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114 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
There is a _______ ______ between what happens in organization and bioloigal state. In other words, who we are affects organization and organization affects who we are
Bidirectional relationship
Satisfaction with job is single most incluencial with ______ of life
Field of study aimed at predicting, explaining, understanding and changing human bx as it occurs in an organization
Organizational Behavior
Goals of Org. Bx:
1. Understanding _____
2. Increase the ______
3. Improve _______
Understanding the process
Increase the effectiveness
Improve phychological well being
Levels of analysis:
_____ focus on the individual; personaily traits; mood, learning
Microorganizational bx
Levels of analysis:
_____ is the group level of analysis- communication within work teams; productivity, supervisor/ subordinate relationship
Meso-organiztaional bx
Levels of analysis: Looks at the entire organization; like a culture
Macroorganation bx
Stucture social system consisting of group and individuals working together to met mutual objectives
Taylor came up with ______ saying that poeple shouldn't be considered parts of machine
Scientic Management
Taylor's scientic management took two key components:
The fact that someone was paying attention to the workers was enough to increase productivity
Human relationship approach
People are good workers; inhertintly good workers IF environment is conducive of being a good worker
Theory Y
People are lazy, cheat and are not good workers
Theroy X
This states that the organization can be influenced by the environment
Open Systems perspective
Open System Prespective: Bunny House, Input = _____; Throughput = _____; Output _____; Feedback ______; Impact______
Input = girl
Throughput = training/ STD screening, background checks
Output = sex/ services
Feedback = that person call and requests the service again
Impact = economy/ culture/ laws
Two sides of I/O
a. _____ = acedemic, learning, study organ. bx, look at motivation
b._____ = applying it to the organizaton
a. Science
b. Practice
It is best if you can ____ and ____ the information found in I/O
Learn and apply
Fields in I/O:
When someone uses promotion; matching skills with jobs is
Selection and placement
Fields in I/O:
WHen someone is learning
Training and development
Fields in I/O:
TO show how much the preformance is worth
Preformance apprisal
Fields in I/O:
Macrolevel; enhance preformance
Organizational development
Fields in I/O:
Increased happyness
Quality of life
Fields in I/O:
Design tools, equip that match human skills
How to construnt something
Consistancy in scores; not from one person to another just within the same person
Give them test, then give it to them again; two adm test dates; can have practice effects
More than one form of the same test; still concerned about practice effects; equavilency concern
Alternate form
With alternate form, will have equavilency concern or
Need to make sure that the test do not measure differnt things
One adm. date; two test; not concerned with practice effects; but still converned about equavilency
The extent to which a test measures what it says it measures
Type of Validity:
ask questions that cover content "poor man's"; face- looks good on the surface
Type of Validity:
Show validity b/c scores on teset are logically r/t something outside the test
Type of criterion:
Scores on test are logcially r/t something happening now; i.e. 4 highest teams shoudl be at practice, should have a good record, best coaches...
Type of criterion:
Show validity for something that happens in the future; best kind to have
Type of Validity:
Consistant procedures for adm and scoring the test
When using standardization concerned with
a. ______ or giving it the same way
b. ______ - comparing it to the norms
Personality Testing:
Responces are given; Likert, multiple choice; MMPI
Objective test
Personality Testing:
No responce options; these test are looking for consistant symbols, themes and look at abnormal/ red flag answers; like TAT and Inkblots
Projective test
When using individual differences, must consider:
1. _____- place people in jobs; leadership, looking for person
2. ____ = teach people the skills they need for organ. ; change person
3. _____ = altering jobs to met the needs of people
1. Selection
2. Training
3. Re-engineering
Dimension of physical ability:
Like a roofer; guard; cleaning staff
Muscular strength
Dimension of physical ability:
Ability to sustain ; like girl
Cardio endurance
Dimension of physical ability:
Use of balance, cordination
Movement quality
Dimension of cognitive ability:
Being able to communicate
Dimension of cognitive ability:
Math skills; like a bookeeper
Dimension of cognitive ability:
Can handle environmental demands; how efficient are the people
Reasoning ability
Dimension of cognitive ability:
The space involved
Spacial ability
Core components of diversity in personality:
Social, outgoing
Core components of diversity in personality:
Emotional adjustment
Core components of diversity in personality:
Cooperative? Work well with others?
Core components of diversity in personality:
Curious; artistic sensetivity
Core components of diversity in personality:
Peripheral Personality Traits:
can be internal or external
Locus of control
Locus of control:
1.____ believe you control what happens to you
2.____ Outside surroundings control you
One who would be better as a sells person and worse in a cubical
Sensation seeking
____ locus of control has an increased level of motivation
Causes that we assign to bx- why people do what they do
Person is doing what they are doing b/c of something inside them; who they are; disponsitional
Internal attribution
Focus on the setting; had the setting/situation been different; then they bx may have been different; Situational causes
External attribution
Can see the same behavior, but if you see it internal or external, reason will be different
Bx depends on the situation
Kelley's Covaration Therory:
Extent to which this person, does this bx in this setting
Kelley's Covaration Theory: This is unique or special to the situation/ setting; the extent to which this person does this bx in other settings
Kelley's Covaration Theory: Extent to which other people do this bx in this setting
Kelley's Covaration Theory:
Yes to consistancy,
yes to distictivenss
Yes to consenses leads to ....
