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385 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Immune-mediated tissue damage
Hypersensitivity (HS)
Optimal site of antigen administration to elicit an immune response
Subcutaneous or intramuscular
Pathologic immune mechanisms of immediate hypersensitivity (Type I)
Th2 cells, IgE, mast cells, eosinophils
Properties of antigens that contribute to immunogenicity
Large, complex, particulate and foreign
Pathologic immune mechanisms of antibody-mediated hypersensitivity (Type II)
IgM, IgG vs. cell surface or extracellular matrix
Agents that improve immunogenicity when administered with an antigen
Adjuvants
Pathologic immune mechanisms of immune complex-mediated hypersensitivity (Type III)
Circulating Ag-Ab (IgG or IgM) complexes (soluble antigens)
Slow release of Ag; enhance Ag processing; stimulate innate immunity
Mechanism of action of adjuvants
Pathologic immune mechanisms of T cell-mediated hypersensitivity (Type IV)
CD4+ T cells (DTH); CD8+ CTLs
Small molecule that can not induce an immune response
Hapten
Mast-cell derived mediators; cytokine-mediated inflammation
Mechanisms of tissue injury in Type I
Conjugate or complex that induces an immune response to a hapten
Hapten-carrier complex
Complement and FcR-mediated recruitment and activation of leukocytes; Opsonization, phagocytosis; Abnormal cell function
Mechanisms of tissue injury in Type II
Antibody that reacts with a single epitope
Monoclonal antibody
Complement and FcR-mediated recruitment and activation of leukocytes
Mechanisms of tissue injury in Type III
Plasma cell fused to malignant myeloma cell
Hybridoma
Macrophage activation; direct target cell killing; cytokine-mediated inflammation
Mechanisms of tissue injury in Type IV
Pool of antibodies directed against multiple epitopes
Polyclonal antibody
Cytokines that induce isotype switching to IgE
IL4 and IL-13
Strength of interaction between one antibody and its antigen
Affinity
Antigens that elicit immediate hypersensitivity
Allergens
Sum of the strengths of multivalent antigens with all of the antibodies that bind to that antigen
Avidity
Individual with propensity to develop immediate hypersensitivities
Allergic or atopic
Reaction of an antibody with a cell or particle
Agglutination
(put in order)

a. Production of IgE
b. Activation of mast cells and release of mediators
c. First exposure to antigen
d. Th2 cells signal B cells to switch to IgE
e. Repeat exposure to antigen
f. IgE binds to FcεR1 on mast cells
Step 1-c
Step 2-d
Step 3-a
Step 4-f
Step 5-e
Step 6-b
Agglutination reaction of red blood cells with antibody
Hemagglutination
Hemagglutination test used to detect the presence of anti-Rh antibodies
Coomb’s test
Killing of a cell with antibody in presence of complement
Lysis
Inactivation of toxin or block of infectivity of a virus
Neutralization
Aggregation of an insoluble particle by an antibody
Flocculation
Concentration of antibody in a serum sample
Titer
Binding assay that uses light scatter to measure concentration of Ig in serum
Nephelometry
Binding assay that measures concentration of antibody or antigen in solution (plasma or serum)
ELISA
Binding assay that measures presence of proteins (antigens) in tissues or solutions
Western blot
Binding assay that detects presence of antigen on a slide using fluorescent-tagged antibodies
Fluorescent Microscopy
Binding assay that uses fluorescent-tagged antibodies and laser beam deflection to quantify cell populations.
