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62 Cards in this Set

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What is research?
it is a systematic inquiry that uses disciplined methods to answer questions or solve problems.
What is the goal of research?
to develop, refine, and expand a body of knowledge.
What is nursing research?
it is a systematic inquiry design to develop trustworthy evidence about issues of importance to the nursing profession, including nursing practice, education, administration, and informatics.
What is the goal of clinical nursing research?
to guide nursing practice and to improve the health and quality of life of nurses' clients
what are some activities for nurses that involve research?
Journal club, address clinical problems and make decisions based on rigorous research, collaborate in the development of an idea for clinical research project, review the proposed research plan and offer help in regard to feasibility, recruit potential study participants, assist in data collection, give clients information and advice about participation in studies, discuss the implications and relevance of research findings with clients.
Name some sources of evidence for nursing practice:
tradition and authority, clinical experience, trial and error/intuition, logical reasoning, assembled information, disciplined research.
What do we remember for inductive reasoning?
general from specific. It is the process of developing generalizations from specific observations. (For example, a nurse seeing one child become anxious and then assuming that all children become anxious under the same circumstances.).
What do we remember for deductive reasoning?
specific from general. It is the process of developing specific predictions from general principles. (For example: knowing that a set of circumstances may make children anxious, and then predicting that to help one specific child.).
Give three examples of assembled information:
benchmarking, cost data, quality improvement and risk data.
What is benchmarking?
looking at what other people are doing. Locally, nationally, and internationally. Example: looking at rates of cesarean delivery and using it to help guide clinical practice.
In the assembled information, what is cost data?
information on the cost of procedures, policies, or practices.
In assembled information, what is quality improvement and risk data?
reports on errors, skin breakdown, etc..
What are some future goals for nursing research?
increased funding for NINR, heightened focus on evidence-based practice, stronger evidence base through more rigorous methods, greater emphasis on systematic integrative reviews, expanded local research in healthcare settings, strengthening of multidisciplinary collaboration, expanded dissemination of research findings, increased visibility of nursing research, increased focus on cultural issues and health disparities.
How does translational research come into play with heightened focus on evidence-based practice?
translational research is research on how findings from studies can best be translated into nursing practice. This is a goal for evidence-based practice.
What is replication?
confirmation of findings in different studies, with different clients, in different settings.
What are systematic reviews?
they are a cornerstone of EBP. It is the process of gathering a pile of information on topic, weighing pieces of evidence, and integrating information to draw the best conclusions about the state of the evidence.
What are some ways of disseminating nursing research findings?
Internet, online databases, e-mail, mailing lists
what is ecological validity?
it is the extent to which study designs and findings have relevance and meaning in a variety of real-world context. There is a growing awareness that research must be sensitive to the health policy, behaviors, epidemiology, and values of culturally and linguistically diverse populations.
What is it research utilization?
to use findings from a disciplined study or set of studies in a practical application that is unrelated to the original research. Emphasis is on translating an empirically derived knowledge into real-world applications.
Which is broader, EBP or research utilization?
EBP. The two processes overlap, however, they are distinct.
What other three distinct types of research utilization?
indirect research utilization (changes in nurses thinking), direct research utilization (the direct use of findings and giving patient care) and who, persuasive utilization (involving the use of findings to persuade others, typically those in decision-making positions, to make changes in policies or practices relevant to nursing care.
What is the Cochrane collaboration?
it was founded in England. Cochran published an influential book in the early 1970s that drew attention to the dearth of solid evidence about the effects of health care. He called for efforts to make research summaries of clinical trials available to physicians and other healthcare providers. There is a Cochrane center in the Oxford, and an international collaboration called the Cochrane collaboration with centers now established in more than a dozen locations throughout the world. The aim is to help providers make good decisions about health care by preparing, maintaining, and disseminating systematic reviews of the effects of healthcare interventions.
What is the highest point on the evidence hierarchy?
level 1: systematic review of randomized controlled trials, or non-randomized trials.