External attribution/ target/ entity
Kelley's Covaration Theory:
Yes to consistancy,
No to distictivenss
No to consenses leads to ....
Internal attribution
Kelley's Covaration Theory:
Yes to consistancy,
yes to distictivenss
No to consenses leads to ....
Target BY actor attribution
Kelley's Covaration Theory:
Yes to consistancy,
No to distictivenss
Yes to consenses leads to ....
Target OR actor attribution; either something happened or the person is the problem
Kelley's Covaration Theory:
No to consistancy,
yes or no to distictivenss
Yes or no to consenses leads to ....
External (Circumstancially)
These are structured decisions, repetitive; have very few steps to the decision; right answer clear; i.e. Do I sharpen my pencil
Programmed-routine decision
Nonstructured; several steps and may not be right or wrong; i.e. when company decides on their logo
Non-programmed ; non-routine
Decisions become more _____ as you movoe up the opperational ladder; at lower end = ______
Certian answer to decision making question
Decreased risk
Uncertain answer to decision making question
Increased risk
Higher up you go on opperational ladder, then ____ level of risk
One will gather as much info as possible to ____ their risk
Tendency for groups to make risker decisions together than as individuals; this wasn't true
Risky Shift
The inhancement of individual tendencies when placed in a group of similar other; i.e. some people wanted to work overtime, now the business is open 24 hrs/day
Group Polarization
Rule of thumb; somethings come to our mind easily; the thought carries more wt. then it should in evaluation process; i.e. person getting in fight with client = think of that incident everytime you see the girl
Availability Heuristic
Focusing too much attention on the individual while disregarding the important population information; i.e. 4/5 people get a good remark about being poliet, will automatically think its not the girl who got in a fight with the client
Base-rate Fallacy
Seek to believe what we already think; same bx: still confirmes what we want to believe; i.e. If girl doesn't smile, she is automatically mad
Confirmation bias
Judgement Errors:
Individual has done something good, se we now judge them well
Halo effect
Judgement Errors:
Easy graders; give everyone a good review
Leniency errors
Judgement Errors:
No one is good enough
Severity errors
Judgement Errors:
In the middle; don't really have a strong opinion
Central tendency errors
Errors in attribution:
"Other directed"; think that why they did something is b/c of who they are, not the enviroment: Tend to overemphyses or place too much wt on internal/disportion. Smart = good; Dumb = bad; If girls gets in fight, it was her fault bc/ shes a fighter
Fundamental attribution error
Errors in attribution:
Self directed; internalize success and externalize failures
self-serving bias
Errors in attribution:
Both effort and ability are internal; we are far more impressed with ____ than _____
Any relatively perminant chance in bx due to experience/ knowledge
Operant conditioning is also called...
Instrumental conditioning
jiggle the hose theory; any bx FOLLOWED by a (+) consequence has an increased LIKLIHOOD of being repeated and any bx FOLLOWED by a (-) consequence has a decreased LIKLIHOOD of being repeated
Thorndike= Law of Effect
Bonus for each call back is an example of...
Positive reinforcment; adding something to increase bx
Probation for no call back is an example of...
Punishment; taking away freedom to decrease bx
take away bonus
Responce cost -
Take away environment (bad room)
Neg reinforcement
If the GOAL is to increase bx = ______, but if the GOAL is to decrease bx = ______
Punishement/ responce cost
Reinforcing successive approximations toward a goal/ bx; i.e. discount card for the first few times; each step toward target bx is reinforced
Schedule of learning: when or how often it will occur:
____ reward immediatly after the bx; effective in training
Schedule of learning: when or how often it will occur: _____ time gap b/w bx and pos. cosequence
Schedule of learning: when or how often it will occur:
Reinforcement everytime
Schedule of learning: when or how often it will occur: Reinforcement occurs every so often
______ is harder to extinguish
Schedule of learning: when or how often it will occur: Every 3rd time = bonus
Fixed ratio
Schedule of learning: when or how often it will occur: Average times that reinforcemnt is given; slower to extinguish; example is slot machine
Variable ration
When reinforcment is based on something; like grade in class depends on the test
Contigent reinforcement
When you don't have to do anything in order to get reinforcment
Noncontigent reinforcement
When one thinks "If I do this, this will happen."
Superstition bx
Problem with punishment: Very difficult to punish _____
Problem with punishment: Does a great job telling what not to do, but not what _______
to do
Problem with punishment: Effects are _______
Problem with punishment:
Do it when we are ____ and _____
angry and regret what we did/ said
Problem with punishment:
Sometimes people do it for ____ and that is exactly what they get
Observation Learning (Bandura):
1. Direction on Model
Observation Learning (Bandura):
2. Remembering
Recall the information
Observation Learning (Bandura):
3. Can you do it?
Observation Learning (Bandura):
4. Have to want to do it