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56 Cards in this Set

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Amino Acids
Small substances that are the building blocks of proteins and are produced when proteins are digested.
Bowel
Intestine.
Dentin
Major tissue composing teeth, covered by the enamel in the crown and a protective layer of cementum in the root.
Fatty Acids
Substances produced when fats are digested.
Hydrochloric Acid
Substance produced by the stomach; necessary for digestion of food.
Pharynx
Throat, the common passageway for food from the mouth and air from the nose.
Amylase
Enzyme secreted by the pancreas to digest starch.
Digestion
Breakdown of complex foods to simpler foods.
Feces
Solid wastes; stools.
Ileum
Third part of the small intestine.
Anus
Opening of the digestive tract to the outside of the body.
Cecum
First part of the large intestine.
Duodenum
First part of the small intestine. It measures 12 inches in length.
Gallbladder
Small sac under the liver; stores bile.
Incisor
One of four front teeth in the dental arch.
Pancreas
Organ under the stomach; produces insulin (for transport of sugar into cells) and enzymes (for digestion of foods).
Portal Vein
Large vein bringing blood to the liver from the intestines.
Salivary Glands
Parotid, Sublingual, and Submandibular glands.
Triglycerides
Large fat molecules composed of three molecules of fatty acids with one molecule of glycerol.
Appendix
Blind pouch hanging from the first part of the colon (cecum).



** It is usually found in the RLQ **
Colon
Large intestine; cecum, ascending, transverse, and descending colon, and rectum.
Emulsification
Physical process of breaking up large fat globules into smaller globules, thus increasing the surface area that enzymes can use to digest the fat.
Glucose
Simple sugar.
Insulin
Horomone produced by the endocrine cells of the pancreas. It transports sugar into cells from the blood and stimulates glycogen formation by the liver.
Lower Esophageal Sphincter
Ring of muscles between the esophagus and stomach.

** Also called the Cardiac Sphincter **
Proteases
Enzymes that digest protein.
Rectum
Last section of the colon.
Sigmoid Colon
Lower part of the colon; shaped like an "S".
Uvula
Soft tissue hanging from the soft palate into the mouth.
Bile
Digestive juice made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder. It physically breaks up (emulsifies) large fat globules.
Common Bile Duct
Carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum.
Enamel
Hard, outermost layer of a tooth.
Jejunum
Second part of the small intestine.
Mastication
Chewing.
Parotid Gland
Salivary gland within the cheek, just anterior to the ear.
Pulp
Soft tissue within a tooth, containing nerves and blood vessels.
Rugae
Ridges on the hard palate and the wall of the stomach.
Sphincter
Ring of muscles within a tube.
Glycogen
Starch
Enzyme
A chemical that speeds up a reaction between substances.
Absorption
Passage of materials through the walls of the intestine into the bloodstream.
Defecation
Expulsion or passage of feces from the body through the anus.
Deglutition
Swallowing.
Esophagus
Tube connecting the throat to the stomach.
Lipase
Pancreatic enzyme necessary to digest fats.
Pyloric Sphincter
Ring of muscle at the distal region of the stomach, where it joins the duodenum.
Saliva
Digestive juice produced by salivary glands.
Stomach
Muscular organ that receives food from the esophagus. It is divided into the fundus, body and antrum (distal portion).
Canine Teeth
Pointed, dog-like teeth, next to (distal to) the incisors.


** Also called cuspids or eyeteeth. **
Palate
Roof of the mouth.
Peristalsis
Rhythm-like contractions of the tubes of the gastrointestinal tract and other tubular structures. It moves the contents throug the gastrointestinal tract at different rates; stomach (0.5 to 2 hours), small intestine (2-6 hours), and colon (6-72 hours).
Bilirubin
Pigment released by the liver in bile; produced from the destruction of hemoglobin, a blood protein.
Villi


** Singular : Villus **
Microscopic projections in the walls of the small intestine that absorb nutrients into the bloodstream.
Liver
A large organ located in the RUQ of the abdomen. It secrets bile; stores sugar, iron, and vitamins; produces blood proteins; and destroys worn-out red blood cells.
Papillae


** Papilla (singular) **
Small elevations on the tongue.It is any nipple-like elevation.
Alimentary Canal
The digestive tract (canal)