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269 Cards in this Set

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Which of the following theorists postulated that a person's successful vocational development was dependent on completing the tasks of one stage before moving on to the next?

a. Maslow
b. Piaget
c. Erikson
d. Havinghurst
d. Havinghurst
Which of the following is associated with punishment?

a. token economies
b. extinction therapy
c. assertiveness training
d. aversion therapy
d. aversion therapy
Which of the following most clearly differentiates a situational crisis from a developmental crisis?

a. the expected
b. the sense of unexpectedness
c. the cognitive key
d. a precipitating event
b. the sense of unexpectedness
In an existential realm, therapy has as its central issue
a. resistance
b. experiencing feelings
c. transference
d. freedom and responsibility
d. freedom and responsibility
Johari's window (actually named after its originator Joe Luft and Harry Ingham) was developed to described the internal tension undergone by clients as they experienced and developed an awareness of interpersonal and/or intergroup relationships. In which quadrant would the most comfortable self-revelation occur?
a. blind to self and known to others
b. blind to self and unknown to others
c. known to self and known to others
d. known to self and not known to others
c. known to self and known to others
An administrator of a community mental health clinic is having difficulty managing the caseworker staff. A number of miscommunications have occurred which have resulted in policy and procedural violations. The administrator has attempted to address these problems but recognizes his limitations. He hires a consultant to help him develop better management skills. According to Schein, this situation would call for a _________________ model of consultation.

a. contractual
b. service agreement
c. purchase of service
d. purchase of expertise
d. purchase of expertise
The stages of becoming a multiculturally sensitive therapist involve all of the following EXCEPT:

a. unawareness of cultural issues
b. heightened awareness of culture
c. movement away from cultural sensitivity
d. burden of considering culture
c. movement away from cultural sensitivity
You have organized an REBT group that will meet weekly. This is your first experience with an REBT group and you review the role of the leader, the role of homework, etc. You also review the ethical and legal standards laid out in the profession. Defending oneself against lawsuits involves many actions. Of the following, which is probably the best defense against lawsuits of all kinds?

a. following standards of practice
b. putting the counselee's needs ahead of the counselor's
c. allowing the counselee to approve all action
d. air-tight contracts
a. following standards of practice
Mary hasn't been able to get cocaine for several weeks because she's out of money and so she hasn't "used" in the past month. She went through withdrawal symptoms when she was unable to take her usual dose. She craves the drug all the time and is constantly searching for ways to get some. Her efforts to obtain cocaine have seriously interfered with her ability to work and take care of her children. Which of the following DSM-IV diagnoses would best fit her symptoms?

a. substance use
b. substance dependence
c. substance abuse
d. substance addiction
b. substance dependence
Communication theorists describe the clarity of communication transmission and reception as what?

a. analogic
b. pragmatics
c. syntax
d. semantics
d. semantics
Martha has found career counseling to be personally fulfilling yet she still finds, even after eight years in the profession, that she has trouble separating herself from emotional involvement with her clients. Martha is following Super's theory of career development and is, therefore, not surprised to learn that one of her clients whom she has believed to be in the "Establishment" stage has

a. been promoted to a management position
b. sought preretirement counseling
c. changed jobs
d. quit work (altogether)
a. been promoted to a management position
According to Caplan, the most common reason for a request for consultation is
a. institutional interference
b. implementation processing
c. identification synthesis
d. loss of objectivity
d. loss of objectivity
Tom participated in a standardized reading test. He scored in the middle of the third stanine in a normal distribution. All of the following are incorrect EXCEPT:
a. his score was the median for the group who participated in the test
b. His t-score is 40
c. His score fell at +2 Standard Deviation
d. His score feel at a z-score of -3
b. His t-score is 40
A company has been complaining about costs and wants to increase the number of burgers its employees can wrap in an hour. You've already tested employees to death and don't really want to add another test because it also takes a bite out of your budget as well. The boss insists you add another assessment instrument to up the number of burgers wrapped per hour, so you start the test-review process first looking at:
a. Relational correlation studies
b. Special population needs
c. Face validity
d. Standard Z-scores
C. Face Validity
After giving all your patients a mental status exam that you designed, you assign them a DSM-4 diagnosis based on its outcome. Later, when you have seen the patients for a number of sessions and run them through a series of assessments, you find that your initial diagnosis based on your mental status exam and your final diagnosis have a high positive correlation. This might indicate that the mental status exam that you designed has:

Low reliability
High validity and high reliability
Low validity and low reliability
High validity
high validity and high reliability
Who first stressed occupational choice as part of the developmental process?

Gelatt
Ginzberg
Bandura
Williamson
Ginzberg
Of these different types of work ethics, which would be concerned with personal growth, love of work, and a lifestyle that is balanced with leisure?

Self-development work ethic
Protestant work ethic
Other-directed work ethic
Professional work ethic
self-development work ethic
If you wanted to evaluate whether a person seems satisfied with his or her particular area of work, then one thing you might want to look at would be:

How much training is needed
How union-friendly it is
How long he or she has been at it
All of these are correct
How long he or she has been at it
A researcher with a subject in an experiment who acquires a behavioral change through partial reinforcement, might find that this behavioral change was:

As susceptible to extinction as other behaviors
More resistant to extinction
Less resistant to extinction
Immutable
More resistant to extinction
The idea that laws can be altered based on the changing needs of society is, according to Kohlberg, a trait of this stage of moral development:

Relativistic
Post-conventional
Situational
Multi-conventional
Post-conventional
Noticing that many members had been totally silent throughout the first half of their initial group session, the group therapist shared with the group his feelings of concern that they might be expecting him to direct them more than would be helpful to the group. What approach did the group therapist use to inspire trust and self-disclosure among the group members?

Confrontation
Modeling
Guilt
Defensiveness
Modeling
The "future projection" technique is designed to help group members express:

Repressed feelings
Uncertainties of the future
Concerns of the past
Regards of the present
Uncertainties of the future
A middle-class client would probably indicate closed body language by:

Avoidance of direct eye contact
Maintaining an upright position
Smiling and nodding his head
Keeping his palms upright
Smiling and nodding his head
The SOAP clinical note format is one reporting methodology that therapists use to keep track of their therapy sessions and the progress of their patients. The method SOAP stands for:

Subjective information, objective information, assessments, conclusions and the treatment plan
Systematic assessment, objective data, assessment and plan
Summary information, outcome, assessments, conclusions and the treatment plan
Subjective data, objective data, appraisal, prognosis
Subjective information, objective information, assessments, conclusions and the treatment plan
Telling a client to confront his mother about going through his wallet without his permission is called:

Minimal encourages
Assertiveness
Calling a game
A directive
A directive
Your client is really depressed and crying her eyes out because her boyfriend has dumped her for the captain of the cheerleading squad. You, as a client-centered therapist, would probably:

Begin a process of discovering why this commonplace event has triggered such extreme behavior
Just be there with the client
Steer her toward a more rational and effective view of the situation
Start a role-play where she discusses her feelings with her boyfriend
Just be there with the client
This is an accurate description of family sculpting:

The use of media to sculpture family relationships
Evaluation of Genogram in light of family relationships
Involvement of psychodrama-like postures
Verbal REBT structuring
Involvement of psychodrama-like postures
Your client has been released from the hospital after being in an automobile accident that killed his parents. The difficulty he is experiencing in dealing with this situation is due to:

Repression
Figure/ground distortion
Suppression
Unfinished business
Unfinished business
A colleague of yours is realizing that her messy divorce is interfering with her performance as a therapist. She also has come to the conclusion that she may have to discharge her clients. She should:

Explain to her clients what has been going on with her, and let each client decide if he or she wants to continue with her or accept a referral
Continue seeing her clients while she gets outside therapy as time and circumstances permit
Terminate her clients, but provide plenty of time and referrals before doing so
Rethink her position in the knowledge that abandoning her clients would be unethical
Terminate her clients, but provide plenty of time and referrals before doing so
A defining difference between privilege and confidentiality is that:

Privilege is a legal term
Privilege is a standard applicable to all mental health workers
Privilege is an ethical and legal standard
Privilege is an ethical standard
Privilege is a legal term
A client tells you that his coworkers at the car wash regularly rifle through customers glove compartments for bank statements and credit-card slips, then use the information to get cash and charge merchandise. What is the best thing for you to do?

Advise the client of what his possible actions might be
Tell the owner of the business what is happening
Recognize this as a ruse, and encourage the client to come clean and turn himself in
Tell the police about the scam
Advise the client of what his possible actions might be
During the first session a client lets you know that she really respects and likes you and hopes the two of you can become really good friends. What should you do?

Refer her to another therapist
Discuss with the client the concept of transference
Arrange to have another therapist present during your meetings with her
Talk openly about your feelings toward her, and assure her that you and she can move forward with a relationship once she is ready to terminate therapy
Discuss with the client the concept of transference
The statistical assumptions of parametric tests for a research study have been compromised. The research examined the effects of one independent variable on one dependent variable using an experimental group and a control group with subjects randomly assigned to these two groups. To analyze the results, which statistical test should be used?

Spearman rank-order
Mann-Whitney U
Cluster sampling
Likert scale
Mann-Whitney U
Assume a test is given to two different groups of individuals, on different days and using different test administrators. What type of reliability would you be able to assess?

