be true
Three different Theories of knowledge
1) Skepticism
2) Empiricism
3) Rationalism
Skepticism
view that there is no knowledge, there exists no adeqate justification that can show why our beliefs are true
Two types of Skepticism

know the differance between them
Golbal
.....no knowledge, no such thing as knowledge
Local
.....we cannot have knowledge aboue certain subjects
3 types of knowledge
1) propsitional
2) knowledge how
3) knowledge by acquanitance
Empiricism
The view that our belief can best justified in light of the evidence we receive from the senses
3 people most associated with Empiricism
1) John Locke-indirect realism
2)George Berkeley-idealism realsim
3)David Hume
3 theories of preception
1)Naive Realism
2)Indirect Realism
3)Idealism
Naive Realism
the world is exactly as it appears
Indirect Realism
the world is approximately the way it appears, but not entirely
Idealism
it abandons the idea that there is "real" material objects"behind" our preceptions
2 properties of Indirect realism
1) primary properties-mind independent
2) secondary properties-mind dependent
Idealism-George Berkeley
to be is to be precieved, everything is mental, if it isto be precieved than it is mentally done.
Rationalism
the view that our beliefs can be justified in light of pure reason
That is we can know something if it appears ture in light of reason
Rene Descartes was a
Rationlist
Decartes arived at what statment
Cogito Ergo Sum-" I think therefore I am"
2 types of justification
1) a priori justicification
2)a posteriori justification
A Posteriori Justicification
"latin for Latter" requires that we refer to a direct personal experiences of the world
A Priori justicification
justification that cane take place prior to consulting any empirical evidence
2 types of truth
1)Necessary truth
2)Contingent truth
Necessary Truth
something that is true and could never be false
Contingent Truth
something is contingently true if it is ture, but culd have bee other wise.
also.. could have been false
Renee Descartes
was looking for a way to discount sceptisim by looking at what could be doubted.. played a game.... it was a thought experment...did it by diductive reasoning
Descartes's dream argument
the point of the argument is not to show that one is dreaming or that life can be a dream. the poing of the argument is simply to show that our current preceptual beliefs(the beliefs that are based on what I see, feel and hear right now) are not indubitable or absolutely certain.
Hard Determinism
no free will it is all an illusion, the past completely in every wingle way determines the future, the future is caused by the past,including our own actions.
Propsitional knowledge
knowledge that....
example
I know that is my car......