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41 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
1964 Civil Rights Act - Title VII
Title VII addressed discrimination in employment, which was becoming a problem due to the disproportionate results (over gender/race) from assessment devices (tests, interviews) used to make employment decisions.
1978 Uniform Guidelines on Employment Selection Procedures
* companies were legally mandated to demonstrate that their employment tests did not uniformly discriminate against any minority group
* addressed all devices used to make all types personnel decisions (not just paper-and pencil)
1990 Americans with Disabilities Act
* designed to remedy inequities in the workplace
Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB)
* selection and classification of military personnel
* administered to 300K-400K people each year (120K-140K are selected)
Over the past 20 years, the primary theoretical basis of I/O psychology has shifted from ______ to _____.
I/O psychology's focus has shifted from [BEHAVIORISM] to the [COGNITIVE FACTORS] that cause behavior.

[BEHAVIORISM] - concern with the social and environmental factors that shape behavior.

[COGNITIVE FACTORS] - how individuals receive information from their environment, how they process that information, and in turn how they manifest behavior.
* concern with the social and environmental factors that shape behavior
cognitive factors causing behavior
Concerns how individuals:

* receive information from their environment
* process that information
* manifest behavior via this information
cross-cultural psychology
An area of research that examines the degree to which psychological concepts/findings GENERALIZE to people in other cultures and societies.
Army Beta
a nonverbal intelligence test developed during WWI by I/O psychologists to assess illiterate recruits
Frederick Taylor
One of the founding fathers of I/O psychology:

* believed employees and management could work in tandem
* published The Principles of Scientific Management
* Pig Iron example
Gilbreth, Frank and Lilian
* researched time and motion in industrial production
* coined "therbligs" - elements of human motion
* stated "the human being is the most important element in industry"
Organizational Development
One of the six fields of I/O Psychology:

* analyze the structure of an organization to maximize satisfaction and effectiveness of individuals, work groups, and customers
* facilitate organizational change/growth
Taylor's Principles of Scientific Management
* science over rule of thumb
* scientific selection & training
* cooperation over individualism
* equal division of work
APA Division #
I/O Psychology is represented by Division 14 of the APA, the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP)
scientist-practitioner model
Educational framework for I/O psychology, which is based on:

* scientific inquiry
* practical application
licensing law
A law regulating BOTH:

* title of psychology
* practice of psychology
certification law
A law regulating:

* only the title of psychologist
The process of regulating a professional practice (psychology):

* standards/requirements vary by state
licensure controversy
1. Psychology licensure originally developed for health care (I/O psychologists are not health care providers).

2. Uniform national licensing exam has heavy emphasis on non-I/O areas of psychology (clinical and counseling).
Training and Development
One of the six fields of I/O Psychology:

* identify skills that need to be enhanced to improve job performance
* formulate, implement, and evaluate effectiveness of training programs
Selection and Placement
One of the six fields of I/O Psychology:

* develop assessment methods for the selection, placement, and promotion of employees
* validate test instruments (how well they predict performance)
* analyze job content (how compatible jobs are with individual's skills and interests)
Performance Appraisal/Measurement
One of the six fields of I/O Psychology:

* identify criteria or standards for job performance
* measure utility (value) of job performance to the organization
6 fields of I/O psychology
* Selection and Placement
* Training and Development
* Performance Appraisal/Measurement
* Organization Development
* Quality of Worklife
* Ergonomics
Quality of Worklife
One of the six fields of I/O Psychology:

* concerned with factors that contribute to a healthy, happy, and productive workforce
* redesign jobs to make them more meaningful and satisfying to employees
One of the six fields of I/O Psychology:

* design tools, equipments, and machines that are compatible with human skills
Sun Tzu recognized the need for:
* hierarchical organization
* staff planning
generic management
Socrates believed that management qualities were generic/universal.

"What makes a good chorus manager makes a good army manager."
W. L. Bryan
* conducted research on professional telegraphers and their skill development in sending/receiving Morse code
* emphasized the study of "concrete activities and functions as they appear in everyday life"
impetus for the emergence of I/O psychology
The merging of these two forces:

1. The pragmatic (applied interests) nature of some basic psychological research (e.g., Bryan).

2. The desire of industrial engineers to improve efficiency (e.g., Gilbreth).
Walter Dill Scott
One of the founding fathers of I/O psychology, studied:

* influence of advertising
* human efficiency
Hugo Münsterberg
One of the founding fathers of I/O psychology, he:

* is commonly called The Father of I/O Psychology
* published Psychology and Industrial Efficiency
* studied trolley car operators
* emphasized matching the person with work demands
* emphasized positively influencing employee attitudes
Army Alpha
an intelligence test developed during WWI by I/O psychologists for the selection and placement of military personnel
WWI's role in the emergence of I/O psychology
* WWI was a strong impetus to psychology's rise to respectability
* applied psychology emerged from WWI as a recognized discipline
Robert Yerkes
* President of the APA during WWI
* pushed for psychology as a valuable resource in the war effort
The Psychological Corporation
Founded by James Cattell in 1921, its purpose was to:

* advance psychology and promote its usefulness to industry
* provide reference checks on prospective psychologists
Hawthorne effect
A positive change in behavior that occurs at the onset of an intervention followed by a gradual decline, often to the original level of the behavior prior to intervention.

* can last from a few days to two years, depending on the situation
Hawthorne studies - definition
A series of research studies that refocused the interests of I/O psychologists to how work behavior manifests itself in an organizational context.

* original study: lighting & efficiency
* discovered that factors other than purely technical ones (e.g., lighting) influence productivity
Hawthorne studies revealed the importance of _______.
The Hawthorne studies revealed the importance of:
* employee attitudes
* an understanding or sympathetic supervisor
* the need to treat works as people, not merely human capital
situational stress tests
* conducted by U.S. Office of Strategic Services (OSS)
* assess soldiers' emotional and interpersonal reactions to stress and frustration using 3-person group exercises
Elton Mayo
* founder of human relations movement
human relations movement
Founded by Elton Mayo, it emphasized...

* individual needs
* informal groups
* social relationships the primary basis for behavior within organizations.