All the answers are incorrect
External consistency
Normative form
Internal consistency
Internal consistency
Groups would not be considered equivalent in a between-groups design if:

Groups are formed by matching overall means
Every other research participant was placed in each group
Research groups are created by matching using a score-by-score basis
Research participants are randomly assigned to groups
Every other research participant was placed in each group
A young Asian woman, Rose, is seeking help and has come to you for therapy. Her parents are first-generation immigrants and still practice much of their traditional culture and religion. Her family has conveyed disapproval that Rose is not maintaining the beliefs and customs of her parents. What should the therapist do?

Have Rose explore her feelings regarding her family
Familiarize Rose with the concepts of enmeshment and co-dependence
Help and guide Rose in this necessary separation from her family
Advise Rose to get the rest of her family in to you for family therapy
answer
The highest level of marital satisfaction is found among:

Couples with small families
Couples with large families
Couples with adopted children
Childless couples
answer
If you find out that on a test to pass a national board examination you have to make a 95 to pass, the test is using:

Factor analysis
Cut scores
Point discrimination
Paste norms
Cut scores
Studies on the effects of divorce on children show that:

Males are affected more negatively and for a longer time than females
Girls internalize adverse effects while seemingly less affected than boys
Boys and girls suffer the same level of adverse effects at first, with boys taking longer to recover from them
Boys and girls suffer the same level of adverse effects at first, with girls taking longer to recover from them
Males are affected more negatively and for a longer time than females
The standard error of measurement for a test instrument that has a reliability coefficient of 1.0 would be:

Equal to the standard deviation
0
1
Less than 1 but greater than 0
0
You will find that current career-development theories:

Do not illuminate the vocational behaviors of special groups
Give short shrift to adult career development
Mainly relate to men's career development
All of these are true
All of these are true
Before you start applying statistical measures, you've got to know and use:

The raw score
Multiple measurements
Positive correlation
The bell curve
The raw score
Which of the following would give you information on the strength and direction that career paths seem to be heading for the entire United States?

USDA
JPEG
OOH
DOT
OOH
In a family therapy session, the father informs you that he believes in the use of physical punishment whenever his son demonstrates inappropriate behavior at home. As the family social worker, you should make him aware that this child-rearing technique tends to result in:

An array of cognitive dysfunctions
Generalized aggression
Aggression aversion
Inappropriate passivity
Generalized aggression

Aggressive children often become aggressive adults, who often produce more aggressive children, in a cycle that endures generation after generation. Physical punishments always figure prominently in the roots of adolescent and adult aggressiveness, especially in those manifestations that take antisocial form, such as delinquency and criminality.
Physical punishment of children typically is seen as one of the main influences shaping later aggressiveness and delinquency of males.
According to Maslow, our basic needs include:

Physiological needs, safety, and security
Physiological needs, safety, and belonging
Physiological needs, belonging, and esteem
Physiological needs, security, and belonging
Physiological needs, safety, and security
Which of the following is the ideal structuring for a brief group therapy situation:

The group that is heterogeneous
The group that is homogeneous
The sexual orientation of the group is not important
The group that is both homogeneous and heterogeneous
The group that is homogeneous
Adequate screening and preparation of individuals to function in a group should include:

Pushing for early disclosure of highly personal material
Discussion of members' values early in the session
Harsh confrontation
Therapeutic confrontation
Discussion of members' values early in the session
"She's got bats in her belfry, if you can hear what I'm saying."


Kinesthetic
Auditory
Olfactory
Visual
Auditory
In TA, "rackets" refer to:

New decisions we make about early childhood experiences to help redefine our selves
The unpleasant feelings that we experience after a game
An ongoing series of transactions that ends with a bad feeling for at least one player
Forms of recognition that help form a positive self-concept
he unpleasant feelings that we experience after a game
The first step for an REBT therapist to complete when working with a client toward goals of self-interest, social interest, self-direction, tolerance, flexibility, and similar aims is:

Helping the client decide what family members will be involved in treatment
Showing the client where her old solutions have failed
Extracting a commitment from the client to complete therapy
Showing the client that they have incorporated many irrational shoulds, oughts, and musts
Showing the client that they have incorporated many irrational shoulds, oughts, and musts
According to REBT theory, the ultimate aim is the _____ of feelings of depression and self-condemnation.

Minimizing
Maximizing
Extinction
Negation
Minimizing
An existentialist who was in the Nazi war camps is:

Medard Boss
Viktor Frankl
Rollo May
Jean Paul Sartre
Viktor Frankl
You want to understand the rationale for your client's behaviors, so your statement will begin with:

Why
What
How
Could
Why
In the design and development of a psychological experiment on grief, you have concluded that the deception of the participants regarding the nature of the experiment is essential. The experiment would be considered ethical, as long as you:

Tell subjects what the deception was after the experiment
Indicate to the subjects before the experiment any possible risk or discomfort they might experience
Clear the procedure with the director of the department
Use willing, paid subjects
Indicate to the subjects before the experiment any possible risk or discomfort they might experience
During a supervision discussion, an intern reveals to his supervisor that he is feeling a lot of resentment and irritation toward a client. Ethically, his supervisor should:

Observe a session between the intern and the client to determine if these feelings are impacting the therapy
Advise the intern to talk about his feelings with the client, especially if they are interfering with the therapy
Explore with the intern about what might be underlying these feelings toward the client
Suggest that intern refer the client to another counselor
Explore with the intern about what might be underlying these feelings toward the client


The supervisor should help the intern investigate his feelings toward the client. Then, the supervisor can decide what needs to be done to resolve these emotions and protect the client's welfare, such as assisting the issue in working through counter transference issues. If the supervisor determines that the intern's feelings are beginning to interfere with his effectiveness and/or objectivity and receiving supervision is not resolving the intern's feelings, it may then be appropriate to refer the client to another counselor
To help prevent confidentiality problems, therapists can:

Ensure the safe storage of confidential records for 6 months
Discuss the limits of confidentiality
Realize that federal and state laws remain fairly consistent on these matters
Disregard mandatory reporting laws
Discuss the limits of confidentiality

Therapists need to carefully balance the disclosure of information with their ethical obligations to protect their clients' confidentiality and must be clear on whether they should and why they are releasing information. Ethic codes instruct therapists to only disclose the minimum information necessary to provide needed services, obtain appropriate consultations, protect the client, therapist or others from harm, or obtain payment for services from a client.
What basic ethical principle is at the root of codes regarding discrimination, sexual harassment, and obligation to do pro bono work?

The principle of nonmaleficence
The principle of beneficence
The principle of fidelity
The principle of justice
The principle of justice

Justice is one of the four principles that ethical codes of based on. A therapist who abides by ethical principles of justice is acting in ways that promote fairness and equal access to health care
You might conclude that diffusion of treatment is a threat to internal validity because:

Regression will always migrate towards the mean
Experimental and control are not equivalent
It is difficult to determine dependent/independent variables
Treatment cannot be evaluated
Treatment cannot be evaluated
A professor from the Fiji Islands has sent you some sample data on students' attitudes about sexually transmitted diseases. You can make no assumptions about whether the population data would be normally distributed or not. Therefore, you need to use:

Item analysis
Nothing can be done until you receive this information
Parametric statistics
Non-parametric statistics
Non-parametric statistics
Which research design would you suggest for research on the effects of growing older on IQ scores?

Mixed group
Multiple baseline
ABAB
Cross-sequential
Cross-sequential
A client comes to you from a culture different from yours. Throughout your therapy sessions you should remember to :

Recognize the differences
Downplay the differences
Allow the client to breach the subject of differences
Use the differences as a therapy tool
Recognize the differences
According to Moynihan, Frazier, and others, many of the problems of African-American families are ascribable to the:

Discrimination
Difficult transition from rural to urban life
Lack of main streaming
Cultural carry-over
Difficult transition from rural to urban life
The most likely outcome is most easily identified in which of these types of test score interpretations:

Criterion-referenced
Norm-referenced
Standardized
Content-referenced
Criterion-referenced
If you were to acquire intercorrelations from several tests to discover a few underlying elements that are responsible for scores on all the tests, what technique would you employ?

Multiple analysis
Multiple regression
Factor analysis
Factor regression
Factor analysis
One commonality between aptitude and achievement tests is that both:

Measure learned characteristics and previous achievements
Benchmark only innate characteristics
Gauge innate qualities and preexistent learning
Measure innate and future attributes
Gauge innate qualities and preexistent learning
A major difference between trait/ factor theory and Ginzberg's theory of career development is that Ginzberg believes that adolescent vocational choices are probably:

Untenable
Determinant
Reversible
Irrelevant
Reversible
What is the mean of a stanine scale?

Two
Three
Five
Seven
Five
Ryan's systems model program planning includes all of the following except:

Gauging the value of the system
Prescribing milestones
Developing a plan of management
Setting out a conceptual outline
Prescribing milestones
Which of these is true of heavy smokers:

They increase their smoking when stressed out
They will smoke fewer filtered and/or low tar cigarettes than unfiltered and/or regular cigarettes
They have an increased risk of cancer, but demonstrate a lower rate of heart disease, than nonsmokers
They are more adept at specific tasks when not allowed to smoke
They increase their smoking when stressed out
Confidentiality limits are:

Terms used in appraisal
Better in group counseling than individual counseling
Worse in group counseling than individual counseling
At the same level in group and individual counseling
Worse in group counseling than individual counseling
You tell an individual in a group situation that there seems to be an incongruence between what he is saying and how he is acting. This would be an example of what type of technique?

