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173 Cards in this Set

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What are the 5 kingdoms?
1. Planta
2. Animalia
3. Protista
4. Monera
5. Fungi
KINGDOM ANIMALIA
Helminths and Arthropods
PLATYHELMINTHES
trematodes and cestodes
(Helminths)
NEMATHELMINTHES
nematodes
(helminths)
ACANTHOCEPHALANS
thorney headed worms
(helminths)
ANNELIDS
segmented worms
(helminths)
INSECTA
flies, bots, lice, fleas
ARACHNIDA
ticks, mites
PARASITE
an organism which lives on (ectoparasite) or in (endoparasite) another living organism at whose expense ir obtains some advantage.
ERRATIC OR ABERANT PARASITE
an organism which wanders from its usual site of infection
FREE-LIVING PARASITE
an organism which is capable of living in the environment and leading a nonparasitic existance
DEFINITIVE HOST
a host that harbors the adult sexual or mature stage of the parasite, usually defined as the final host.
INTERMEDIATE HOST
harbors at least one developmental stage of the parasite before transferring it to another host
TRANSPORT OR PARATENIC HOST
harbors a stage of the parasite which does not undergo a developmental stage in the host
RESERVIOR HOST
a vertebrate host in which a parasite or disease occurs naturally and is a source of infection
CARRIER HOST
carry the parasie but do not show signs of illness
How often should dogs/cats have fecal exams
every 6 months, but at least once a year
Proper fecal collection
less than 24h 1tbsp (tsp needed) refrigerate, sealed platic or glass device.No paper products
Handling fecal sample in lab
Keep good records, lab log, label all samples (name, date species)
handle with caution, gloves, clean up immediately
wash hands
GROSS EXAMINATION
Age of sample,Blood, Color, Consitency
Foreign materials, mucus, parasites
MICROSCOPIC EVALUATION
10x to scan, 40x for protozoans
scan al fields of view, review edges when done.
+
++
+++
+ few ova seen (rare)
++ btw few & 1/field (few/mod)
+++ 1+/field of view (many)
FLOTATION SOLUTIONS
Sodium Nitrate
Zinc Sulfate
Magnesium Sulfate
Saturated sodium chloride
Sugar (sheather's)
NaNO3
efficient in floating ova, even nematode.
expensive, crystals & air bubbles, distort ova, float debris.
ZnSO4
floats proozoan little distortion.
may distort heminths
Sheather's (sugar solution)
doesn't distort helminths, doesn't crystallize, inexpensive, long shelf life
sticky, slow rise, attract bugs, distor larva and tremaodes
COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE FECAL DEVICES
Ovatector
Ovassay Plus
Fecalyzer
DEWORMING PUPPY
2,4,6,8 weeks

fecal 2-4 times first year
DEWORMING KITTEN
3,5,7,9 weeks

fecal 2-4 times forst year
ARTIFACTS?
slide clean? objective lense clean? more than one?
symmetrical? Intestinal system?
nucleus? reflective? Rough or smooth edge
NEMATODE CHARACTERISTICS
straight complete intestine, epithelial cells, cylindrical, tapered ends, large body cavity
well developed, muscular esophagus, digestive tube and excretory system
How do nematodes move?
appears as longitudinal waves of contraction
How many life stages do nematods have?
Which is the infective stage?
5 life stages

L3 is usually the infective stages
What are the 4 nematode stages?
1. adult
2. pre-infective
3. infective
4. pre-adult
What are the 4 nematode transitions?
1. contamination
2. development
3. infection (l3)
4. maturation
Dirofilaria immitis
Heartworm
K-Animalia
P-nemathelminthes
Dirofilaria immitis
Microfilaria
larval stages l1-l5
tapered ant, blunt post
stationary sluggish motion
295-325um straight body
D. immitis

ADULT
found in the R and L ventricles and pulmonary arteries
F-14" M-9"
D. immitis

INTERMEDIATE HOST
mosquito 60+ speciec worldwide
D. immitis

DEFINITIVE HOST
dogs (wild canid) cats, ferrets
D. immitis

LIFE SPAN
adult- up to 5 yrs

microfilaria- up to 30 mnth
D. immitis

L1
adults produce l1. Mosquito ingests l1 in bloodstream.