What is the lowest point of the evidence hierarchy?
level 7, the bottom. Opinions of authorities, expert committees.
Where would a single descriptive/qualitative/physiologic study fall of the evidence hierarchy triangle?
level 6.
Where would a single correlational/observational study fall of the evidence hierarchy?
level four, in the middle.
Where would one in single RCT fall of the evidence hierarchy?
level 2, close to the top.
What is the Iowa model?
it is a flow chart for utilization of research in a clinical setting.
What's does semiotics look at?
manner by which people make sense of social interactions.
What is emic perspective?
the way members of a culture InVision their world.
What is etic perspective?
the outsiders interpretation of the experience of a culture
what is tacit knowledge?
information about that culture that is so deeply embedded in cultural experiences that members do not talk about it or may not even be consciously aware of it.
What are some characteristics of research designs for quantitative research?
highly structured, controlled. This also includes experimental and non-experimental designs.
What is causality?
it is when a relationship between two variables such as the presence or absence of one variable (the cause) determines the presence or absence (or value) of the other (the effect).
What is a counterfactual?
what would have happened to the same people exposed to a causal factor if they simultaneously were not exposed to the causal factor. An effect is what actually did happen with the exposure.
What is stratification?
when researchers take steps to ensure that subgroups of study participants are allocated equally to treatment conditions
what is a posttest only designed?
one data collection point after the intervention. Not appropriate for measuring change.
What is a pretest posttest design?
data collection both before and after the intervention. Appropriate for measuring change.
What is factorial design?
experimental manipulation of more than one independent variable.
What is a randomized block design?
random assignments to groups within different levels of a blocking variable that is not under experimental control (e.g. gender).
What is crossover design?
subjects are exposed to all treatments but are randomly assigned to different orderings of treatments. Subjects serve as their own controls
what is a quasi-experiment?
like true experiments, they involve intervention. However, they lack minimization, the signature of a true experiment. Some even lack a control group. Basically, there is an intervention in the absence of randomization.
What is nonexperimental research?
also known as observational. Researchers do not intervene or manipulate an independent variable.
What is correlational research?
when researchers studied the effect of potential cause that they cannot manipulate. For example, height and weight correlate, because taller people weigh more.
What is a case control study?
a retrospective study. An example: looking at people who had lung cancer (cases) and another group who did not (controls).
What is another name for a prospect of design?
Cohort design
what does it mean and qualitative researchers act as "bricoleurs?"
they tend to be creative and intuitive, putting together an array of data drawn from many sources to arrive at holistic understanding of the phenomenon.
Explain the concept of researcher as an instrument:
frequently used by at photographers. Describes a significant role researchers play in analyzing and interpreting a culture.
What is an auto ethnography?
an ethnography of a group or culture to which the researcher belongs.
What is descriptive phenomenology?
it describes lived experiences
what's does grounded theory explain?
its tries to account for peoples actions by focusing on the main concern that the individual's behavior is designed to resolve.
What is a core variable?
the manner in which an individual resolve their main concern.
What is constant comparison?
categories elicited from the data are constantly compared with data obtained earlier.
What is substantive theory?
grounded in data on the specific substantive area.
What is formal grounded theory?
often using data from substantive theory studies, which is at a higher level of abstraction.
What is a case study?
an intensive investigation of a single entity or small number of entities, such as individuals, groups organizations, families
what is narrative analysis?
focuses on story in studies in which the purpose is to determine how individuals make sense of the events of their lives.
What is critical theory?
critique of existing social structures, critical researchers strive to conduct inquiries that involve collaboration with participants and foster enlightened self-knowledge in transformation.
What is participatory action research?
produces knowledge to close collaboration with groups or communities that are vulnerable to a dominant culture.
What is dependability?
the stability of data over time in over conditions.
What is confirm ability?
the objectivity or neutrality of the data.
What is triangulation?
the process of using multiple referents in collecting data.