Clarification
Summarization
Reflection
Confrontation
Confrontation
Which of the following is a kissing cousin to cognitive behavioral therapeutic approaches:

REBT
Individual psychology
TA
Gestalt
REBT
Which of the following should NOT be used when determining goals with a patient:

You, as the professional, determine for the patient what areas should be dealt with first
Talk with your patient and explore the possible consequences of his actions
Discuss goals with your patient while realizing that the patient knows what's most important for him to deal with first
Let the patient know that her expectations are not reality based, and need some modification
You, as the professional, determine for the patient what areas should be dealt with first
Play therapy is an excellent modality to use with children because of the fact that:

More research has been done in this area than in any other interventions for children
Play is the normal way children express themselves
Parents might feel threatened by other interventions
All children like to play
Play is the normal way children express themselves
If a client focuses on details taken out of context and ignores more salient matters of the situation, then which of the following common distortions is being demonstrated:

Selective abstraction
Polarized thinking
Overgeneralization
Arbitrary inference
Selective abstraction
Your role as the identified patient of your family maintains:

Differentiation
Individuation
Disengagement
Homeostasis
Homeostasis
"Well, Flora, what would you like to discuss during session this week?"

Closed
Mixed
Open
Ambiguous
Open
Professional organizations ground their Codes of Ethics in:

Professional foundations
State law
National law
Certification
Professional foundations

In determining whether a relevant professional, legal or social standard exists, the clinician is obligated to engage in the common professional activity of literature review and/or consultation with respected colleagues or both.
When a client indicates that he/she is going to bomb a Federal Building, your action should be directed in part by the duty to:

Protect against a public peril
Maintain confidentiality
Avoid a lawsuit
Stay within ethical considerations
Protect against a public peril

The now famous Tarasoff v. Board of Regents of University of California case law mandates that when a practitioner becomes aware of a threat to an identifiable individual or individuals that the practitioner incurs a duty to take some action to protect the intended victim from harm from his/her client. This legal obligation is often adequately discharged by a phone call to the proper authorities. It also supersedes the principle of confidentiality.
If a counselor does not cooperate with ongoing ethical investigations, the counselor automatically:

Work under a supervisor until the investigation is over
Is in violation of the ethic code
Must terminate therapy with all clients and refer them to other professionals
Will lose their professional license
Is in violation of the ethic code

Counselors must cooperate in ethics investigations and proceedings, governed by the professional association to which they belong. In doing so, counselors should pay special attention to any confidentiality issues that may arise from such investigation. Failure to cooperate is itself an ethics violation. However, making a request for deferment of adjudication of an ethics complaint pending the outcome of litigation does not alone constitute noncooperation
A client comes to your practice bringing a Wiccan background with which you are unfamiliar. The first thing you should do is to:

Indicate to the client that you are unfamiliar with her cultural background
Refer the client to someone with a similar background
Say nothing, but continue counseling
Immediately refer the client
Indicate to the client that you are unfamiliar with her cultural background

The typical practitioner, being well motivated, does not intentionally practice outside his/her area of competence. On the other hand, the competent practitioner should make it his /her business to objectively assess where his/her deficits lie. Since all clinical problems exist in particular contexts, the practitioner must be able to delineate the general clinical principles that transcend particular contexts and the "micro-competencies" needed to work effectively with particular client populations. In addition, competence must be evaluated against a constantly changing context of existing knowledge in a particular field. The practitioner is advised to be honest with his/her client regarding his/her lack of knowledge in a particular area.
A nonparametric alternative to the T-test would be:

Mann-Whitney
Friedman
Wilcox
Pearson
Mann-Whitney
In an experiment a doctoral candidate has conducted, he has determined that the rate of copulation in a large population of laboratory rats fluctuates with the phases of the moon. He concludes that the gravitational pull of the moon influences the rats' sexual behavior. What error has he committed?

He incorrectly inferred correlation from causation
He incorrectly inferred causation from correlation
He has overlooked the Hawthorne effect
He failed to measure the sexual activity of the rats
He incorrectly inferred causation from correlation
Dr. Tango is conducting a study to compare the use of dice in teaching statistics to a more traditional method. He should use:

Solomon two-group design
Solomon four-group design
Randomized subjects pre-test/post-test control group design
One-group pre-test/post-test design
Randomized subjects pre-test/post-test control group design
Individuals from minority groups are most likely to be attracted to a counseling model that is a:

Long-term, client-centered approach
None of these would be effective
Psychoanalytic therapy approach
Short-term, problem-solving approach
Short-term, problem-solving approach

Research has suggested that members of minority cultures are much more inclined to prefer brief, short-term problem-solving approach to therapy. One reason for this may be the economic factor. Minority clients tend to be more pragmatic in terms of their needs and preferences.
If Sterling is attracted to you because you are attracted to her, this would be:

symbiosis
reciprocity
mutualism
asymmetrical reciprocity
reciprocity

Reciprocity involves being attracted to a person who is attracted to you.
The reliability of an assessment tool is an indicator of:

How effective the assessment tool is in different cultural populations
Faking good or faking bad
Whether the assessment tool is measuring what it is supposed to measure
How dependable the assessment tool is
How dependable the assessment tool is
Rather than used by itself, the Vineland Scale is often used in combination with

A vocational preference assessment
The Personality Factor Questionnaire
A norm-referenced developmental scale
A standardized IQ test
A standardized IQ test
You have just created a test instrument and want to show the world how valid it is. You have a test group take your instrument and later have them take another test that has been around since the 50s. You find the correlation between the two tests is 0.70. The variance of both assessment tools would be:

>68 percent
< 50 percent
= 50 percent
51 - 68 percent
< 50 percent
If you as an employer want to reduce stress on the job, you would do best to:

Urge employees to make reasonable use of sick leave
Afford employees more autonomy and freedom on the job
Institute mandatory but free medical exams
Institute more health and safety seminars
Afford employees more autonomy and freedom on the job
Sarah has a disability. She is currently in the process of trying to find a job. During the interviewing process she should:

Put forward her abilities and unique qualifications
Determine the prospective employers attitude toward affirmative action
Emphasize that the handicapped make hard-working employees
Assume that her disability will not be an issue, due to the Americans With Disabilities Act
Put forward her abilities and unique qualifications
Which pair of statistical measurements do standard scores consider?

Mean and standard deviation
Mean and percentile
Median and percentile
Standard deviation and percentile
Mean and standard deviation
An employee is paid the same amount every week regardless of the number of tasks completed. The schedule on which she is being reinforced is an example of:

Variable interval
Fixed interval
Fixed ratio
Variable ratio
Fixed interval

Fixed interval refers to a constant fixed interval of time between reinforcements.
TA uses structured games and various ego states, which can:

Confuse multi-cultural populations
Help facilitate communication
Require a referee
Conflict with the therapist
Confuse multi-cultural populations
According to this theory, individuals many times act in inappropriate ways to get the love they need, to feel they are loving others, and to feel they have self-worth:

Existential
Person-centered
REBT
Reality
Reality
Dreams, according to Freud, are the:

Way that a person can deal with his or her current life and the life and death instincts
Lifeline of the present, connecting past, present and future
Springboards to the future
Royal road to the unconscious
Royal road to the unconscious
Which of these strategies is the least effective for establishing rapport in the initial interview with a new client:

Conceding mistakes you've made
Ignoring the problem in an attempt to establish rapport
Tacit, empathic support
Some small self-disclosures
Ignoring the problem in an attempt to establish rapport
A therapist at a trauma clinic at a ski resort is talking to a patient with a head trauma resulting from a recent ski accident. During the therapist's visit with the patient, the patient starts exhibiting delirium symptoms. The therapist might:

Call a physician to see what medication to give the patient
Contact the patient's family
Leave the patient to contact another professional at the ski resort
Stay with the patient and provide assistance during the time he is exhibiting delirium symptoms
Stay with the patient and provide assistance during the time he is exhibiting delirium symptoms
You have had an elementary-school child for a client for the past six months. During this time you have used play therapy to work with the client without any significant results. However, during this week's session of play therapy, the child throws the toys against the wall and stomps around. This might indicate that:

This child will most likely respond more positively to behavior therapy
The child is frustrated with this exercise
The child is interpreting the exercise by sensing an external threat
Underlying feelings are beginning to manifest
Underlying feelings are beginning to manifest
You love answering test questions but hate doing dishes. You decide that after every fifth dish you wash, you will spend fifteen minutes answering test questions. You are correctly using:

The Premack Principle
Negative reinforcement
Deferred gratification
Flooding
The Premack Principle
Therapists use which of the following to emphasize key points they are stressing:

Documentation for the client to take with them
Soft vocal tones to ensure that the client is paying attention
Increasing the pitch of their voice
Verbal underlining of specific key phrases
Verbal underlining of specific key phrases
Prior to beginning treatment, a counselor must:

Arrive at a formal diagnosis
Obtain any previous treatment/therapy records
Identify the client's problem
Make all necessary referrals
Identify the client's problem

Before beginning any type of therapy, the counselor needs to first identify the problem. It is helpful to take into account the client's diagnosis, but it is not necessary to actually formulate a formal diagnosis. A counselor could always request past records and/or make referrals once therapy has been started
When screening clients as potential group members, ethically, a therapist should choose clients:

Whose well being will not be jeopardized by the group experience
Who may inhibit the group and therefore challenge the group to develop
Who may enjoy the challenge of being in a group of people who are different from themselves
Who need to be challenged by fellow group members to ensure growth occurs
Whose well being will not be jeopardized by the group experience

When screening prospective clients for group work, a therapist should be mindful to choose members whose needs and goals will be compatible with the group's, who will not hinder the group's process, and whose well being will not be made vulnerable by the group experience
One of your clients is a 19-year-old man with bipolar disorder. He confides to you during the session that Lithium isn't having any effect and he wants to stop the medication. The most ethical course of action would be to:

Tell him to make an appointment with his M.D. to discuss the situation
Tell him to try discontinuing medication for a short time on a trial basis
Advise him that it is your obligation to see that he takes his medication
Tell him that he may not discontinue his medication until you have consulted with your supervisor
Tell him to make an appointment with his M.D. to discuss the situation

The person qualified and appropriate to discuss and deal with medications, their effectiveness or lack of it, and to alter, adjust and make changes in medication is the treating psychiatrist, who, as a medical doctor, is qualified and knowledgeable in the prescribing of medications.
A therapist is providing counseling to a group of Hispanic men who have been court ordered due to substance abuse issues. The therapist chooses to focus the first group session on asking the members to explain to him about their culture and how substance abuse fits into that culture. This therapist has behaved:

Unethically- since he should have placed the objective of this session on helping these men with their substance abuse issues
Unethically- since he focused on the group's cultural background verses the individual issues
Ethically- since he tried to find out more information about the population was working with
Ethically- since he assumed that their Hispanic culture was the reason for the substance abuse
Ethically- since he tried to find out more information about the population was working with

Therapists conducting group therapy have an ethical obligation to conduct their services with broad sensitivity to client differences including (but not limited to) ethnic, cultural, gender, religious, sexual, psychological maturity, economic class, family history, physical characteristics or limitations, and geographic location. Group therapists should continuously seek information regarding the cultural issues of the population with whom they are working both by interaction with group members as well as from using outside resources
If you were setting up an experiment that involved the administration of a drug to half of the subjects in the experiment, you would give everyone else a placebo to:

Control for the effects of suggestion and expectation
Keep the experiment random
Maintain research ethics
Create a double-blind study environment
Control for the effects of suggestion and expectation
If the results of a test show scores that plot out to be positively skewed, you would find:

More low scores than high scores
More high scores than low scores
Low scores only
Equal numbers of low and high scores
More low scores than high scores
In instances of significant correlation, which variables are hypothetical causes?

Dependent
Independent
External
Experimental
Independent
Which of the following skill areas are important to include in the counseling process according to Pedersen's multicultural counseling theory?

Problem definition and action plan
Assimilation and accommodation
Criterion referenced behavioral objectives and treatment plans
Recovery skills and recognizing resistance
Recovery skills and recognizing resistance

Pederson emphasized the importance of developing recovery skills and recognizing resistance in multicultural counseling.
Some therapists may find it difficult to work with clients who are Hispanic because of the:

Language barrier
The clients need to please the therapist
The clients reluctance to disclose to individuals outside their culture
Clients lack of commitment to the counseling process
The clients reluctance to disclose to individuals outside their culture

Hispanics are culturally not inclined to share personal information outside their family circles.
Which of the following would have a tendency to use inventories and tests?

Trait-factor
Jungian
Client-centered
TA
Trait-factor
If you needed to determine the range on a group of test scores, you would have to:

Find the mean
Square the variance
Subtract the highest score from the lowest score
Subtract the lowest score from the highest score
Subtract the lowest score from the highest score
Students submit written essays to their advisors. On the basis of this essay they will be placed in basic, intermediate, or advanced studies. A review of records reveals that different raters come to widely different judgments about individual students' placements. This means that the placement method has low:

Constancy
Internal validity
Generalizability
Reliability
Reliability
Which is true of the Occupational Outlook Handbook?

It gets annual updates
Its an easier and more agreeable read than other like resources
It lists jobs according to the D-code
It lists jobs according to geographical region
Its an easier and more agreeable read than other like resources
The computer software that gives indications on career development based on values given by the client is:

SIGI
DISCOVER
CVIS
MASTER
SIGI
The two stages of decision-making included in Tiedeman and O'Hara's model are:

Exploration and discovery
Projection and implementation
Targeting and resolution
Implementation and Anticipation
Implementation and Anticipation
Which experiments suggest that humans need patterned and varied stimulation to function normally?

Sensory deprivation experiments
Behavior modification experiments
Learned helplessness experiments
Psychoactive drug experiments
Sensory deprivation experiments
It's been 16 years and Dr. Arnold Ziffel, a high achiever at the university science research department, is still working on his unified field theory. He is most likely motivated by a striving for:

The ability to control others
Peer recognition
Achievement without desire for physical gain
A position of prestige and power
Achievement without desire for physical gain
Many older people expect to experience feelings of isolation, depression and uselessness. Accepting these myths about aging may result in:

Greater productivity
A meaningful existence
Identity confusion
A self-fulfilling prophecy
A self-fulfilling prophecy
In practical terms, psychodrama encourages members to speak in _______ , regardless of when scenes actually happened.

All tenses
The present tense
The past tense
The future tense
The present tense
An elderly patient of yours is unable to take care of himself, so his two sons are doing the job. However, when their father's condition worsens, they too are unable to take care of him without the aid of an assisted-living facility. They agree to check out several nursing homes to select the best one for their father. When you meet with the brothers the next week, you find out that they have not even looked at one facility for their father. You might start the session by:

Trying to get in touch with other siblings who are more responsible than the two you currently have in therapy
Suggesting to the brothers that they perhaps forget about the assisted-living facility, since they really don't want to explore that route
Doing a mid-week follow-up with the brothers, reminding them to check out at least one assisted-living facility
Examining the possibility that there are some unresolved issues that are preventing them from action
Examining the possibility that there are some unresolved issues that are preventing them from action
"The stock market just went down 300 points. It's not my fault I lost all my money," indicates an incongruency between:

Verbal statements and behavior
Nonverbal behavior and verbal statements
Situation and the client
Two statements
Situation and the client
The third stage of the integration sequence is _____, which involves clients learning how to influence their environment.

Accommodation
Acquiring
Accosting
Assimilation
Assimilation
What technique could be used in Gestalt to help the client deal with a death of a spouse?

Rolfing
Empty-chair technique
Sweatshirt
Joining
Empty-chair technique
This technique is used quite extensively in Gestalt:

Tar baby
Dream analysis
Hypnosis
Behavioral restructuring
Dream analysis
A woman in a wheelchair comes in for therapy. On the phone she never mentioned her handicap. Your potential client indicates that she just wants to deal with why she sleeps most of the time and is not interested in life. The first thing you might talk about with this patient is:

Any subject but her handicap, unless she brings it up first
Referring her to someone who deals with handicapped individuals
Confront the patient and ask why she didn't tell you she was in a wheelchair before you met in person
Exploring the possibility that being in a wheelchair might be responsible for some of her depression
Exploring the possibility that being in a wheelchair might be responsible for some of her depression
In Tarasoff v. Regents of the University of California, the court ruled that when a therapist hears a client physically threatened an identifiable individual, the therapist must:

Have the client held at the appropriate mental-health institution for 24-hour observation
Notify the police but not the potential victim
Maintain client confidentiality while trying to defuse the situation
Take steps to protect the potential victim from injury
Take steps to protect the potential victim from injury

The now famous Tarasoff v. Board of Regents of University of California, 1976, established the obligation of the therapist to protect potential victims of their client' violence. This law supersedes the therapist's obligation to protect client's confidentiality.
When the involved lawyers request testimony to fact or opinion prior to the trial, it may be given in the form of:

A deposition
An exception to confidentiality
A request statement
A preliminary tort
A deposition

An advantage of giving testimony in the form of a deposition is that this may be given under oath in written form so that the practitioner does not become subject to cross examination. Once the practitioner is in court to testify, it is important to anticipate the potential for court involvement and to plan accordingly. It is unethical to withhold information from the court and it is incumbent upon the practitioner to answer questions asked honestly, however, there is no obligation to share information that is not asked.
The concept of a client having "informed consent" indicates that the client has the right to know:

Where the therapist lives
How much the therapist charges
The sexual orientation of the therapist
If the therapist incorporates religion in his life
How much the therapist charges

The principle of informed consent mandates that the client be provided sufficient information to make a reasoned judgment regarding his/her treatment. Therefore, all issues related to his/her treatment are fair questions. This precludes personal information regarding the clinician's personal life, including details such as where the clinician lives, what his/her religion is, and sexual orientation of the clinician.
After almost a year of therapy, your client still doesn't seem to be making any progress. What should you do?

Seek out supervision from another therapist
Talk about the possibility of termination and referral to some other professional
Use the client's lack of progress as a way to explore his openness to therapy
Suggest to the client that he should terminate therapy
Talk about the possibility of termination and referral to some other professional

Almost a year is sufficient time for the client to have made some progress. if in this duration of time, the client has not made progress, the ethical clinician should speak to the client about transferring to another practitioner who might serve that client more effectively.
If you have designed a test that measures military leadership, and want to explore whether there are other constructs that are responsible for military leadership, you would probably want to use which of the following techniques?

