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83 Cards in this Set

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What type of epithelium lines the skin of the penis and the tip of the urethra?
Squamous epithelium
What type of epithelium lines the posterior 1/3 of the urethra?
Transitional epithelium
Where do Primordial Germ Cells develop in?
Yolk Sac
From the Yolk Sac, the PGC's migrate into the __1__ that form on the posterior wall of the __2__. Genital ridges interact with the __3__ and __4__ ducts, which give rise to internal genital organs
1. Genital ridges
2. Celomic cavity
3. Mullerian
4. Wolffian
The male genital organs develop from this duct
Wolffian (Mesonephric)

*Mullerian ducts involute
Female organs develop from what duct?
Mullerian (Paramesonephric)

*Wolffian ducts invole
During fetal life, through what canal do the testes descend to reach the scrotum?
Inguinal canal
The transabdominal phase of descent, when testes descend to the pelvic brim, is dependent on what factor?
Mullerian Inhibitory factor
The inguinoscrotal phase of testes descent is dependent on what factor?
Androgens
- testosterone
- DHT
- Androstenedione
The penis develops from the __1__, the same structure that gives rise to the __2__ in women
1. Genital tubercle

2. Clitoris
The __1__, the primordia of the labia in females, fuse in the midline in the male fetus thus forming the __2__
1. Labiaoscrotal folds
2. Scrotum
The penile urethra forms from the _______ that closes on the lower side
Urogenital sinus
What 2 things do the tesis consist of and what does each contain?
1. Seminiferous tubules = Spermatogenic epithelium + Sertoli cells

2. Interstitial tissue = Leydig cells
anomaly in which the urethral meatus opens on the ventral (inferior/bottom) surface of the penis
Hypospadia
Anomaly in which the urethral meatus opens on the dorsal (superior/top) surface of the penis
Epispadia
What is Hypospadia due to a failure of?
The urethral folds to close
What is Epispadia due to?
Faulty positioning of the Genital Tubercle
What is Epispadia often associated with?
Extrophy of the Bladder
Which is more common: Hypospadia or Epispadia?
Hypospadia
What is the most common abnormality of the male genital tract?
Cryptorchidism (1 in 200)
When is Cryptorchidism more commonly found?
Prematurely born boys
Complete or incomplete descent of the testis into the scrotal sac
Cryptorchidism
Surgical repositioning of the testis into the scrotum = ?
Orchidopexy
What is the most common site for Cryptorchid testis?
Inguinal canal
What are the 2 major complications of Cryptorchidism?
1. Germ cell tumors = Seminoma

2. Infertility = testicular atrophy and seminal epithelium degeneration
What is the cause of Infertility in Cryptorchidism?
High body temperature in undescended testes decreases Spermatogenesis
Abnormally tight foreskin that is difficult or impossible to retract over the glans of the penis
Phimosis
What is the most common site on the penis for Hypospadia to occur and why?
Near the GLANS b/c it zips up proximally to distally
Why might it be a good idea to remove the tesis with Cryptorchidism?
B/c there is a 5-fold increase risk of Germ Cell Cancer (Seminoma)
During fetal life, what is the major source of Anti-Mullerian hormone?
Sertoli cells
What cells in the testes produce Androgens?
Leydig cells
What cell produces Anti-meiotic factor and what is its function?
Sertoli cells

prevents Spermatogenesis until puberty
What are the 2 groups of Pretesticular infertility?
Hypothalamus

Pituitary
Kallmann's Syndrome is a maldevelopment of these 2 things

What do these maldevelopments cause?
Olfactory bulbs = anosmia = lack of smell

GnRH producing cells = released from hypothalamus and is responsible for the release of FSH and LH from Anterior Pituitary
- LH -> Leydig -> Androgens
-FSH -> Sertoli -> Sperm production
What is released from Sertoli cells that decreases FSH release?
Inhibin
What are 3 Congenital Syndrome that could cause Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism?
1. Kallmann
2. Prader-willi
3. Frohlich syndrome
What 2 tumors could cause Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism resulting in infertility?
Craniopharyngioma

Pituitary adenoma
What 2 inflammatory conditions could cause Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism resulting in fertility?
Sarcoidosis