Larva stay in mosquito's midgut 1 day then migrate and develop into l2
D. immitis

L2
Larva 10 days after infection then turn into L3
D. immitis

L3
Infective stage larva 3 days later. Migrate to mouthprts and find host
D. immitis from mosquito to host
mosquito inserts probiscis into host, l3 migrate out through mouthparts onto skin in a "hemolytic pool" Mosquito removes probiscis, l3 migrate through hole left.
D. immitis

L4
reside in sq tissues and muscles of abdomen and thorax for 2-3 months.
D. immitis

L5
Juvenile adults
migrate via bldstrm to cranial/caudal venacava through R atria snd lodge w/i the R ventricle and pulm arteries where they mature
How long does the D. immitis life cycle take?
6 months for dog
8 months for a cat
When are D. immitis microfilaria most susceptible to death by daily preventatives?
During the L3-L4 molt
When is are D. immitis microfilaria most susceptible to death by the monthly preventatives?
From l3 to the termination of L4
How many D. immitis adults can live in the dogs heart?
1 to 250
D. immitis

CHRONIC INFECTION
1. Dead worm arterial thrombosis, pulm hypertension from thrombosis and iflmtn due to myointimal proliferation.
2. Inflammation and lesions of lung lobes
MYOINTIMAL PROLIFERATION
assoc with chronic D. immitis
cells on vessel walls causing thickening due to irritation from th worms
D. immitis

MILDER CASES
dyspnea, cough, exercise intolerance, wt.loss, lethargy, poor body condition
D. immitis

MODERATE CASES
syncope, hemoptysis, abdominal distension, split S2 sound, murmurs, cardiac gallop, jug distension and pulse
D. immitis

SEVERE CASES
splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, ascites
D. immitis

ACUTE INFECTION
Venacava syndrome, liver failure, collapse, death
3-5yo never on hwp hemoglobinuria.No standard therapy. manually remove wrms through jugular
D. immitis

DIAGNOSIS
Signs, hx, detect circulating microfilaria, rads (bkwds D)cardiology, granulocytosis, serology
D. immitis

ANTIGEN TEST
best test becuase of "occult hw cases" (no L1)because of preventatives that supress or kill L1
D. immitis

MICROFILARIAL TEST
1.direct preparation
2.buffy coat
3.millipore filtration
4.modified knotts test
PRE-ADULTICIDE TREATMENT
build up system w/ diet vitamins, rid of parasites
cbc/prof
Rad/angiography/ultrasound
ADULTICIDE TREATMENT

MILD/MODERATE CLINICAL SIGNS
2 im (lumbodorsal) inj 24hrs apart repeat in 4 months if necessary
ADULTICIDE TREATMENT

SEVERE CLINICAL SIGNS
give 1 im inj.
1mnth later give 2 im inj 24 hrs apart
IMMITICIDE
adulticide treatment arsenic
Melarsomine Dihydrochloride
POST- ADULTICIDE TREATMENT
Strict confinement. 4-6 weeks, leash walk, quiet calm, poss meds (aspirin), vitamins and dietary instuctions
MICROFILARICIDE TREATMENT
Heartgard, or interceptor

Bovine Ivomec
D. immitis

RETESTING
ADULTS 4 mnths post with antigen
MICROFILARIA microfilarial test 1 mnth post
IVERMECTIN, PYRANTEL
Heartgard, Triheart plus, Iverheart
rounds, hooks
MILBEMYCIN OXIME
Interceptor
round, hook,whips
DIETHYLCARBAMAZINE CITRATE, OXIBENDAZOLE
Filaribits plus
rounds, hooks, whips
MOXIDECTIN
Proheart
inj-hooks
MILBEMYCIN OXIME, LUFENUERON
Sentinal
rounds, hook, whip, fleas
SELAMECTIN
Revolution
round, hooks cats
fleas, ticks, earmites, mange
Dirofilaria immitis