Flow cytometry
Prevent growth or destroy transformed cells by immune system
Immune surveillance
Mutated self proteins; products of oncogenes or mutated tumor suppressor genes; aberrantly expressed self proteins; oncogenic viruses
Tumor antigens
Mechanism of tumor cell destruction
CTLs
Failure to produce tumor antigens by malignant cells
Mechanism of tumor evasion
Mutations in MHC genes or genes needed for antigen processing in tumor cells
Mechanism of tumor evasion
Production of immunosuppressive proteins or expression of inhibitory cell surface proteins by tumor cells
Mechanism of tumor evasion
Grafts from identical animals
Syngeneic
Grafts from animals of the same species
Allogeneic
Grafts from animals that are from different species
Xenogeneic
Antigens of allografts that are targets of rejection
MHC proteins
Recipient T cells recognize donor allogeneic MHC molecules on graft dendritic cells
Direct recognition
Recipient T cells recognize processed donor alloantigens
Indirect recognition
In vitro model of T cell recognition of alloantigens used to predict outcomes of grafts
Mixed lymphocyte reaction
Graft rejection mediated by preformed antibodies that occurs in minutes
Hyperacute
Graft rejection mediated by T cells and/or antibodies that occurs within days or weeks
Acute
Graft rejection mediated by T cells that occurs over months to years
Chronic
Graft rejection characterized by complement activation, endothelial damage, inflammation and thrombosis
Hyperacute
Graft rejection characterized by parenchymal cell damage, interstitial inflammation and inflammation of the endothelium
Acute
Graft rejection characterized by DTH-induced fibrosis
Chronic
Drugs that block T cell cytokine production by inhibiting calcineurin
Cyclosporine and FK506
Drug that inhibits macrophage cytokine secretion
Glucocorticoids
Biologic agent that depletes T cells by promoting phagocytosis or complement-mediated lysis
Anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody
Biologic agent that inhibits T cell proliferation
Anti-IL-2R antibody
Drug that blocks lymphocyte proliferation by inhibiting guanine synthesis
Mycophenolate mofetil
Transplantation of blood cells
Transfusion
Preformed ABO antibodies react against transfused blood cells
Transfusion reaction
Mature allogeneic T cells attack recipient’s tissues
Graft-vs.-host (GVH) disease
Defective immune system due to congenital defect
Primary or congenital immunodeficiency disease
Defective immune system due to infection, malnutrition, medical treatment
Secondary or acquired immunodeficiency disease
Deficiencies in this immune compartment lead to pyogenic bacterial infections
B cell deficiencies
Deficiencies in this immune compartment lead to viral, fungal and other intracellular bacterial infections
T cell deficiencies
Deficiencies in this immune compartment lead to variable types of infection depending on specific defect
Innate immune deficiencies
Lack of B and T cell-mediated immune responses
SCID
Defects in these genes impairs lymphocyte development
ADA, PNP, RAG, ZAP-70 or gc chain genes
Decreased Ig levels caused by defect in Bruton’s tyrosine kinase
XLA
Immunologic consequence of abnormal development of 3rd and 4th branchial pouches
Thymic hypoplasia
Disease marked by lack of CMI due to thymic hypoplasia
DiGeorge Syndrome
Disease marked by elevated levels of IgM, decreased levels of other antibody classes and decreased CMI
X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome
Consequence of defective CD40-CD40L signaling between T & B cells
No isotype switching
Selective deficiency of IgG, IgA and or IgM due to defects in heavy chains
Common variable immunodeficiency
Disease due to deficiency of MHC Class I or II molecules
Bare lymphocyte syndrome
Defective T cell responses due to abnormal antigen processing
Bare lymphocyte syndrome
Disease with defective microbicidal killing by phagocytes due to mutation in phagocyte oxidase
Chronic granulomatous disease
Laboratory test that detects defective phagocyte killing
Nitroblue tetrazolium test
Disease with chronic bacterial and fungal infections
Chronic granulomatous disease
Disease where defective or absent CD18 results in lack of leukocytes at site of infection
Leukocyte adhesion deficiency
Disease with recurrent bacterial infections due to defective lysosomal function
Chediak-Higashi
Disease where defective cytoskeleton components leads to abnormally small platelets and leukocytes
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome
Disease marked by deficient activation of classical complement pathway
