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29 Cards in this Set

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What transport system involves extracellular binding proteins?
ABC Transport System
Multidrug Efflux Pumps--which Transport System are these part of?
ABC Transport System
What are the carbon, energy, and electron sources for a chemolithotroph?
Carbon: CO2
Electrons: Inorganic molecules
Energy: Chemical (inorganic molecules)
What are the carbon, energy, and electron sources for a chemoorganotroph?
Carbon: Organic molecules
Electrons: Organic molecules
Energy: Chemical (organic molecules)
What are the carbon, energy, and electron sources for a photolithotroph?
Carbon: CO2
Electrons: Inorganic molecules
Energy: light
What are the carbon, energy, and electron sources for a photoorganotroph?
Carbon: CO2
Electrons: Organic molecules
Energy: light energy
What is the function of teichoic acids?
They are amphipathic molecules that traverse the gram positive cell wall

They are negatively charged on the outside and may attract + ions for later uptake by the cell

They may control autolysin activity and lend stability to the cell wall through linkages to NAM.
What is the difference between the two layers of the gram-negative outer cell wall membrane?
Outermost layer = LPS, Lipid A/O-Polysaccharide, has porins, etc.

Inner layer = regular phospholipids.
Where are porins located?
On the outer cell membrane of gram-negative bacteria.
What is the function and location of Braun Lipoproteins?
They are on the inner surface of the outer cell membrane and anchor it to the pglycan wall.
When will E.Coli switch to fermentative metabolism?
Grow anaerobically on glucose and ammonia/ammonium medium.
Which bacterial cell walls lack peptidoglycan?
Planctomyces and Chlamydia
What are the sizes of the bacterial ribosome and its subunits in Svedbergs?
Ribosome: 70S
Subunits: 50S + 30S
What is the size of the archaeal ribosome?
70S (but chemistry differs from bacterial ribosome)
When will E. Coli use anaerobic respiration?
Grow aerobically in a medium of glucose and nitrate (NO3-) as a terminal electron acceptor.
When will E. Coli carry out aerobic respiration?
Grow aerobically on a medium of glucose and ammonia/ammonium.
What is hydrogenase used for in hydrogen bacteria?
Overall rxn: H2 --> 2e- + 2H+

Membrane Hydrogenase: establish electrochemical gradient for oxidative phosphorylation

Cytoplasmic Hydrogenase: reduce NAD+ --> NADPH + H+.
Why does glycolysis yield 3 ATP in prokaryotes but only 2 net ATP in eukaryotes?
Glucose is already phosphorylated to G-6-P when it reaches the cytoplasm due to prokaryotic use of Phosphotransferase System.

Eukaryotes must invest additional ATP to phosphorylate glucose.
Which photosynthetic bacteria use cyclic photophosphorylation ONLY?
purple and green photosynthetic bacteria, phototrophic heliobacteria
Which photosynthetic bacteria require the use of reverse electron flow to generate reducing power (NADH)?
Purple photosynthetic bacteria
Which photosynthetic bacteria contain bacteriochlorophyll?
Anaerobic photosynthetics: purples/greens
What does Photosystem I make?
NADH/reducing power
What does Photosystem II make?
ATP
What is the reaction center of Photosystem II?
P680
What is the reaction center of Photosystem I?
P700
What is the reaction center used in anoxygenic photosynthesis?
P870
What protein do anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria use to generate reducing power?
Ferredoxin
What does Ferredoxin do in an overabundance of NADH?
Reroutes electrons through cytochrome Bf in PII to generate PMF rather than NADH.

This is cyclic phosphorylation in two-photosystem organisms.
Which AI signal has a boron atom in it?
AI2

not AI1

both made from DPD with LuxS