FELINE PATIENT
need to be exposed to many more L3. L4 can become ectopic
adults live 2yrs smaller 1-9 burden, usually males, 80% of cats occult
D. immitis
Why are tests less diagnostically significant in cats?
low worm burden-antigen
cats can spontaneously recover and antibody tests for exposure
What signs can feline D. immitis mimic?
1.Paragonimus kellicotti
2.Aelurostrongylus abstrusus
3.feline asthma or bronchitis
4.cardiomyopathy
5.fur balls
D. immitis FELINE

when are cats most at risk?
when worms first reach heart (L5)
and when adults first start to die
FELINE HEARTWORM FACTS
fewer mosquitoes will feed.
microfilaria only live 1 month, poor reservoir hosts
ARDS
acute respiratory distress syndrome
HW in fel can cause an intense reaction in lungs resulting in ARDS
D. immitis FELINE

CARDIAC SIGNS
pulm hypertension R sided heart failure and cardiac signs minimal.
D. immitis FELINE

What happens in L5
100 days post bite immunologic response causes asthma like symptoms. after adults signs disappear and become intermittent
PIMS
Pulm Intravascular Macrophages
cats spec macrophages. envelope and digest materials.
What happens when adult heartworms start to die off in the feline pateint?
PIMs cause an intense reaction wich irritates the lungs and cause them to stop functioning
D. immitis FELINE

CLINICAL SIGNS
4-7 months post bite int asthma like sign
When worms begin to die
acute death acute signs chronic signs
D.immitis FELINE

CHRONIC SIGNS
coughing vomiting dyspnea lethargy anorexia wt. loss
D. immitis

ACUTE SIGNS
collapse dyspnea convulsions diarrhea/vomiting blindness tachycardia syncope sudden death
What are the most common signs of D.immitis in the FELINE
1.vomiting
2.respiratory signs
3.wtloss
4.anorexia
Why vomiting in a cat with D. immitis
a release of substance by cells which regulate the inflammatory procss in the lungs wich stimulate the area of the brain that can trigger vomiting
D. immitis FELINE

DIAGNOSTIC TESTS
cbc(nRBC,anemia, basophilia) rads fecal(other par) EKG echocardiography tracheal wash (eos par) arteriogram antibody antigen
D. immitis FELINE

ANTIGEN TESTING
don't detect males or early infections(l6m)low# of fem.
Positive is a defenitive dx of heartworm
D.immitis FELINE

ANTIBODY TESTING
screening for cats, exposure fails to determine adults
THIACETARSAMIDE
Caparsolate
tx for feline hw
30-50% cats die from sudden death of worms. oxygen cage 2wks hospital
D.immitis FELINE

CORTICOSTEROID TX
qod for short time watch for signs of dyspnea or cyanosis
ADULTICIDEIN COMPLICATIONS IN CATS
1.pulmoanry edema
2.embolism
3.anorexia
4.sudden death
D.immitis FELINE

ALTERNATIVE TX
mechanical removalof adultworms(risky)
put on heartworm preventative (still talk)
D. immitis FELINE

