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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
List the six classes of nutrients.
Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and water
What is meant by "essential" when speaking of the nutrients?
Essential chemicals that are:
needed in the diet that can't be made in body or not enough
lack leads to deficiency and return cures it
Which nutrients yield energy and how much energy do each yield?
Carbs - 4kcal/g
Lipids - 9kcal/g
Proteins - 4 kcal/g
Alcohol - 7 kcal/g (not nutrient)
How is the energy content of food measured?
Kilocalories, identical used to calorie value on food label,
List types of studies used in nutrition science research. How are they different?
epidemiological, animal, cell culture, human studies (case control and clinical)
What is a placebo? How is it used in research studies?
an imitiation treatment
What is the placebo effect?
a physical or emotional change that is not due to properties of an administered substance. The cahnge reflects participants expectantations
Which carbs are simple and which are complex?
Simple: Sugars
Complex: Starches and Fiber
Name the 3 monosaccharides and the 3 disacchariedes, along with their components?
Monosaccharides: glucose, galactose, fructose
Disaccharides: sucrose(glucose and fructose), lactose (galactose and glucose), maltose (glucose and glucose)
In which food are sugars found?
Describe the stucture of a monosaccharide.
6 carbon ring structure
What happens in a condensation reaction? In a hydrolysis reaction?
Condensation: Joins two compounds and releases water
Hydrolysis: Separates compounds using water (ex:digestive enzymes)
What are food sources of glucose?
Fruits, honey, veggies
What are food sources of fructose?
Fruits, honey, corn syrup
What are food sources of galactose?
Park of lactose in milk
Desribe the structure of oligosaccharides and polysaccharides.
Oligosacchardies: Short chain of glucose molecules (3 to 10)
Polysaccharides: Longs chains of glucose molecules (can be branched or straight)
Name the important oligosaccharides and polysaccharides in nutrition.
Oligosaccharides: raffinose (1 galactose, glucose, fructose) and stachynose (2 gal. 1 glu. and 1 fru).
Polysaccharides: Starch, Glycogen, Fiber
How are starch and glycogen similar and how do they differ?
Starch: Major plant storage, amylose and amylopectin
Glycogen: Major animal storage, more branched than amylopectin, in muscles and liver. Little to none in body.
How do the fibers differ from the other polysaccharides?
It's nondigestible. Although they resemble polysaccharides, they are not digested in GI tract.
What foods provide starches and fiber?
Starches: Found in grains, vegetables, and legumes
Fiber: All types of plant food: fruits, vegetables, legumes, and whole grains
Are raffinose and stachyrose more like starch or fiber and explain?
They cannot be broken down, just like fiber. On the other hand, starch can be broken down.
List and describe the various types of fiber. Be able to name foods rich in each type.
What are the possible used of glucose in the body?
Used for energy
Sparing body protein
Preventing ketosis
Storing Glucose as Glycogen
How does carbohydrate affect the body's use of protein and fat? What is ketosis?
Fat breakdown is not completed, ketosis develops. IT's an excess of ketone bodies in the body which leads to water loss through urine.
How does the body maintain a normal blood glucose concentration and what happens at the extremes?
High Blood Sugar: Diabetes-body does not produce enough or does not properly use insulin
LBS: Hypoglycemia-excess insulin, can lead to death
What hormones are involed in normal BG concentration and what are their actions.
Insulin: From pancreas and stimulates cells to take up glucose
Glcagon: Stimulates liver to break glycogen to glucose to raise bood glucose.
Name 2 major types of diabeties. What are the differnces.
Type 1: No insulin produced, young adults, weight loss, develop suddenly
Type 2: Resistance to insulin, noninsulin dependent, weight gain, develop gradually
What are risk factors for type 2 diabeties.
Environmental triggers
Viruses or infectious agents
Early diet (a Western lifestyle)

HIgh sugar and high carbs does not cause it
Describe diet and lifestyle factors that may reduce diabeties and how its used to treat the disease.
Controlled diet (and regular exercise)
Wiehgt control
Low fat
Moderate protein
Consistent intake of carbs
Describe dietary strategies for increasing intake of complex carbohydrates and fiber while reducing intake of added sugars.
Eat healthy, choose high fiber (but do it gradually), drink plenty of fluids, get fiber from food

Use less nutritive sugars, limi soft drinks, and use sugar subs
RDA for adults
AI for fiber (adult)
25 to 38 g/day (women-men)
AMDR for carbs (%of energy intake) and added sugars (% of energy intake)
AMDR for carbs:225 to 325 or (45 to 65%)

AMDR for sugars: no more than 25%
DV for total carbs
DV for fiber
DV Carb: 300 gram
DV Fiber: 25g