Tuberculosis
Syndrom with Androgen deficiency resulting in Testicular Infertility
Klinefelter Syndrome
What does Androgen receptor failure result in?
Testicular feminization and infertility
What 4 things could cause Spermatogenic failure leading to infertility?
1. Germ cell aplasia
2. Maturation arrest
3. Orchitis
4. Chemotherapy
Describe "Del Castillo Syndrome"
Seminiferous tubule with no sperm and no spermatogonia = "Sertoli-only syndrome"
What are 3 causes of Post-testicular Infertility?
1. Cystic fibrosis
2. Epididymitis
3. Vasectomy
Why are most males with Cystic Fibrosis infertile?
they are missing the Vas Deferens
Accumulation of fluid in the scrotum = ?
Hydrocele
What is the fluid in Hydrocele usually contained within?
between the 2 layers of Tunica vaginalis
How are Hydrocele and Testicular tumors differentiated?
Transillumination = hydrocele
What is a Scrotal Hernia?
loops of the intestine slide into the scrotum
Inflammation of the Testes and Epididymus = ?
Epididymo-orchitis
What are some common bacteria that cause Epididymo-orchitis?
1. N.gonorrhoeae
2. M. tuberculosis
3. M. leprae
4. T. pallidum = Syphillis
How does Syphilis usually manifest itself?
Painless chancre
What virus used to commonly cause Orchitis?
Mumps
How does Epididymitis present clinically?
Scrotal pain with radiation into the spermatic cord
Inflammation of the glans penis = ?
Balanitis
Inflammation of the glans penis and foreskin
Balanoposthitis
Subcutaneous fibrosis of the dorsum of the penis that occurs in older men
- results in lateral curvature
Peyronie disease
Persistent and painful erection sometimes associated with Venous Thrombosis of the Corpora Cavernosa
Priapism
Purulent urethral discharge examined under the microscope as paired cocci in the cytoplasm of neutrophils
N. gonorrhoeae
What gender is Cystitis more common in and why?
Women b/c their urethra's are shorter = bladder is more easily invaded by bacteria
Is Cystitis more commonly due to an Ascending or Descending route of infection?
Ascending
What are 4 predisposing factors for getting Cystitis
1. Shorter urethra in women
2. Prostatic disease in elderly men
3. Instrumentation (catheter) / drugs
4. Urinary stones
What drug sometimes causes Pseudomembranous Cystitis?
Cyclophosphamide
In Egypt, what is often the cause of Cystitis?
Schistosoma Haematobium
Chronic inflammation of the urinary bladder of unknown etiology
Interstitial cystitis
Who is most often affected by Interstitial Cystitis?
Women ages 30-70
What are the 2 forms of Interstitial Cystitis on cytoscopy and at what age do they peak?
1. Non-ulcerous = 40 years of age

2. Hunner ulcers = 60 years of age
What is the most common cause of left-sided Scrotal enlargement in adults and why?
Varicocele
-b/c the left spermatic vein drains into the left renal vein
Hypospadia
What is this?
Epispadia + Extrophy of the Bladder
What is this?
Cryptorchidism
What is this?
Cryptorchidism
-testes small, atrophic, and fibrotic
What is the cause of this?
Germ cells with no sperm = infertility

Prader-Willi Syndrome
What is this?
What Syndrome?
Seminiferous tubule with no sperm = no spermatogonia

"Sertoli-only Syndrome" = Del Castillo Syndrome
Describe what you see

What syndrome?
Seminiferous tubule with Spermatogenic arrest at the Spermatogoium level
What do you see here?
Spermatogenic arrest at the Round Spermatid level
What do you see here?
Hydrocele = fluid within the Tunica Albuginea
What is shown here?
Epididymal cysts
What are these?
Epididymitis
What is this showing?
Cystitis with hemorrhaging
-hemorrhaging is one of the most common symptoms of cystitis
What is shown here?
Cystitis -> indwelling catheter
What is the most likely cause of this lesion?
Bladder with infiltration of plasma cells and lymphocytes
-transitional epithelium
What is this showing?
Cystitis caused by Schistosoma hematobium
-person is most likely from Egypt
What is this?
Hunner ulcer
60 years old
Interstitial Cystitis
What is this lesion?
What age group does it usually present in?
What disease?