Factor analysis
Z scores
Pearson Product Moment Correlation
Multi-trait
Factor analysis
If only the experimenter knows which method is under investigation in an experiment considering the effects of a particular study method on student performance, the procedure she is using is called a:

Non-blind
Relational sampling
Single-blind
Double-blind
Single-blind
On the self-monitoring scale, a client who scored high would probably:

Be the life of the party
Get along with most people
Look for approval
All of the above
All of the above

Mark Synder developed the Self-Monitoring (SM) Scale. The scale measures the extent to which people consciously use impression management strategies in social interactions. Basically, the scale assesses the degree to which a person manipulates the nonverbal signals that he/she sends to others and the degree to which he/she adjusts behavior to situational demands. Some people work harder at managing their public images than do others. Additionally, Ickes and Barnes (1977) summarized evidence that high SM people are (a) very sensitive to situational cues, (b) particularly skilled at detecting deception on the part of others, and (c) especially insightful about how to influence the emotions of others.
A therapist who has a feminist orientation would probably not:

Use diagnostic evaluation
Consider the therapeutic relationship important
View conflicts in a political context
Make use of paradoxical intervention
Use diagnostic evaluation

A therapist with a feminist perspective would tend to view issues in a political or societal context. Also, this type of therapist would tend not to place much weight on diagnostic evaluations because these latter may well be regarded as being the products of a male dominated culture.
A man responsible for much research in the study of schizophrenia was:
Kanner
Bleuler
Tourrette
Morrel
Bleuler

Bleuler is particularly notable for naming schizophrenia, a disorder which was previously known as dementia praecox.
You're working with Rob and Roberta, who are divorced. Which statement would be your best, most professor kiss-upping, response?

I will focus on the residential parent, if applicable
I will focus on the couple
I will focus on the children
I will focus on the eldest child and her mother
I will focus on the couple
Which of the following approaches is least interested in humanistic values of responsibility and unconditional positive regard:

Gestalt therapy
Psychoanalysis
analytic psychology
Reality Therapy
Psychoanalysis
The three aspects of David Olson's Family Circumplex Model are . . .
Cohesion, flexibility and communication
The power structure of the African-American family is typically:

Matriarchal in two-parent family homes
Patriarchal in two-parent families
Egalitarian in families with two parents
No generalization can be made
Egalitarian in families with two parents

All of the first three statements are false. In single parent families of African Americans, the structure is matriarchal, but not in 2 parent families.
You have a bell curve with several scores for students on an active listening test you administered. Which score is really out there?

z= -2.0
T-score = 25
Stannic = 5
IQ = 110
T-score = 25
A clinical therapist is working with a patient who is 22 years old and has a 12-year-old sister. The patient reveals that she has been sexually abused by her father for the past couple of years. After the therapist makes an inquiry as to whether the patient's father is also abusing his other daughter, the patient clams up and stops talking to the therapist. Faced with this dilemma, the therapist should:

Bear in mind that protecting the patient's confidentiality would prevent her from acting in this situation
Call the sexual abuse hotline and indicate the probability that the siblings may be experiencing abuse
Call the authorities, because the patient disclosed that she had been sexually abused as a minor
Schedule a session including the father and the siblings to determine if they are being abused
Call the sexual abuse hotline and indicate the probability that the siblings may be experiencing abuse

All 50 states have statutes mandating the reporting of suspected physical or sexual abuse of a minor. In terms of breach of confidentiality, it seems that the practitioner is more likely to avoid malpractice suits by routinely reporting any potential violence or suspected physical or sexual abuse. Statutes typically grant immunity from liability to anyone who reports suspected abuse in good faith. Concerns about the reporting process damaging reputations and/or relationships must be counterbalanced against the clinician's legal and ethical obligations to protect innocent parties.
The definition of personality and interest tests is that they are:

Tests of normal proficiency
Culturally referenced measurements
Retroactive measurements
Tests of positive but atypical performance
Tests of normal proficiency
A therapist giving an examination to a Russian boy who does not speak English very well repeated the instructions over and over to the child. He then made the child repeat the instructions back until he was convinced that the child comprehended the instructions. What do you think of this practice?

No problem as long as it is authorized and indicated in the test manual
Not good, as it is not an accepted procedure
This give an unfair advantage in the testing of this child
It is acceptable if the boy finally understood what was being asked of him
No problem as long as it is authorized and indicated in the test manual
Which of the following uses the "stop-start technique" for treatment?

Vaginismus
Premature ejaculation
Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder
Sexual Aversion Disorder
Premature ejaculation
You have a client who is not doing too well in college and is working full time at a burger joint. During her day job, she is doing well and has just been promoted to assistant manager. Her parents are not too thrilled about her choice of jobs and would like to see her finish college and get a white-collar job. If you subscribed to Ginzberg's career development theory, what stage would you say your client is in?

Crystallization
Delineation
Verification
Exploration
Exploration
Which of these scenarios describes a "displaced homemaker?"

A 40-year-old woman who needs to find a job after the sudden death of her husband
A 59-year-old housewife whose children have grown and moved away, and whose husband pays little or no attention to her
A 40-year-old working wife and mother of two who finds herself in a job above her educational and skill level
A 35- year-old housewife who leaves her family to pursue an independent career
A 40-year-old woman who needs to find a job after the sudden death of her husband
This is an area in which men need to be more assertive:

Spousal interaction
Achievement
Peer competition
Affection, admiration, and praise
Affection, admiration, and praise
Thorndike's Law states that:

In time, proximate behaviors merge into one, more complex behavior
Behavior is determined by predictable external causes, and not subject to random effects or personal whim
Responses that precipitate satisfying results are encouraged and are likely to be repeated
Repeated exposure to a neutral stimulus paired with a natural stimulus will cause a response to the neutral stimulus alone
Responses that precipitate satisfying results are encouraged and are likely to be repeated
One of the important aspects of the use of punishment that is often overlooked is that it:

Serves as feedback
Usually promotes aggression
Must be coupled with reinforcement to be effective
May engender passivity
Usually promotes aggression
If group members struggle for dominance and are confrontational and insubordinate toward the group leader, the group is most likely in which stage of group development:

Working stage
Screening stage
Transition stage
Termination stage
Transition stage
Client: "My mother is in the hospital with cancer and she is not eating, and my sisters are not getting along. I see my mother a few times a week, but I think that there is more that I should be doing."
The best paraphrase for this scenario might be:

"It seems that your life has been turned upside down lately."
"What does the prognosis look like for your mother?"
"You feel angry and don't know which way to turn."
"You must really love your mother."
"It seems that your life has been turned upside down lately."
"Tell me, Sterling, what are you going to do on Friday afternoon?"
The above is an example of:

Reflection of feeling
Encourager
Paraphrase
Open Question
Open Question
All of these statements on financial arrangements with clients are false except:

Financial arrangements should be settled before therapy begins
Clients should know that once a fee is agreed upon, it will not change for as long as they stay in therapy
Definite arrangements should be made after the client has become comfortable with the therapist during the first session
As a commitment to therapy, clients should always have to pay something, even if it is a reduced rate
Financial arrangements should be settled before therapy begins
For which therapy does a therapist functions as a teacher, and the client as a learner?

TA
Adlerian
Freudian
REBT
REBT
Reality therapists contend that _____ behavior is not something that merely happens to us, but rather, behavior that we choose as a way of attempting to control our world.

Gram-negative
Subjective
Projective
Psychotic
Psychotic
Power deficits in the therapist-client relationship _________ by feminist therapists.

Are not tolerated
Are recognized
Are not recognized
Are considered ideologically necessary
Are recognized
A therapist is informed that one of his clients has insurance that will cover only half of the charges for the sessions. He agrees to charge the insurance company for double the amount of his actual fee, so that the patient will not have to pay for anything himself. Though in the gray area, this practice is:

Ethical, if the therapist's only other option is to deny services to the client
Unethical
Ethical
Either ethical or unethical, depending on the laws of the state the therapist is practicing in
Unethical

The practitioner must uphold appropriate ethical standards of professional practice. Even though doubling the bill (i.e. "tempering the truth") so as to support the client may seem to be best for the client in the short term, in the long term it would not be for the practitioner. To do so would be a compromising of professional standards of practice, i. e. lying. This is an ethical matter as well as a reflection on the credibility of the mental health profession. The overriding long term effects of such "tempering the truth" may be a reduction in the public's trust of mental health workers as objective professionals, increased stringency in insurance company reimbursements, and decreased influence of mental health professionals in courts.
To what does the ethical principle of autonomy refer?

Being faithful to the promises made
The obligation to treat clients as individuals
Doing the greatest amount of good possible
Respect for individual self-determination
Respect for individual self-determination

Autonomy is one of the four principles that ethical codes of based on. A therapist who abides by the ethical principles of autonomy is operating from the belief that a client is competent to make his/her own decisions about their health care and respects their right for individual self-determination
When a therapist commits a violation of an ethical code, it is:

None of these apply
A licensure violation
A felony
Grounds for dismissal
None of these apply

When a therapist commits a violation of an ethical code, the therapist should do what he/she can to rectify the situation and learn from his/her mistakes. It may also be advisable for the therapist to consult with a trusted colleague in order to objectively ascertain the best way of rectifying the situation, and as a check to holding him/herself accountable.
Dr. Youngood is excited because he has found a 1.25 correlation between meditation and levitation. The finding might indicate that:

Youngood needs to take a research class a second time
Neither meditation nor levitation is related to one another
Meditation and levitation are positively correlated
There is a negative relationship between meditation and levitation
Youngood needs to take a research class a second time
To determine if the test you plan to administer is a good fit with what you are intending to evaluate, it would be best if you:

Call the testing company
Consult the test manual
Use split half
Use the 1-800 AASSWB test line
Consult the test manual
According to research, when does a long-term stable interest for a specific pattern of activities typically emerge?

Late adolescence
Pre-adolescence
Young adulthood
Mid-adolescence
Late adolescence
Which of the following groups would be included within the definition of the term cultural pluralism?

