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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Pathogenicity is...?
the ability to cause disease
Virulence is...?
the extent of pathogenicity
The portals of entry for mucous membranes are?
Respiratory tract, GI tract, urogenital tract.
The portals of entry for skin are?
hair follicles, sweat gland ducts, conjunctiva
some worms can burrow into skin
The portals of entry for the parenteral route are?
Puncture wounds introducing bacteria.
What is onchocerciasis?
River blindness, the second leading cause of blindness worldwide.
18 million people worldwide afflicted
Parasitic worm (Onchocerca volvulus) can live in the body for up to 14 years
Larval forms are worms transmit disease
Infected blackflies also transmit disease
What is ID50?
the infectious dose for 50% of the test population
What is LD50?
the lethal dose (of a toxin) for 50% of the test population
Coagulse is...?
coagulates blood
Kinases are...?
digest fibrin clots
Hyaluronidase is...?
hydrolyzes hyaluronic acid
Collagenase is...?
hydrolyzes collagen
IgA proteases are...?
Destroy IgA antibodies
Siderophores are...?
sequester iron
Antigenic variation...?
alter surface proteins
Toxin is...?
substances that contribute to pathogenicity
Toxigenicity is...?
ability to produce a toxin
Toxemia is...?
presence of a toxin in a host's blood
Toxoid is...?
inactivated toxin used in a vaccine
Antitoxin is...?
antibodies against a specific toxin
Endotoxin is...?
Part of the outer portion of the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria
They are liberated when the bacteria die and the cell wall breaks apart
Exotoxin is...?
Produced inside mostly gram-positive bacteria
They are then secreted or released following lysis into the surrounding medium.
What is syncytium...?
when infected cells fuse together.
What is oncogenesis...?
when viruses induce chromosomal changes in the host cell.
Pathogenic properties of Fungi
Fungal waste products(toxins) can cause symptoms.
Chronic infections provoke allergic response.
Toxins can inhibit protein synthesis.
Proteases(modify host membranes and allow for attachment)
Capsule prevents phagocytosis.
Pathogenic properties of Protozoa
Waste products
Avoid defenses by:
--growing in phagocytes
--antigenic variation
Pathogenic properties of helminths
Use host tissue
Presence of parasite interferes with host function
Parasite's metabolic waste can cause symptoms.
What are the portals of exit?
Respiratory trace
--coughing, sneezing
GI tract
--feces, saliva
Genitourinary tract
--urine, secretions
--Biting arthropods, needles