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18 Cards in this Set

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prototroph vs. auxotroph
auxotrophic has lost the ability to synthesize a certain compund
silent/missense/nonsense
no effect/different amino acid/stop codon
transposons
jumping genes, gene which is jumped into is insertionally inactivated
induced mutation - mutagens
chemical mutagens alter pase pairing properties.
difference between UV and X ray mutagens
UV causes covalent bonding between T-T's, X rays break chains
SOS system
uses a new type of DNA pol that tolerates errors to repair badly damaged DNA
2 ways of repairing Tymine dimers
Photorepair (requires light) and excision repair (cut out and replace whole section)
homologous (site-specific)recombination
DNA fragment inserted into a host chromosome, "heteroduplex" generates one wild type and one recombinant
Generalized vs. specialized transduction
specialized is only in temerate phage,
toll like receptors
surface receptors that allow cells to detect molecules that signify the presence of microorganisms
complement cycle: C3b leads to
opsonization - prepares for eating
complement cycle: C5a leads to
inflammation which attracts phagocytes
interferons
produced by virus infected cell, which cause formation of proteins in other cells (iAVP)that tigger apoptosis if infected
macrophage
long lived, weak killers, always present
neutrophils
short lived, always first to site of infection, strong killers
IgM/IgG/IgA
M is first antibody produced in promary immune responseonly class produced in response to t-independent antigens. G is most abundant in blood and tissue longest lived. A: mostly in mucus and tears
2 types of T cells
T-cytotoxic, has CD8 which recognizes MCH type 1 (endogenous) proteins, T-helper, has CD4 which recognizes MHC type 2 (exogenous) proteins.
NK cells
kills self cells that don't have MHC 1 on surface (if youre not showing what youre making, i'll kill you)