All are correct
Handicapped and homosexual individuals
Women and single-parent families
Racial and ethnic minorities
All are correct


Cultural pluralism takes in all of the above-mentioned groups.
According to Kohlberg, the level at which a child bases moral judgments on punishments and rewards is called ____.
pre-conventional
General systems theory incorporates all of the following:

Structure, typology, and centripetal forces
Paradox, process, and feedback
Feedback loops, subsystem and isomorphism
Isomorphism, process, and structure
Isomorphism, process, and structure

Systems theory is an interdisciplinary field that studies the properties of systems as a whole. It was founded by Ludwig von Bertalanffy, William Ross Ashby, Margaret Mead, and Gregory Bateson.
Which of the following is most affected by sample size?

Experimental control
Generalizability
An independent variable
Construct validity
Generalizability
Validity scales on test instruments are built in to determine if the results of a test are reliable or not because the client may have answered the questions:

To make himself look bad
In a positive manner
Using defense mechanisms
All the choices are correct
All the choices are correct
You are seeing a patient who tells you that for the last six months or so he seems to become so angry that he can not control himself. Nothing that he can identify happened six months ago to cause his continued anger. Your patient states that he just woke up like this one day, and it seems to him that he has been angry ever since. If this were your patient you might:

Have the patient get a physical examination
Perform a psychosocial to get a handle of what's going on with your patient
Start him on a program of anger reduction
Realize that you are out of your league and refer the patient to a cognitive therapist who deals with anger control
Have the patient get a physical examination
Which of the following has a tendency to cut the individual out of the decision-making process through imposing procedures and rules:

Line and staff organizations
Matrixes
Administrations
Bureaucracies
Bureaucracies
As a consultant, you need to assess an organization. You are unable to physically visit the organization, so you should consider:

Using interviews as an evaluative tool
Reviewing the organization's literature
Using its application form as an evaluative tool
Referencing government publications
Using interviews as an evaluative tool
Children will imitate:

The model a parent assigns them
What a parent does not do
How a parent behaves
What a parent bids them to do
How a parent behaves
If you were setting up an experiment, you would want to keep in mind that negative reinforcement affects subjects' responding in that:

It decreases responding
It will not affect responding
It increases responding
It eliminates responding
It increases responding
TA was originally developed by:

George Idle
Tresa Green
Eric Berne
Frank Braun
Eric Berne
Limits of confidentiality are more stringent in:

Directed groups
Homogeneous groups
Individual therapy than in group therapy
Heterogeneous groups
Individual therapy than in group therapy
Client: "If I had just lost my fingers in the accident, I could still be functional. But the fact that I am blind and am in constant pain makes things unbearable."
Therapist: "You're totally blind?"

Summarization
Encourager
Paraphrase
Reflection of feeling
Encourager
In TA, the three ego states are:

Conscious, subconscious, unconscious
Id, ego, superego
Rackets, games, redecisions
Child, parent, adult
Child, parent, adult
As an attending skill, which of the following might be the best non-verbal technique for an Anglo:

Forward lean of the body
A non-intrusive attending stance
Relaxed but attentive position
Taking notes of what the client is saying
Forward lean of the body
"What do you suppose is going on?"

Concrete
Vague
Mixed
Ambiguous
Vague
Which of the following situations does NOT call for a referral:

The patient does not have any money and wants you to do therapy with him anyway
You have no clue as to the cultural boundaries of this patient who is from the Fiji Islands
The patient is someone who works for you cutting your lawn
Your client is African American and you are of Spanish descent
Your client is African American and you are of Spanish descent
When it comes to the concept of confidentiality among individuals in a group therapy setting, the group therapist should:

Let the members of the group know that they don't have to keep confidentiality
Let them know that there is no problem sharing what happened in group during their individual group sessions
Take time to make sure group members understand the seriousness of preserving confidentiality
Indicate that they are liable if they break confidentiality
Take time to make sure group members understand the seriousness of preserving confidentiality

It is widely understood that maintaining confidentiality in a group setting is virtually impossible to monitor. The best thing to do is to impress upon the group from the start the value of their preserving confidentiality and the negative consequences that could ensue their breaching of confidentiality.
f you believe that a peer is practicing outside his/her ability, and fails to respond to the concerns you verbalize, your next step may be to:

Notify the police
Confront your peer for a second warning
Tell your supervisor
Report your peer to the professional association
Report your peer to the professional association

VandenBois and Duthie (1968) suggest that when one becomes aware of evidence that may indicate unethical or incompetent practice by a colleague, one should first ascertain the facts. An informal inquiry may be in order. Obviously, tactfulness would demand that one not pursue questions in an insensitive or hostile manner. Frequently, a colleague will respond defensively to an inquiry. When the suspected misdeed or incompetence is serious enough, this would require reporting one's concerns to a regulatory body (i.e. licensing board, ethics committee).
If a therapist makes an error in the clinical record of a client, he/she should:

Keep the record as is and do nothing
Erase or scratch out the error so that inaccurate information in not in the record
Append the record with additional information, making it clear it was done after the fact
Redo the entire record including in the correct information
Append the record with additional information, making it clear it was done after the fact

If ever faced with ethical charges, documentation is usually the best way to prove a therapist's actions. The wrong kind of documentation and/or lack of documentation could cause a therapist massive problems. When documenting records, try to only include relevant information. It is also illegal for a therapist to alter a record after the fact.
Certification serves the purpose of all of the following, except:

Mandating continuing education
Allowing therapists to practice
Indicating minimum proficiency
Protecting the public
Allowing therapists to practice

Certification serves to signify to the public that an individual has attained a minimum level of knowledge, education and experience. This intended thereby to protect the public as much as possible, from incompetent practitioners. Certification indicates to the public a minimum level of proficiency in the field and mandates that a practitioner is continuing to upgrade his/her education so as to stay current in new information and ideas. It has nothing to do with allowing a therapist to practice.
The research design that would most probably show a decline in IQ test scores in early adulthood would be:

Cross-sectional
Longitudinal
Age controlled
Time controlled
Cross-sectional
If research includes grouping subjects based on religious and political memberships, what kind of information is being used?

Ordinal
Correlational
Ratio
Nominal
Nominal
Which is the experimental independent variable?

Those variables having a negative effect on subject behavior
The variable that the researcher alters
A quantifiable measure of experimental performance
The experiment's subject(s)
The variable that the researcher alters
One of the results of the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 is that it:

Secured the right of students 18 and older to examine their school records
Made student records available to designated students under 18
Sealed school records and made them unavailable for scrutiny by the federal government
Made school records available to any student beyond 9th grade with or without parental consent
Secured the right of students 18 and older to examine their school records

The family educational and privacy rights act,sets Conditions for availability of funds to educational agencies or institutions; inspection and review of education records; specific information to be made available; procedure for access to education records; reasonableness of time for such access; hearings; written explanations by parents.
Propinquity is best related to:

Ethnic intolerance
The decline in racial prejudice when individuals live next door to minority persons
Therapist countertransference
Prejudice
The decline in racial prejudice when individuals live next door to minority persons

Propinquity means proximity in space or time. It is when one lives in close proximity to a minority member that prejudicial feelings and thoughts begin to break down.
What is the basic function of Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972?

To prohibit discrimination in all public and private college faculties
To proscribe race, religious, gender, and ethnically based discrimination in recognized American labor organizations
To proscribe discrimination against women in federal hiring practices
To prohibit discrimination in educational agencies and institutions that accept federal assistance
To prohibit discrimination in educational agencies and institutions that accept federal assistance
Trait and factor theory would NOT say that:

Vocational choice is invariably a compromise
Personality traits are subject to valid, reliable measurement
Occupations are filled by singular types of people
Career choice is a specific happening
Vocational choice is invariably a compromise
All are true of someone with a high need for achievement except:

He or she chooses long odds or sure things
He or she will tend toward excellence in work or career
He or she tends to see difficult tasks to completion
He or she probably likes occupations which include elements of risk and responsibility
He or she chooses long odds or sure things
Maslow's needs for growth include:

Esteem, love, and self-actualization
Security, stimulation, and esteem
Security and esteem
Belonging and safety
Esteem, love, and self-actualization
When using techniques in a group situation, all of the following are true except:

The group leader needs to be in control
Clients should not be forced to perform an exercise
The purpose of the exercise should be known before it is performed
Clients need to work through their repressed unfinished business whether they want to or not
Clients need to work through their repressed unfinished business whether they want to or not
Which is an example of Reaction Formation:

Someone who pushes thoughts or feelings into the unconscious
Someone who manufactures good reasons to explain a bruised ego
Someone whose reaction is to redirect some emotion
Someone who acts sugary sweet yet harbors hostility
Someone who acts sugary sweet yet harbors hostility
Which of the following is part of the six-step program for learning behavioral therapy:

Determine faculty cognitions
Establish rapport
Determine assets and strengths
Explore current historical background
Determine assets and strengths
According to Mahler's object-relations approach, if an infant is responding more to states of physiological tension than to psychological process, which phase of development is the infant experiencing?

Normal infantile autism
Symbiosis
Narcissistic character
Separation/individuation
Normal infantile autism
When Mom knows that her husband is sexually molesting both of her daughters and does not report it to the authorities nor tell anyone about it, she is:

Engaged in joining
Keeping a family secret
Shaming/blaming
Dealing with boundary issues
Keeping a family secret
Which one of these is an example of positive reinforcement:

Saying "no" to a child when he expects a "yes" response
Saying "thank you" for a job well done
Turning off your child's music because she is not studying
Removing all the toys from a child's room because of his bad grades
Saying "thank you" for a job well done
The main therapeutic goal of reality therapy is:

To assist the client in finding more effective ways of meeting his or her needs
To assist the client in becoming aware of his or her subjective reality
To teach the client how to recognize his or her current here-and-now reality
To make the unconscious conscious
To assist the client in finding more effective ways of meeting his or her needs
Which of the following is not a potential risk when it comes to confidentiality and on-line counseling?

