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12 Cards in this Set

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Logic
is the science that evaluates arguments
Arguments
can be a fight or dispute or just have one premise and one conclusion at least
Statement
a sentence with truth values
Ex san marcos is where csusm is
Sentence
Doesnt have truth values
Ex. What time is it?
argument 1.2
conditions to have an argument is you have to have premises that have an inferential link to the conclusion.
Nonargument
doesnt have premises that have inferential link to conclusion.
Examples are warnings, pieces of advice, statements of disbelief, statements of opinion, loosely associated statements(no link to claim about something been proved), reports, expository passages(a topic sentence followed by sentences that describe topic), illustrations, explanations, and conditional statements.
deductive argument
argument where the conclusion must follow the conclusions. the conclusion must follow necessarily. Types of deductive arguments are arguments based on math, argument based on definition, categorical syllogism(all,none, or), hypothetical syllogism(if then), and disjunctive syllogisms(either or).
inductive arguments
argument in which with true premises are at best likely that the conclusion follows. Types are the following: prediction(predict based on past), argument from analogy(similarity), argument based on authority(police says), argument based on signs(signs says so likely true)
Validity
refers to deductive arguments and says any argument where the premises are true then the conclusion can't be false. The only unvalid statements are those with all true premises and false conclusion.
Soundness
A valid deductive argument in which all premises are true. If this is not met then the deductive argument is unsound
Strong
any inductive argument in which the premises being true its likely that conclusion is true. Weak argument any inductive argument which is less that 50% likely.
Cogent
Any strong inductive argument that has all true premises. If any premises are false then uncogent!