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109 Cards in this Set

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Back in the day (hundreds of years) diabetes was treated with?
blood leading, when they would reduce blood. Also, they would starve the people causing many deaths of starvation and increased blood sugars leading to increased weight loss.
Exchange lists
same basic principles even after being updated. 1 starch exchange = 15 gram of carb. (fruit) = 80 calories?
Dieticians will have individualized what?
diets for different people and suggest a diabetes education class for learning about testing and dieting etc.
Type 1 diabetes
pancreatic cells
People with diabetes go to the doctors
every 3 months to stay on track
Glucose fasting tests must
have 8 hours with out any food, 12 hours for trygliceride -testing
best time for a person with diabetes to exercise is
30-60 minutes after eating
Gyclocerated hemoglobin (or something similar)
have blood work done, accumulative of all blood sugar averages to adjust medication
Pregnant women with gestational diabetes
need to monitor their blood glucose
Macro Sonia
baby growing to large : big concern with gestational diabetes
Differences between gestational diabetes and reg
gestational is during pregnancy and goes away once baby is born. Test is done after 20 week
When dealing with patients who have diabetes
diet is the most difficult part of controlling this disease
Nurse is important because
they have to determine if the problem is based on lack of knowledge or lack of motivation
carbohydrate counting system
most people who have insulin pumps follow this plan.
Advantages: gives more food choices, helps patent feel better, improves blood
glucose levels
Disadvantages: must keep lots of records, more blood glucose checks, llots of
Calculations
Patient
different focus than well person
durable power of attorney
legal document which one competent adult can authorize decisions for another competent adult when they are not capable themselves
5 steps of nutritional care process
assesment, analysis, planning, implement, evaluate
BMI
body mass index
physician
primary care of patient
if mother doesnt gain enough weight
then baby is suspectable to intrauterine growth retardation
gain how much during preg.?
25-35 pounds
after 1st trimester...
ass 300 cal.day to diet
folate is important because
linked to neurotube dfects. 400 micrograms/day before pregnancy
fetal alcohol syndrome
affects cognitive and behavior functions, children dont grow properly, large base, small head
no smoking
low birth weight, SIDS, prematurity
cravings for nonfood substances
pipa
breast feed for how long
1 year
breast milk is superios to bottle because of?
immunological protection and made for baby digestive system..
Premature babies
low birth weight, increased risk for respitory problems, babies have not been able to benefit from mom as long so inadequate bone calcification
first cereal to babies
rice
babies first food items?
plain not mixtures to help detect allergies
bottles in bed?
none until 6 months, only wate from 6 months-1 year to prevent baby bottle tooth decay
tak bottle away
gradually
limit juice/milk intake...
because it can replace iron rich foods and can promote anemia in children (low hemoglobin), also affecting childs ability to learn
Pregnant women and children can become constipated with to much iron
take in prune juice and prunes
milk until age 2?
WHOLE MILK! Brain and nervous system need it
if 2 successive trips to the doctor show growth is going down
child maybe experiencing "failure to thrive"
once child is ready for school
teach child nutrition information to make better choices when not at home
child age 7-12
increased needs for protein, calcium, iron, zinc
rda’s are supposed to provide 1/3 needed amount at?
