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15 Cards in this Set

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How should fecals be collected and stored?
-Fecals should be no less then 24 hrs old
-Collect 1 tbsp(onlt 1 tsp needed)
-Use plastic gloves or device
-Keep fecals sealed
-Keep fecals refrigerated
-Do not use tissue, paper towels or paper cups to store fecals
-Label all samples
-Note species
A vet techs role in handling fecals
-Keep good records
-Keep a lab log
-Label all samples
-Use gloves
-Clean and wash immediately
What to look for in a gross examination of fecals
-Color
-Consistancy
-Parasites(roundworms and tapeworms can be seen)
-Blood (what color)
-Mucus
-Foreign materials
-Age of fecals
How to use the microscope in examining fecals
-Use 10x scan for all fecals
-Go up to 40x for protozoans
-count the number of ova/larva seen
+ few ova seen (rare)
++ between few and 1 field
+++ 1=/feild (many)
- Negative for parasites

-Scan all fields of veiw
-Go back to review the edges of the coverslip
Types of flotaions solutions
-Sodium nitrate,NaNo3(most popular)
-Zinc sulfate, znSO4
-Sugar(sheather's solution) won't destroy fragile eggs
-Magnesium Sulfate, MgSO4 Epsom salt
-Saturated sodium chloride, Nacl (table salt)
Pros and Cons for Sodium Nitrate
PROS
-commercially available
-effecient in floating ova, even trematodes

CONS
-can be expensive
-forms crystals and air bubbles
-can distort ova over >20 min
-floats debris
Pros and cons for Zinc Sulfate
PROS
-floats protozoan organisms with the least amount of distortion

CONS
-may distort helminths
Pros and Cons of sugar solution
PROS
-does not distort helminths
-does not crystalize
inexpensive
-long self life

CONS
-sticky
-ova rise slowly
may distort fraglie larva tramatodes or cysts
-attracts bugs
CAPC guidelines for parasite control and treatment
-Pracitce good personal hygiene
-Control pet parasites infections through internal and external parasite tx and control
-Minimize exposure of children to potentially contaminated enviroments
-Clean up pet feces regularly to reduce enviromental contamination
-Understand and communicate parasitic infection risks and effective control measures
-Consider pet health and lifestyle
-Lifelong prevention of common parasites
-Enviromental control of parasites
-Staff, pet owner and community education
-Owner consideration in preventing zoonotic diseases
Puppy and kitten treatment control
when to start treating puppys and kittens
Tx of puppies:
2,4,6,8 weeks of age
then put on monthly preventative

Tx of kittens
3,5,7,9 weeks of age
then put on montly prevenative
What is the proper way to classify a parasite
Common name: Roundworm
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Nematoda
Order: Ascaridia
Genus: Toxocara
Species: Cati
How are parasite usually reported?
-Classification
-Hosts
-Life cycle
-Pathogenicity
-Zoonotic significance
-Signs and symptoms
-Treatment
-Prevention
What are Three types of parasites?
Parasite- An organism which lives on(ectoparasite) or in(endoparasite) another living organism (host) at whose expense it obtains some advantage

Erratic or Aberrant Parasite- An organism which wanders from its usual site of infection

Free-living parasite- An organism which is capable of living in the enviroment and leading a non parasitic existance
What are Four types of hosts?
Definitive host- a host that harbors the adult, sexually mature stages of a parasite, usually defined as the final host

Intermediate host- This host harbors at least on developmental stage of the parasite before trasferrign it to another host(Without this host the parasite would not exsist)

Parentenic host- This host harbors a stage of the parasite which does not undergo a developmental stage(ex.a mouse)

Resivoir host- a vertabrate host in which a parasite or disease occures naturally and is a sourse of infection( ex. A dog who is harboring heartworm is carrying the infection and could expose it to any mosquito(untermediate host) that bites it)
What is a carrier host?
some resivoir hosts act as carrier hosts. That means that they carry the parasites but they show no signs of illness