Others with access to the email account or the computer can view messages
Confidentiality could be breached by hackers or Internet service providers
Clients can automatically have a record of communications to refer to later
Emails could fail to be received if they are sent to the wrong address
Clients can automatically have a record of communications to refer to later

Communication via the internet poses its own potential breaches to confidentiality. Extra safeguards should be considered when the computer is shared by students, family members, library patrons, etc. Furthermore, the client should be informed of safeguards that are taken by the therapist and could be taken by himself/herself against some of these potential risks. Examples include using return receipt for sent emails and the utilization of a password to gain access to the computer
It becomes evident during a family therapy session that the youngest daughter had been sexually abused by an uncle. The family wants this information to remain private and have decided that they would deal with it on their own. The therapist accepts this plan of action since the family is actively working through the affects of this abuse. Ethically, what is the therapist's responsibility?

The therapist behaved ethically because the abuse happened in the past and is no longer occurring, so it not reportable
The therapist behaved unethically because he should have spoken to the uncle to get his version of events to corroborate whether or not abuse actually occurred
The therapist behaved unethically by not reporting the abuse to the proper authorities
The therapist behaved ethically because he believes he is acting in the best interest of the family by keeping this private
The therapist behaved unethically by not reporting the abuse to the proper authorities

When any type of child abuse (sexual, physical, or emotional) is disclosed during treatment, a therapist is mandated to report it regardless to the requests of the family or client. It is also not up to the therapist to decide whether or not the abuse happened, but rather their legal obligation to report that they have become aware that abuse may have happened to that child.
It is necessary to obtain informed consent prior to giving out a data about a patient. Which of the following statements is MOST correct regarding this issue?

You must obtain informed consent from your patient in most situations, but not in all situations
If you are going to consult with a colleague, you must have informed consent from your patient
You must always have informed consent from your patient
If a significant other requests information about your patient, you may release it without informed consent
You must obtain informed consent from your patient in most situations, but not in all situations
The essence of the therapist/client relationship is commonly thought to imply that the therapist will typically:

Have additional power and responsibility
Need to follow the lead of the client
Take responsibility for the direction of therapy
Take into consideration legal possibilities when working with the client
Have additional power and responsibility

By virtue of the position of the clinician as the professional whom the client is visiting in order to seek help, the clinician is elevated in terms of power. Although the ideal situation is to give as much autonomy as possible to the client, the clinician as the certified professional has additional responsibility in the treatment process.
You have designed an experiment to see what effect singing has on learning sign language. As part of the study, you are gathering pre- and post-test data. You are afraid that the pre-test might have an effect on the experiment. How would you best contend with this?

Solomon four-group design
ANOVA
Chi-square
Multiple regression
Solomon four-group design
If you were going to a desert island and could take only one of the following, which would it be, validity or reliability?

I'd take validity, the most important factor
I'd take reliability; it's much more important than validity
It really doesn't matter which one you take
I'd take them both; they are both equally important
I'd take validity, the most important factor
Suicide is most often related to:

Depression
Divorce
Cult and heavy metal music
Drug use
Depression

Of the many millions of Americans who suffer from depression in any given year, 80% can be effectively treated, but only 30% seek help and of that number, slightly more than half are accurately diagnosed and receive appropriate treatment. 30,000 suicide deaths occur nationally every year. The #1 cause of suicide is untreated depression.
The first intervention you should perform for a battered woman is:

Establish boundaries and rapport
Examine any childhood experience that might be responsible for why she is in this situation
Give her the phone numbers of shelters in the area
Get on the phone and call 911 for the police
Give her the phone numbers of shelters in the area
What is standard deviation?

A standard sampling
A measure of variability
A new set of raw data
A measure of rate of occurrence
A measure of variability
This is true about rural Appalachians:

Up to 90 percent are African-American
They tend to marry early in life
Up to 90 percent are kin
They greatly desire a different lifestyle
They tend to marry early in life
What type of schedule of reinforcement is being used by a sugar daddy who reinforces his niece with $100 for every class she attends at the community college?

Fixed ratio
Variable interval
Counter conditioning
Fixed interval
Fixed interval
Fundamental to the "positive asset search" would be:

Instilling positive self-confidence and esteem in the client
The basic listening sequence
Defining parameters in working with the client
Engaging the client to determine what resources he has
The basic listening sequence
The approach known as cognitive therapy was developed by:

Adler
Beck
Ellis
Meichenbaum
Beck
During the sixth appointment a client tells you she is seeing another therapist. Your ethical duty would be to:

Consult with the other therapist to resolve any possible conflict
Explain to the client that her treatment may be impeded if she does not soon come to a decision as to which therapist she would rather see
Steer the client away from or toward the other therapist depending on her progress made while seeing you
Determine the nature of the client's relationship with the other therapist
Determine the nature of the client's relationship with the other therapist


The client may be involved in a dubious relationship with the other therapist. Since it is ethical and professional practice for a therapist to encourage his/her client to discuss conflicts directly with the treating clinician first, rather than just taking on a patient who has been working therapeutically with another clinician.
A therapist has been working with a bipolar patient on a weekly basis for 7 months. During the course of treatment, this patient has had 4 relapses and is not making any considerable progress. The therapist should:

Terminate the counseling sessions
Identify and discuss the lack of progress with the client
Talk about the possibility of termination and referral
Inform the client that it would be unethical to continue to bill the insurance company, so further treatment must be paid out-of-pocket
Talk about the possibility of termination and referral

When there has been little or no progress after 6 months of treatment, the best course of action would be to discuss with the client the possibility of termination and referral. Abruptly terminating counseling is not an ethical choice because that does not allow for the client's input, does not prepare the client for the end of the therapeutic relationship, and does not address referral issues. Identifying the lack of progress should have been done at an earlier point during the course treatment. By introducing the possibility of termination, a client may become more motivated begin making progress
To find a Z-score, an individual might:

Subtract the mean from the raw score and divide by the standard deviation
Subtract the mean from the raw score and then multiply by the median
Divide the raw score by the standard deviation
Subtract the median from the raw score and then divide by the standard deviation
Subtract the mean from the raw score and divide by the standard deviation
African-American self-esteem in general:

Is as yet undetermined
Varies from region to region
Is economically determined
Has improved dramatically since the 60s
Has improved dramatically since the 60s

It is true that African American self esteem has improved dramatically since the 60's. There are probably a multitude of reasons for this, including the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960's which has led to more opportunities for African Americans both educationally, economically and politically. There are an assortment or organizations and individuals who have worked and sought to raise self esteem among African American youth.
When is an expectancy table employed?

To determine an individual's true criterion score given his expected predictor score
To determine an individual's predictor score given his criterion score
To list predictors expected to influence criterion score
To predict a client's criterion score when you know her predictor score
To predict a client's criterion score when you know her predictor score
In a therapy session, when the husband becomes assertive in communicating, the wife becomes submissive. When the wife becomes submissive, the husband becomes more domineering, resulting in the wife becoming more passive. What kind of communication pattern is this an example of?

Co-dependent communication
Asymmetrical communication
Solipsistic communication
Complementary communication
Complementary communication
The relationship between a therapist and a client:

Terminates when the client is referred to another therapist
Only exists within the "therapy session"
Is considered to be in perpetuity
Terminates when the client is discharged
Is considered to be in perpetuity
A 9-year-old child may have been inappropriately assigned to a class for the mentally retarded. What test should be done to reevaluate the child?

WWF
Raven
Stanford-Binet
SOMPA
SOMPA
Super would say that clients have:

Constellations and systems of self-concepts
Constellations of self-concepts
Systems of self-concepts
Dual self-concepts encompassing school and home
Constellations of self-concepts
In summing up studies comparing worker biorhythms and industrial accidents, it would be most accurate to say that there is:

Some positive correlation in the first and last days of the work week
No positive or negative significant correlation
Positive correlation over the course of the work week
A definitive negative correlation in the first and last days of the work week
No positive or negative significant correlation
Some clients insist that they do not have a problem and that their behavior is acceptable. Glasser's response to this is that:

Clients do not always behave according to their perceptions
The therapist should continue to focus on these perceptions until the client changes his opinion
The therapist should move on to the evaluation of the client's values and judgments
It is unimportant whether the therapist and client match perceptions of behaviors
The therapist should continue to focus on these perceptions until the client changes his opinion
Your job as a family therapist is to:

Direct the process
Watch the process
Preserve equilibrium
Disrupt equilibrium
Disrupt equilibrium
Why are client-observation skills necessary in paraphrasing what a client says?

