Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is Philosophy has 3 ways of providing what?
a "big Picture"
3) Philosophical
Relies upon stories to explain the universe
an attempt to offer additional support to a mythology/story bby appealing to divine revelation.
relies on appeal to the power of reason, by constructing arguments to suport claims about reality
appeals to reason
Relationship between philosopy and science
what we know about science came out of philosophy
can say some loose case ther has always been philosophy
Philosophy deals with
Questions, exp: is there life on mars
Some questions can never be answered
exp. do we have a soul, what constitutes a person
Science works withthe realm of
believability, what science is about... looking at the world and asking questions
Science does what
answers questions
Philosophy does what
ask's questions
main Branches of philosophy
Logic Ethic
Epistemology Aesthetics
studies the nature of arguments
studies the scope and nature of knowledge
Raises thelimites of knowledge
Nature of knowledge
studies the nature of ultimate reality
concern with every thing that there is
what knid of existence is there
free will
relationship between the mind and body
Studies questions of how we should act
study of right and wrong
what it means for something to be
right or wrong
concern with right behavior
studies questions about art and beauty
ethic's an aesthetics concern with
What is an argument
is a set of statments on of which (conclusion) is affirmed on the basis of the others ( premises)
the point ou are trying to make
supporting statment the reason for accepting the argument
2 types of logic
Deductive: Concerned with Validity

Inductive: concerned with probability
When are arguments valid with validity?
when two statments have a true conclusion.
a set of statments
Validity, an argument is balid if
it is impossible for the conclusion to be false, a
An argument is sound if
it is valid
all true premises
all invalid arguments are unsound by
One of the 3 theory's of knowledge
the view that our belief can best justifed in light of the evidences we receive from the senses
3 people most associated with teh Empiricism Theory
John Locke
George Berkeley
David Hume
Basic empirical beliefs
a direct result of having certain specific sensory expreiences
Inferental Beliefs
beliefs about what is not directly observable
3 theories of preception:
1)Naive Realism- the world is exactly the way it appears
2) indirect Realism- the world is approximately the way it appears but not entirely.
3) Idealism-is abandons the idea that there are "real" material objects "behind" our preceptions.
naive Realism
The world is exactly the way it appears
Indirect Realism
can be seen as a response to naive realism
primary properties
mind independent
secondary properties
mind dependent
to draw a conclusion
imputed evidence
physical evidence
Idealism-George Berkeley
to be is to be preceived
everything is mental, if it is to be preceived than it is mentally done.
Ockham's (occam) Razor
deals with competing theories, all things being equal, the simplest expiation tends to be correct one.
the view that our beliefs can be best justified in light of rational evidence
.... that is we can know soemthing if it appears true in light of reason.
a priori justification " Latin "
Necessary truth
justification that we can take prior to consulting any empirical evidence
a posteriori justification "Latin"
contingent truth
requires that we refer to specific experiences of the world
2 types of truths
1) necessary truth
2) Contingent truth
Necessary Truth
something that is true and could not be otherwise.
Contingent truth
soemthing is contingently true if it is ture, but could have been other wise.
thetheory that the future is rixed by the past
German philosopher
Arthur Schopenhauer.
Responses to teh problem of free will
hard determinism
soft determinism/ compatiblism
hard determinsim
the past completley in every single way determines the future.
the future is caused by the past
..Causality is
......the cause of an event happens prior to the effect
......once a cause has happened the effect has to happen as well
future is random and unpredictable
Soft determinism/compatiblism
we can have free will even if he future is determined
Types of soft determinism
traditional compatiblism
deep self compatiblism
human are free to shape the future
Principle of sufficent reason
the view that everyting has explantation, even if we can't now wha teh explantations is
Argument in defense of hard determinism
all events have cause
our actions are events
all caused events are determined by the past
our actions are determined byt eh past
if our actions are determined byt eht past, then we have no power to act other then the way we do
we hve no free will
Argument against hard determinism
if hard determinism is true, than we have no free will
if we havn o free will, than we are not responsible fo our actions
we are responsible fo rour actions
therefore hard determinism is false
random not freely chosen the opposite end of hard determinism
Soft Determinism ( compatibilism)
we can have free willl, even if the future is determined as long as our action are caused in the right way