POST TREATMENT
antigen test 12wks post adulticide
prevention
FELINE HEARTWORM PREVENTATIVE
Heartgard for cats, interceptor for cats(higher dose than dogs)
Revolution
What does ELISA stand for?
enzyme linked immunosorbent assay
COMPONENTS OF ELISA
1.solid phase or test surface
2.sample
3.conjugate
4.wash solution
5.chromogen
WHOLE BLOOD
antigoagulant rbc wbc plasma serum
PLASMA
fibrinogen
SERUM
no fibrinogen
What is the basic principle of ELISA technology
when conjugate and chromogen combine, you will ALWAYS get a color change
CHROMOGEN
a reagent which changesor produces color when exposed to a catalyst
CONJUGATE
an antibody that has been bound or conjugated to an enzyme
DIROCHECK
serum or plasma
refrigerate
15 minutes
single or batch
POSITIVE CONTROL
tells you that when you ran the test, the reagents contained in the kitwere functioning properly
NEGATIVE CONRTOL
tells you that the operator of the test ran the test properly and according to the directions
MEMBRANE ELISA KIT
Idexx snap
less dependent on user technique than microwell
whole blood, plasma, serum
refrigerate
10 minutes
ICT
Immunochromatographic Technology
latex and gold staining replace enzyme/chrom
BENEFITS OF ICT TESTS
greater test stability=room temp storage
no wash step
COMPONENTS OF ICT TEST
solid phase
sample
colloidal gold or latex conjugate
+/- flow solution
FALSE POSITIVE TESTS
sample quality
inadequate washing
overincubation
defective test
cross-reaching protein in sample
Toxocara canis
Large Roundworms of dogs
T. canis

OVA
round thick braided outer membrane, large round dark nuclei. infective in 2-4wks in soil. can survive in soil for years
T. canis

ADULTS
spaghetti-like seen in feces f-20cm m-10cm
most puppies are born with them
T.canis

METHODS OF TRANSMISSION
1.direct (trachael somatic)
2.transmammary
3.transplacental
4.predation of paratenic
HYPOBIOTIC
encysted larva that can be reactivated during high stress
T.canis

TRACHAEL (HEPATOTRACHAEL) TRANSMISSION
Puppies eggs in soil swallowed by dog hatch in stomach penatrate the intestinal mucosa migrate-liver-lungs-cough-swallow migrate, mature in small intestine 1month
T. canis

SOMATIC MIGRATION
adults eggs swallowed hatch in stomah migrate to tissues.
hypobiotic
T.canis

TRANSPLACENTAL
hypobiotic larva reactivate during pregnancy. enter puppies in utero during 3rdtri (d42)larva take trachael route pos 3wks
T.canis

TRANSMAMMARY
hypobiotic pregnancy lactation shed in milk swallowed tracheal route adults in 2-3wks
T.canis

PREDATION OF PARATENIC HOSTS
least common for dogs ingested in soil by phost. larva hatch in stomach somatic route. dog eats rodent(or uncooked meat) larva reactivates and develops in si 3-4wks
T. canis

CLINICAL SIGNS
puppies, lack of growth loss of condition dull hair coat, potbelly, vomiting worms, D/C, cough, bacterial pneumonitis, anemia
T.canis

DIAGNOSIS
microscopic id of eggs in feces
gross detection of adult worms in feces or vomitus
T.canis

CONTROL
rid area of feces treat all puppies, use 1% chlorox solution to clean
control rodent pop
T.canis

ZOONOTIC TRANSMISSION
humans ingest infective eggs
eggs hatch in si can enter blood stream & tissues
can damage or kill hosts infected tissue
T.canis

ZOONOTIC SIGNIFICANCE
visceral larva migrans, cns neurological ocular larva migrans(blindness)fever, irritability, abdominal pain &hives
T.canis

TREATMENT FOR HUMANS WITH OLM & VLM
diethylcarbamazine
albendazole
mebendazole
Toxocara cati
Large roundworm of cat
T.cati

OVA
ova looks like canis but a bit smaller and more cytoplasm
T.cati

ADULTS
spaghetti-feces f-12cm m-6cm
not passed transplacentally
T. cati

METHODS OF TRANSMISSION
1.direct
2.transmammary
3.predatation of paratenic host
T.cati

DIRECT TRANSMISSION
same as on dogs.
somatic more common
takes 2 months
T.cati

TRANSMAMMARY
same as dog
takes 2 months
T.cati

PREDATION OF PARATENIC HOST
by far most common method of transmission in cat
same as dog
takes 2 months
T.cati

ZOONOSIS
same as dogs
Toxascaris leonina
roundworms of dogs and cats
T. leonina

OVA
round/oval large round thin outer mbrn, nucleus does not fill ova
infective in 1wk does not survive in soil as long
T. leonina