Nonverbal skills are more important than verbal skills
Diagnosis is dependent on observation and reporting
Verbal skills are more important than nonverbal skills
The nonverbal types of behavior your client is exhibiting might change the meaning of what that client is saying
Nonverbal skills are more important than verbal skills
The "compensatory theory of leisure" would say that:

Activities during leisure are significantly different from activities during working hours
What people do in their leisure time mirrors in some important way what they do at work
Hard workers have more fun outside of work
Leisure is lost on most workers
Activities during leisure are significantly different from activities during working hours
Judgments about others, once developed and rationalized, are:

Changeable with the application of logic and rational thought
Easy to change using emotive techniques
Difficult to alter
Changeable without too much difficulty
Difficult to alter
David believes that he cannot choose a career in which he is interested because he would not be successful. He also believes that if he did choose that career, his Mom would not approve of his choice. If you were his counselor, you might want to explore David's:

Emotional confinements
Hierarchy of needs
Instrumental difficulties
Synthesis of career goals and needs
Emotional Confinements
When a client makes a conscious decision that results in some change in behavior, that process is called:

Moving from a reactive to a proactive stance
Positive self-talk
Individuation
A redecision
A redicision
When you ask your students to evaluate your effectiveness as a teacher, you need to take into consideration:

The brownie effect
The payback effect
The halo effect
The transference effect
The halo effect
You want to see how college students' feelings have changed about bisexuality. You pay 30 students to act as confederates who say that they are bisexual and pair them up with 30 other students from the college. As a researcher, ethics would demand that:

The researcher need do nothing
The researcher be reported to the ethics committee
The researcher talk with the students and let them deload if they reveal attitudes that might be problematic
The researcher be reported to the appropriate ethical standards committee
The researcher talk with the students and let them deload if they reveal attitudes that might be problematic
The following statement to a client, "You might have overlooked her feelings," is:

Attending
Non-attending
Coaching
Confrontational
Attending
Which is not a goal of REBT:

Expressing feelings
Modeling
Teaching new behaviors
Thinking and acting
Expressing Feelings
Havighurst indicates that in the later stage of adulthood, one of the following is a developmental task that needs to be mastered:

Adjustment to decreased physical strength
Separation from children
Improving memory
Achieving retirement goals
Adjustment to decreased physical strength

One of the most commonly used terms to describe a good old age is "successful aging", often attributed to R. J. Havighurst. Havighurst postulated that adjusting to decreased physical strength is a necessary developmental task to successful aging.
All of these are a basic function of appraisal except:

Furnishing a patient with data about himself
Learning what the patient's personality is
Establishing a foundation for future prediction
Evaluating the patient's presenting difficulty
Furnishing a patient with data about himself
All of the following are part Yankelovich's ethics of commitment except:

Rationales of self-fulfillment and working
Attitude of cooperation
Obligation to the self
Attitudinal and self-conceptual changes
Obligation to the self
The skills that a client needs to seek out and find jobs are:

Close to non-existent in displaced workers
Not taught in school
All statements are correct
Preferably a function of vocational placement
All statements are correct
You, as a professor at a local university, have decided to chuck therapy and become a standup comedian. What is a most important factor in establishing whether or not your modeled behavior will be mimicked by your students?

Whether the model works or is unsuccessful
Existing gravitas of the model
Appeal of the model's set and setting to the learner
Emotional predisposition of the learner
Whether the model works or is unsuccessful
ctive listening entails:

Focusing solely on one member's verbal cues
Focusing on the entire group's "gestalt"
Focusing on one member's verbal and non-verbal cues
Focusing on one member and documenting the process
Focusing on one member's verbal and non-verbal cues
When experiencing initial anxiety, a beginning therapist should:

Voice his/her questions and concerns with peers
Discontinue the session
Act "as if" he/she is in control of the situation
Allow the members to continue session without him/her
Voice his/her questions and concerns with peers
"Job number one" of behavioral assessment is the discovering of behavioral ______.

Difficulties
Hypertension
Contingencies
Methodologies
Contingencies
Snake Daddy and his old lady ride killer Harleys and are hard-core speed freaks. Which of these might be true of these unconventional citizens:

They do amphetamine mostly to keep their weight down and stay awake on the road
They hit up large amounts of amphetamine right into the bloodstream
They can stop using without experiencing aftereffects
They use amphetamines to stay happy and mellow
They hit up large amounts of amphetamine right into the bloodstream
The effectiveness of the therapist who is using the eclectic model of counseling is most dependent on:

Supportive therapist role
Methods of counseling
Correct diagnosis
The use of testing results
The use of testing results
If you need to examine individuals with special needs, which of the following would be your best course of action?

Ask a therapist who has tested that population
Refer the client to another therapist
Do nothing different from what you would normally do
Consult the current literature on procedures
Ask a therapist who has tested that population
Havighurst's developmental tasks regarding elementary school children are related to:

Piaget's cognitive development tasks
Kagan's and Moss's lifestyle description
Super's career development tasks
Kohlberg's moral development tasks
Super's career development tasks
According to Roe's theory of career choice:

Vocation can be predicated by observing specific traits and factors
Vocational choices are primarily resultant from particular motivation and ability, and familiarity with specific occupations
Early rewarded social behaviors are correlated to later vocational decisions
Occupational choice results from how an individual's unique personality fits into his or her psychological environment
Early rewarded social behaviors are correlated to later vocational decisions
According to TA, _____ are considered the structure of the therapeutic relationship.

Contracts
Theories
Boundaries
Rules
Contracts
The components of total behavior include which of the following:

Physiology
Psychology
Angering
Depression
Physiology
A couple attends therapy together for the first three sessions. They have been fighting quite a bit lately and the man has said he is coming to therapy but only because he feels he has no choice. The girlfriend doesn't seem to be responsive either. At the fourth session, the woman tells the therapist that her partner couldn't come. She says she is secretly happy to have the therapist all to herself so she can get things off her chest without her partner around. What should the therapist do?

See her, but let her know that her boyfriend will also be entitled to a confidential session
Do not see her this time, explaining that she and her boyfriend must make the effort to both show up together
Call the boyfriend to ask him why he has not come to the therapy session
Continue the session but let her know that you won't maintain confidentiality from her boyfriend next session
Continue the session but let her know that you won't maintain confidentiality from her boyfriend next session

Since the therapist has been working with the couple as a couple, the therapist must explain to the woman that anything she tells the clinician must be shared with the other party or the clinician will be unable to continue to work with the couple.
Assume that a test is normative. You can be assured that when using this format, every item answer is:

In a cyclic pattern in relationship to other test items
Dependent on every other test item
Independent of every other test item
Considered concentric
Independent of every other test item
When an individual discredits his/her identity through an attributional process, one of that individual's characteristics would be called a/an:

Stigma
Accommodation
Factor
Trait
Stigma
In the United States, most current school desegregation policies are based on:

The Contact Hypothesis
Kolodinsky's Choice Hypothesis
Political decisions
Beck's Cognitive Theory
The Contact Hypothesis

The Contact Hypothesis postulates that intergroup contact will tend to lessen stereotyping and decrease prejudice.
What is the distinctive characteristic of "advocacy consultation?

Advocating for employee/employer cooperation
Advocating with the client for individual change
Social change
Family and/or spousal relationship change
Social change
In order to determine the effect of adding new test items to an established test instrument on the reliability coefficient, you might want to employ:

Multiple regression
Analysis of covariance
The Spearman-Brown Prophecy Formula
Path analysis
The Spearman-Brown Prophecy Formula
You develop a test of leadership with a reliability coefficient of .64, a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 20. From this you know that the standard error of measurement is:

12
5
0
.2
12

SD X square root of 1 - reliability coefficient.

20X.6=12
Goulding's approach has been classified as the:

Redirectional School of TA
Rudimentary School of TA
Self Directive School of TA
Redecisional School of TA
Redecisional School of TA
When a test designer uses items that are chosen based on how they perform statistically, this is known as:

Ratio-activated-based
Standard-based
Factor-analytic
Analysis-based
factor-analytic
When a client scores high on the Conventional General Occupation and Artistic scales on the Strong Interest Inventory, the career counselor would not recommend:

Using both values and skills in the decision-making process
The possibility of vocational and avocational interests to meet needs
Employing an intuitive decision-making method
Exploring Basic Interest Scales scores for additional possible interests
employing an intuitive decision making method
If you, as a group leader, were an Adlerian, chances are that among the techniques you would use would be:

Giving feedback
Directing the group process
Creating experiments
None of these are Adlerian techniques
none of these are Adlerian techniques
The current direction in adult career counseling has been a consequence of:

More clients in job transitions
Job burnout
Companies no longer hiring for life
Change in general work ethics
More clients in job transitions
Therapists at Sheri Hite High give seniors who have earned merit scholarships a test to measure highly developed cognitive skills in young people. All these students bomb out on the test. Unless merit scholarships get handed out like popcorn, this test probably has awful:

Content validity
Construct validity
External validity
Concurrent validity
Content validity
The founder of control theory is:

Albert Ellis
Frederick Perls
William Glasser
Joseph Wolfe
William Glasser
Margaret Mahler, in her object-relations approach, argues that the self develops through four broad stages. Three of the four stages occur during one of the stages described by Freud. This is the _____ stage.

Latency
Oral
Phallic
Anal
anal
The practice of reality therapy includes the counseling environment and specific procedures which lead to behavior changes. Together, these two concepts are referred to as:

Behavior model
Effective therapeutic balance
Functional conditioning
Cycle of counseling
Cycle of counseling
Cognitive trends in behavioristic approaches have been pioneered by:

Skinner
Pavlov
Freud
Lazarus
Lazarus
Holland defined "differentiation" as:

The choosing of an occupation that significantly differs from the subject's personality type
The degree to which a person's occupation may differ from his or her personality type
The occupational options available that fit a general personality type
The proportion to which an individual or environment favors one and only one specific vocational type
The proportion to which an individual favors one and only one specific vocational type
What is the function of life-planning workshops?

To increase career aptitudes
To promote self-awareness
To promote career planning
To promote continued career education
To promote self-awareness
The disparity between an existing situation and a desired situation would be defined by evaluation researchers as:

Need
Dissonant
Contingent
Expectancy
Need
Where does decision-making span the lowest and the highest levels of an organization?

Bureaucracy
Matrix
Line-staff type organization
Decentralized organization
decentralized organization