school
choking can be a problem for children under age 4
Don’t run around while eating, or with foods that have sticks, hot dogs, peanut butter, grapes, raw carrots / celery, popcorn, nuts
lead can be found in
soil and imported toy jewelry, and spices or home remedies
lead dust can be carried
home from work on clothes
teenage years
back to eating pattern of eating every 2 hours, teen will wake up to eat
- person who is 80 and older
encourage exercise and stregth training to improve muscle tone and stamina
- make gradual change so lifestyle to include
exercise in time management
- food stamp program now uses
electronic transfer cards
- meals on wheels
provides meals to adults who are 60 years or older
- food bank (emergency food pantry)
bag of donated foods
- Emergency is
something that is not routine
- soup kitchen
offers free meals to homeless people
Endometrium
mucous membrane of the uterus
Hemodilution
dilution of the blood
Small for gesational age (sga)
having a lower birth weight than expected for the length of gestation
Low birth weight
weighing less than 5.5 pounds at birth
Teratogen
an agent capable of producing a malformation or a defect in the unborn fetus
Pregnancy Induced Hypertension
a sudden rise in arterial blood pressure accompanied by rapid weight gain and marked edema during pregnancy; formerly known as taxemia of pregnancy
Gestational Diabetes mellitus
a form of diabetes occurring during pregnancy, most commonly after the 20th week
Hypermesis gravidarum
severe and unrelenting vomiting in the second trimester or vomiting that severely interferes with the mother’s life; a serious condition usually requiring intravenous replacement of nutrients and fluids
Oxytocin
a hormone that initiates uterine contractions of labor and has a role in the ejection of milk in lactation
Prolactin
a hormone responsible for milk synthesis
Colostrum
the fluid secreted from the breast during late pregnancy and the first few days postpartum
Galactosemia
an autosomal recessive disorder resulting in an inability to metabolize
Feeding relationship
the interactions or patterns of behaviors that surround food preparation and consumption within a family
Asthma
a chronic respatory disorder characterized by air obstruction from excessive mucus production and respiratory mucosa edema
Food Allergy
the overreaction to a food protein or other large molecule that produces an immune response
Anaphylaxis
a severe immune system response to an allergen
Food tolerance
an adverse reaction to a food that does not involve the immune system
Medical nutritional therapy
the use of specific nutrition services to treat an illness injury, or condition
Senescence
older adulthood
Nocturia
excessive urination at night
Menopause
the end of menstruation because of the cessation of ovarian and follicular function
Premenopause
the time before menopause during which hormonal, biologic, and clinical charges begin to occur
Nutritional risk
the potential to become malnourished because of primary or secondary factors
Medical nutrition therapy
definition may be dictated by state laws that license registered dieticians but typically this involves provision of nutrient, dietary, and nutrition education needs by RDs based on a comprehensive nutritional assessment
Iatrogenic
inadvertently caused by treatment or diagnostic procedures
Hypermetabolic
elevated metabolic rate
Diagnostic related groups
classifications used to determines Medicare payments for inpatient care, based on primary and secondary diagnosis, primary and secondary procedures, age, and length of hospitalization
Comprehensive nutritional assessment
a procedure conducted by dietetic professionals to determine appropriate medical nutrition therapy based on the identified needs of the patient
Recumbent measures
measurements taken while the subject is lying down or reclining
Body mass index
a measure that describes relative weight for height and is significantly correlated with total body fat content
Visceral protein
protein contained in the internal organ
Somatic protein stores
proteins in skeletal muscle
Nutritional support
although commonly used in reference to enteral and parenteral nutrition delivery systems
Diet manual
the reference that describes the rationale and indications for using a specific
diet colonoscopic examination
examination of the mucosal lining of the colon using a colonscope
Barium enema
rectal infusion of a radiopaque contrast medium to diagnose obstruction, tumors, or other abnormalities
Paralytic ileys
decrease in or absence of intestinal peristalsis
Dysphagia
the inability t swallow normally or freely or to transfer liquid or solid foods from the oral cavity to the stomach
Component pureeing
each food item is pureed separately, then presented in a manner that resembles the orginal product.
Edentulous
toothless
Enteral nutrition
administration of nourishment via the GI tract
Osmolality
concentration of electrically charged particles per kilogram of solution
Polymeric formulas
solutions that provide intact nutrients that require a normally functioning GI tract
Isptonic
having the same concentration of solute as another solution
Hypertonic
having a greater concentration of solute than another solution
Hypercaloric
more than one kcalorie per ml
Elemental formulas
solutions that provide ready-to-absorb basic nutrients
Percutaneous endoscopic placement PEG
placing feeding tube into stomach via that esophagus and then drawing it through the abdominal skin using a stab incision
Osmotic diarrhea
diarrhea associated water retention in large intestine resulting from an accumulation of nonabsorbable water-soluble solutes
Parenteral Nutrition
administration of nutrients by a route other than the GI tract
Intensive therapy
consists of administration of insulin more than 3x daily with dosage adjusted according to results of self-monitoring of blood glucose performed at least four times daily
Conventional therapy
- consists of one of two daily injections of insulin, daily self monitoring of urine or blood glucose, and education about diet or exercise
Polyphagia
excessive hunger or eating
Polyuria
excessive urination
Polydipsia
excessive thirst
Fasting blood glucose
- level of blood circulating inj blood serum after an 8 hour fast
Glycosylated hemoglobin
a substance formed when hemoglobin combines with some of the glucose in the bloodstream
Acanthosis nicricans
hyper pigmentation and thickening of skin into velvety irregular folds in the neck and flexural areas