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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Spinal Cord & Brain

Vertebral Column & muscles
What structures does the Neural Tube give rise to?

What structures do Somites give rise to?
List the 3 Neural Tube Defects
1. Anencephaly
2. Encephalocele
3. Spina Bifida
Define Anencephaly
Failure of the ANTERIOR end of the Neural Tube to close
-absence of Forebrain
-absence of Calvarium
-failure of anterior NT to close
What NTD is this?
Define "Encephalocele
NTD in the cranium that allows for out-pouching of the brain thru the skull
- most commonly in the Posterior Fossa = area at the base of the skull attached to the spinal cord
-diverticulum of the CNS
What NTD is this?
-failure of Mesoderm to close
-out-pouching of brain thru skull
What NTD is this?
This is the most common NTD
Spina Bifida
What is Spina Bifida due to?
failure of the Posterior end of the NT to close
What is Spina Bifida Occulta?
failure of the bony spinal canal to close, but no structural herniation
-commonly have a tuft of hair on lower back
What is Meningocele?
Spina bifida in which the Meninges herniates thru the Spinal Canal defect
What is Meningomyelocele?
Spina Bifida in which the Meninges & Spinal Cord herniate thru spinal canal defect
-usually occurs in Lumbrosacral area
List the 5 Forebrain Anomalies
1. Polymicrogyria
2. Lissencephaly
3. Neuronal Heterotopias
4. Holoprosencephaly
5. Agenesis of Corpus Callosum
Developmental malformation of the human brain characterized by an excessive number of small folds (gyri) on the surface of the brain
-4 or few layers of Cortex
-Entrapment of Meninges at points of fusion
-Localized injury during neuronal migration

What is the Forebrain Anomaly?
What forebrain anomaly is this showing?
Pachygyria = congenital malformation of the cerebral hemisphere that results in unusually thick convolutions of the cerebral cortex
What forebrain anomaly is this showing?
Neurological disorder of early brain development that leads to the gross appearance of a smooth brain
What is Miller-Dieker Syndrome?
Characterized by:
1. Lissencephaly = agyria
2. 90% has a deletion on 17p
3. LIS1 gene absence
4. Seizures & Mental Retardation
What are Neuronal Heterotopias?
Displacement of Gray Matter (perikaryon) into the cerebral White Matter (axons) or ventricles due to migrational defect

Almost always have seizures
Neuronal Heterotopia
-Gray Matter is displaced in White Matter
-due to migrational defect
What is seen here?
What is Holoprosencephaly?
Incomplete separation of Cerebral Hemispheres
What congenital CNS anomaly is this?
What is Holoprosencephaly associated with?
Trisomy 13 (Patau Syndrome)

Children of Diabetic mothers
What bodily malformation may accompany Holoprosencephaly?
Cyclopia = single median eye

Arrhinencephaly = part or all of the rhinencephalon is absent and the nose is malformed
What mutation is Holoprosencephaly associated with?
Sonic Hedgehog mutation
What is the Forebrain anomaly in which radiologic studies show a "Bat-wing" deformity?
Agenesis of Corpus Callosum
Agenesis of Corpus Callosum
What forebrain anomaly is seen here?
What may accompany a partial Agenesis of Corpus Callosum?
Lipoma in the posterior part
List the 3 Posterior Fossa Abnormalities
1. Chiari I malformation
2. Arnold-Chiari Malformation
3. Dandy-Walker Malformation
What is Arnold-Chiari Malformation?
Small Posterior Fossa, resulting in displacement of Cerebellum & Medulla thru the Foramen Magnum
What are the complications of Arnold-Chiari Malformation?
1. Non-communicating Hydrocephalus = obstructed flow of CSF from the Ventricles to the Subarachnoid space

2. Lumbar Meningomyelocele = spinal cord + meninges herniation
Arnold-Chiari Malformation
-small Posterior Fossa
-downward displacement of Cerebellar tonsils & Medulla
What posterior fossa defect is this?
What is Dandy-Walker Malformation?
Enlarged Posterior Fossa with replacement of the Cerebellar Vermis with a large Cyst
-brainstem nuclei dysplasias
Dandy-Walker Malformation
-hypoplasia of the Cerebellar Vermis
-cystic dilation of the 4th ventricle
What Posterior Fossa abnormality is this?
What is Syringomyelia?
formation of fluid-filled cavity often extending from the central canal of the Spinal Cord usually in the cervical region of the cord

Results in destruction of adjacent gray & white matter
What is Syringomyelia associated with?
Chiari I, tumors, trauma
What are the symptoms of Syringomyelia?
loss of pain & temperature in the upper extremities with preservation of touch & propioception
List 2 Perinatal Brain Injuries
1. Intraparenchymal Hemorrhage = Germinal Matrix Hemorrhage

2. White Matter Infarcts = Periventricular Leukomalacia
Bleeding into the subependymal germinal matrix with or without subsequent rupture into the lateral ventricle. The microcirculation in this particular area is extremely sensitive to hypoxia and changes in perfusion pressure. It is most frequent before 35 weeks gestation and is typically seen in low birth-weight (<1500g) premature infants
Germinal Matrix Hemorrhage = Intraparenchymal Hemorrhage
What may result from Intraparenchymal Hemorrhage?
What may Periventricular Leukomalacia lead to?
Cerebral Palsy
Germinal Matrix Hemorrhage = Intraparenchymal Hemorrhage
What is seen here?
White Matter Infarcts = Periventricular Leukomalacia
What is seen here?
What is Periventricular Leukomalacia (White Matter Infarct)?
Characterized by the death of the white matter of the brain due to softening of the brain tissue. It can affect fetuses or newborns; premature babies are at the greatest risk of the disorder. PVL is caused by a lack of oxygen or blood flow to the periventricular area of the brain, which results in the death or loss of brain tissue