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51 Cards in this Set

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_____ are unicellular, non-fungal eukaryotes.
Protozoa
_____ is the motile form of a protozoa. (suffix)
-zoite.
_____ is the resting transmissible form of a protozoa. (suffix)
-cyst
_____ is the reproductive form of a protozoa. (suffix)
-ont
Protozoa can reproduce in two forms: ____ and ____.
Asexual and sexual
What are the three types of asexual reproduction of protozoa?
1. Budding (small daughter cell separates from mother cell)
2. Binary fission (each individual divides in two - [longitudinal (flagellates)] & [transverse (ciliates))
3. Multiple fission (repeated nuclear division of daughter cells before cytokinesis [before becoming gametocytes])
What are the two types of sexual reproduction of protozoa?
1. Conjugation (two ciliates join & exchange nuclear material - nuclei unite)
2. Syngamy (male & female gametes fuse & form zygote)
Name three characteristics of ameobae.
1. Pseudopodia
2. Binary fission
3. +/- cysts
4. Most free-living
5. Some commensalism or parasitism
Entamobae - name three of the four species discussed.
1. Entamoeba histolytica
2. Entamoeba hartmanni - nonpathogenic
3. Entamoeba coli - nonpathogenic
4. Entamoeba invadens - reptiles
Name the three pathogenic free-living amoebae.
1. Acanthomoeba
2. Balamuthia
- Balamuthia mandrillaris
3. Naegleria - [not really an amoeba]
- Naegleria fowleri
Name the four species of trichomonads discussed.
• Tritrichomonas foetus
• Trichomonas gallinae
• Trichomonas vaginalis
• Tetratrichomonas gallinarum
What are the four types of mucosoflagellates discussed?
Trichomonads
Histomonads
Giardia
Hexamita
What species of histomonads was discussed (one)?
Histomonas meleagridis
What is the one species of hexamita that was discussed in class?
Hexamita meleagrdis
What are the two types of hemoflagellates discussed in class?
1. Trypanosomes
2. Leishmanias
There are six species of trypanosomes that were discussed in class. Name four of them.
1. Typanosome cruzi
2. Typanosome brucei
3. Trypanosome congolese
4. Trypanosome vivax
5. Trypanosome evansi
6. Trypanosome equiperdum
There are three types of Trypanosome brucei that were discussed in class. They all cause sleeping sickness. Name two of the three.
T. b. gambiense
T. b. rhodesiense
T. b. brucei
Leishmanias are classified according to where they attack in the body. Name these three locations/classifications.
1. Cutaneous
2. Visceral
3. Mucocutaneous
Name two of the three cutaneous Leishmanias.
1. L. tropica
2. L. major
3. L. mexicana
Name the two visceral Leishmanias.
1. L. donovani
2. L. infantum
Name the one mucocutaneous Leishmanias.
1. L. braziliensis
What are the two pathogenic species of bovine coccidia?
Eimeria bovis
Eimeria zuemii
________ is the key to controlling coccidiosis.
Prevention
Coccidia oocytes are spread by ____________. The severity of the disease is related to the ____ of oocytes ingested.
Fecal contamination
Number
What phylum does coccidia belong to?
Apicomplexa
Coccidia have no locomotory organelles, except for flagellated _________.
Microgametes
In what form of coccidia is an apical complex observed (zoite, ont, or cyst)?
-zoite
The "zoite" stage of coccidia is shaped like a ________ and is motile and active. It occurs in four different forms. Name two of them.
Banana

1. Merozoite
2. Sporozoite
3. Tachyzoite
4. Bradyzoite
The "____" stage of coccidia is usually non-motile.
-ont
_________ are structures with products of gamete formation. Gamete formation is called ________.
Gametocytes
Gametogony
Coccidia infects one host. What is the term used to describe a parasite with one host?
Monoxenous
What are the two major genera for coccidia?
1. Eimeria
2. Cystoisospora
What are the three stages of the coccidia life cycle?
1. Schizogony (merogony) ---> within host
2. Gametogony ---> within host
3. Sporogony ---> outside host
Which species of ameoba caused amebia dysentery?
Entamoeba histolytica
Entamoeba histolytica has two forms, the _____ and the cyst.
Trophozoite
The cyst form of Entamoeba histolytica has how many nuclei? (This distinguishes it from all other amoeba)
Four
Entamoeba histolytica multiplies by ________.
Binary fission
Entamoeba histolytica has how many hosts? It starts in the large _____ of one host, and can exit as ____ (cyst/trophozoite) through the feces, or it can enter the blood stream and end up as abscess in the _____ and the _____ (two organs). The second host acquires it through _____ of feces.
Two
Intestine
Cyst
Liver & Lungs
Ingestion
Entameoba histolytica invades the mucosa of the ______ intestine in humans (frequently occurs in humans & primates). Disease potential is related to the ____ of the parasite.
Large
Strain
Name three (of the four) complications of Entamoeba histolytica [as discussed in class].
1. Amebic granulomata (ameboma) in wall of large intestine
2. Abscesses in liver, lungs, or brain
3. Ulcerations of skin (usually perianal area)
4. Potential death or severe disability
How do you diagnose Entamoeba histolytica?
Examine feces for cysts or trophozoites in fresh or preserved specimens. Must differentiate from nonpathogenic amoebae that are naturally found in humans & primates (large intestine).
What drug do you use to treat Entamoeba histolytica?
Metronidazole
What are the two species of non-pathogenic amoeba (discussed in class)? How many nuclei do each have?
1. Entamoeba hartmanni
- 4 nuclei
2. Entamoeba coli
- 8 nuclei
Which species of amoeba is a causative agent of amebiasis in reptiles?
What lesions does this cause in reptiles?
Entamoeba invadens
Duodenal & hepatic lesions
What are three groups of pathogenic free-living amebae?
1. Acanthamoeba
2. Balamuthia
3. Naegleria
How many life stages do Acanthamoeba and Balamuthia have?
What about Naegleria?
What are these stages?
A & B - 2
- - cyst & trophozoite
N - 3
- - cyst, trophozoite, & flagellate
Which free-living amoeba is known for entering the body via contact lenses?
Acanthamoeba
What clinical signs does Acanthamoeba cause (hint: one skin lesion, one respiratory lesion, one nervous lesion)?
1. Granulomatous skin lesions
2. Lung lesions
3. GAE (granulomatous amebic encepitis) [migrates to CNS --> onset of symptoms --> coma & death [cysts and trophozoites found at autopsy]
Which species of amoebae causes BAE?
What is the pathogenesis of BAE?
Balamuthia mandrillaris
[Balamuthia Amebia Encephalitis]
Resp tract or skin --> neurological symptoms --> death
Which of the three pathogenic free-living amoeba that were discussed in class is NOT really an amoeba?
Naegleria fowleri
Which pathogenic free-living amoeba causes PAM? Which species does it affect? What is the pathogenesis?
Naegleria fowleri
[Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis]
Humans, dogs, sheep
Trophozoites enter nose --> olfactory nerves --> brain --> death