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78 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
About what percent of elderly have nutrition related problems?
What is aging a combination of?
Lifestyle and natural processes
What are characteristics of aging?
Increased fat, Decreased lean muscle
Are alternate medicines regulated by the FDA?
What are common problems in elderly?
Depression and Alcoholism
In general, how long is a normal prenancy?
38-42 weeks
Characteristics of each trimester?
1st: zygote; 2nd: embryo; 3rd: fetus for remainder of pregnancy, gains length and weight
Total weight gain of pregnant women: Normal weight? Under weight? Over weight?
25-35 lbs.; 28-40 lbs.; 15-25 lbs.
How should exercise during pregnancy be?
Vitamin and Mineral needs during pregnancy?
Folate, Iron, Iodide, Zinc
True or False: Most women have the physical ability to breastfeed.
About how much is an infant going to grow in the first year?
Weight triples, length increases approximately 50%
When are iron stores depleted?
6 months
Why feed solid food at 6 months?
To prevent food allergies
Common food allergies?
Egg whites, chocolate, peanuts, cow's milk
Why do preschoolers eat less, picky?
May be an expression of independence, or simply due to decreased growth rate
Common nutritional problems in preschoolers?
Iron deficiency anemia, constipation, cavities, obesity
What percent of obese kids become obese adults?
Anorexia Nervosa
Anorexia: loss/denial of appetite
Nervosa: attitude of disgust with body or body image
Common characteristics of Anorexia
Adolescent white female, middle or upper class, "responsible, meticulous, obedient", family conflicts, expectations, use starvation to express control
Physical problems with Anorexia
Decrease body temperature, metabolism, heart rate, immunity, organ function; lose hair; rough, dry, cold skin; nutrient deficiencies
Bulimia Nervosa
Bulimia:great hunger
Nervosa: attitude of disgust with body or body image
Common characteristics of Bulimia
Teenage or college female, ~normal weight maybe a bit above, frequent eight loss diets then regain weight, impulsive behaviors, usually from disengaged families, much different than anorexics
Physical problems with Bulimia
Tooth decay, stomach ulcers, bleeding, acid reflux, nutrient deficiencies: potassium most common and problematic
Treatment for anorexia and bulimia
Involves a lot of people
Female Athlete triad
Most common in appearance based sports (gymnastics, swimming)
How many Americans have some type of eating disorder?
About 5 million
Aspects of eating disorders
Emotional, psychological/mental, nutritional, social, genetic?
Name of high energy molecule
Do carbs automatically increase body fat?
What sport would you use carb loading for?
Distance running
Aerobic vs. Anaerobic
Aerobic uses oxygen, most sports use both
Do you get more ATP from fat or carbs when in an aerobic environment?
Why is water needed in all environments, whether hot or cold?
Cold to prevent hypothermia
In general, do you have to take supplements as an athlete to be good?
What supplement will help us use fat? lactic acid?
Caffeine; sodium bicarbonate
Is rapid weight loss mostly from fat?
No. Water, Muscle, Glycogen
Body mass index
How much of your body weight should be water?
Is the RDA of iron the same for men and women?
No- 8 mg/day for adult male, 18 mg/day for adult female
Sources of iron?
Meat/seafood, whole grains, enriched bread, peas, beans
Source of potassium?
Function of magnesium?
Enzyme reactions, potassium and calcium metabolism, proper nerve and cardiac functions, insulin release from the pancreas
Function of fluoride?
Helps prevent dental caries, cavities
Iodide deficiency
Thyroid gland enlarges (goiter), cretinism, stunting of fetal growth and mental development if mom has decreased intake
7 calories per gram, is a toxin
Can protein be your main source of calories?
What are the building blocks of protein?
Amino acids
What makes amino acids essential?
They must come from the diet
What is the main protein enzyme in the stomach?
Protein enzyme in the small intestine?
Does nutrition play a role in cancer?
Water soluble vitamins
Generally lost from the body except for vitamins B6 and B12
Fat soluble vitamins
Not readily excreted (except K) A, D, E, K
Sources of Vitamin E
Plant oil, seeds, nuts, wheat germ, cereal (especially if fortified or bran)
Functions of Vitamin C
Antioxidant, immune functions, iron absorption, synthesis of collagen
Functions of Vitamin D
Regulation of blood calcium
RDA of Vitamin C
90 mg/day for males, 75 mg/day for females, +35 mg/day for smokers
Deficiency of Vitamin C
Known as scurvy
3 monosaccharides?
Glucose, fructose, galactose
The body does not produce or properly use insulin, characterized by elevated blood glucose
What are good sources of fiber?
Whole grains, fruits, vegetables
Essential fatty acids?
Omega 3 (linolenic), Omega 6 (linoleic)
Saturated vs. Unsaturated fatty acids
Saturated has no double bonds, solid
Only found in animal sources
Why is LDL bad?
Transports "bad" cholesterol, most abundant
What makes HDL good?
Transports "good" cholesterol from the body's cells to the liver for excretion
Difference between low fat and fat free?
Fat free= < .5g fat per serving; Low fat= < 3g fat per serving
What is the correct path of food?
How do we store energy?
Fat, glycogen
What's the most important nutrient?
What is % daily value based off of?
2000 calorie diet
Energy calculation
__ carbs x 4 kcal/g =__kcal
__fat x 9 kcal/g=__kcal
__protein x 4 kcal/g=__kcal
What is the site of enzyme production?
What is the main organ of the excretory system?
Lymphatic system carries around what macronutrients?
Fats, lipids
Digestion and Absorption take place where?
Small Intestine