ADULTS
spaghetti feces f-10cm m-cm
not transmitted transplacentally pr transmammary
T. leonina

METHODS OF TRANSMISSION
Direct-ingested si 2-2.5 mnth

predation of paratenic host
2mnths
T. leonina

DIAGNOSIS TX & CONTROL
same as toxocara
T. leonina

ZOONOSIS
not considered zoonotic
Ancylostoma caninum
hookworm
A. caninum

ADULTS
avg.10mm (6-20) f-larger
very large buccal cavity
2-3 pair of sharp teeth
common in NE
How many eggs can female Ancylostoma caninum produce?
10,000-25,000 eggs/day
A. caninum

DEFINITIVE HOST
dogs
A. tubaeforme
hooks of cats
A. braziliense
hooks dogs and cats
more pathogenic to humans
Uncinaria stenocephala
hooks of dogs and cats
less common and less pathogenic
A. duodenale
humans in S. Europe, Africa, N. Asia and S. America
Necator americanus
humans in southeastern USA
Ancylostoma caninum

ADULTS
attach to si, causes hemorrhages, feed on hosts blood
can have devastating effects on humans
How many humans are infected per year?
1 billion
A. caninum

LARVAL STAGES
1. Rhabditiform
2. Filariform
HOOKWORMS IN HUMANS
penetrate skin or ingested adults in 1wk attach si suck blood
HOOKWORMS IN HUMANS SIGNS
D and cramps itching & rash a site
anemia wt.loss
stunted growth and mental development in heavy infestation
CUTANEOUS LARVA MIGRANS
a linear toruous erythematous and intensely puritic eruption of the skin usually caused by migration of nematode larvae
A. caninum

OVA
oval shaped thin outer membrane clusters w/i ova consitst of 2-8 morula stage cells
A.caninum

LIFE CYCLE
rhabditiform larva hatch within 1-2
molt into filariform larva
A.caninum

MODES OF TRANSMISSION
1.ingestion(direct)
2.percutaneous
3.transmammary
4.transplacental
A.caninum

INGESTION(DIRECT)
ingest infective filariform larva.develop in si, eggs passed 2wks postingest.
not all mature some invade skeletalmsc or gut wall and arrest
A. caninum

PERCUTANEOUS INFECTION
penetrate skin, extensive tissue migration, enter bldtrm-lungs-cough-swallow-si
shed eggs 1 month
some will arrest
A. caninum

TRANSMAMMARY & TRANSPLACENTAL
arrested larva can infect puppies in utero 2 weeks prebirth (d49)
can ingest while nursing
A. caninum

SIGNS
internal bleeding, erythmatous foot pad, anemia protein loss, iron deficiency, anorexia, lethargy, dull hair, tarry stool, pale mm, sudden death
A.caninum

CLINICAL FORMS
1.peracute hook dz(dam to pups)
2.acute hook dz (sudden exp. older pups)
3.chronic(compensated)hook dz(adults)
4.secondary(compensated)hook dz (old dogs)
Trichuris vulpis
whipworms
ADULT WHIPWORMS
T.campanula & T.serrata(cat)
rare in cats 25-90mm
whip head(fine) stout post
f-produces 2,000 eggs/day
T. vulpis

OVA
football/lemon shape
operculum(plug)each end
remain in soil for yrs
very resistant, heavy to float
Trichuris vulpis

LIFE CYCLE
eggs infective 9d soil
dog ingest ova-hatch si-cecum devlope to adult
start prod 70-100/d 3mnths
T. vulpis

SIGNS
depends on # in si
pups-dehydration, emaciation, anemia, abdmnl pain death.
adults-bite at flanks mucoid bldyD, intermittent D or asymptomatic
T.vulpis

DIAGNOSIS
shedding of ova intermittent
difficult to dx
min15minutes for float 4 neg fecals over 4 days
SUGAR FLOATATION
3gm feces:15ccsugar solution
stir&strain mix pour in TT
centrifuge 1500rpm/5-10min
coverslip -4min read 10x