Lupus-like diseases
Immunologic consequence of C2 and/or C4 deficiency
Failure to clear immune complexes
T-dependent antigens
Proteins
Polysaccharides, lipids, small chemicals, nucleic acids
T-independent antigens
B cell population that resides in follicles of lymph nodes
Follicular B cells
B cell population that resides in marginal zones of spleen
Marginal zone B (MZB) cells
B cell population that resides in mucosa and peritoneum
B-1 B cells
B cell populations that produce primarily IgM
MZB cells and B-1 B cells
Major antibody produced in primary response
IgM
Major antibody produced in secondary response
IgG, IgA, IgE
Components of B cell co-receptor complex
CR2 (CD21); CD19; CD81
Components of B cell antigen receptor complex
BCR; Iga, Igb
Ligand for CR2
C3d (and iC3b)
Anatomical site of activation of naive B cells
B cell zones of lymphoid tissues
Mechanism of helper T cell-induced activation of B cells
CD40L and cytokines
Effector mechanism of B cells in humoral immunity
Secretion of antibodies
Inducers of heavy chain isotype switching
CD40L and cytokines
Basis of X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome
Defective CD40L
Enzyme that induces switch recombination
Activation-induced deaminase (AID)
Major cytokine that induces switching to IgG
IFNg
Major cytokine that induces switching to IgE
IL-4
Major cytokine that induces switching to IgA
TGFb
Process that increases affinity of antibody for antigen
Affinity maturation
Anatomical site where affinity maturation occurs
Germinal centers of lymphoid follicles
Enzyme that results in numerous point mutations in Ig genes
AID
Mechanism of affinity maturation
Somatic hypermutation
This type of antigen induces primarily an IgM response
T-independent antigens
This type of antigen results in isotype switching
T-dependent antigens
Receptor that mediates antibody feedback
FcgRII receptor
Defense against ingested microbes
Th1 cells
Defense against infected cells with microbes in cytoplasm
CTLs
Anatomical site of activation of naive T cells
Lymphoid organs
Anatomical site of antigen elimination by effector T cells
Peripheral tissues
Homing molecules on activated T cells
E- and P-selectin ligand, LFA-1 or VLA-4, CXCR3
Homing molecules on naive T cells
L-selectin, LFA-1, CCR7
Immune-mediated tissue damage
Hypersensitivity
Effector cell of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH)
Macrophage
Major cytokine that activates macrophages to kill ingested microbes
IFNg
Skin test that detects DTH response to Mycobacteria
PPD
Time frame to elicit a DTH reaction
24-48 hours
Mechanisms of damage in DTH
Macrophages, CTLs, granulomatous inflammation
Chronic CMI response to TB
granulomas
Defense against helminth infections
IgE and IL-5-activated eosinophils
Enzymes that cleave and activate caspases
Granzymes
Protein necessary for delivery of granzymes into target cells
Perforin
Mechanism of CTL-mediated killing of target cell
Apoptosis
Cytokines that inhibit microbicidal activity of macrophages
IL-4, IL-10, IL-13
Activating signals for CTLs
Antigen recognition & firm adhesion
Viral-induced mechanism of immune evasion
Inhibit antigen presentation
Mycobacteria-induced mechanism of immune evasion
Inhibit phagolysosome fusion
Unresponsiveness by lymphocytes to self antigens
Immunologic tolerance
Tolerance induced in primary lymphoid organs
Central tolerance
Tolerance induced in peripheral tissues
Peripheral tolerance
Apoptosis of immature lymphocytes due to strong interaction with self peptides
Negative selection/deletion
T cell population that arises from recognition of self-antigen
Regulatory T cells
Markers of T regulatory cells
CD25 & Foxp3
Mechanisms of T regulatory cell-mediated inhibition of T cell responses
Inhibit T cell activation or effector functions
Functional inactivation of T cells when exposed to antigen without co-stimulation
Anergy
Inhibitory receptors that maintain inactivity of autoreactive T cells
CTLA-4
Apoptosis of mature lymphocytes that recognize self peptides
Deletion/activation-induced cell death
Mechanisms of apoptosis in activation-induced cell death
Pro-apoptotic proteins or Fas-FasL interaction
Expression of new light chain in B cells after recognition of self antigens
Receptor editing
Immune response against self antigens
Autoimmunity
Factors that contribute to development of autoimmunity
Genetics & Environment
Chance of autoimmunity in individual who inherits a particular HLA allele compared with one who does not
Relative risk
Defect in this gene results in autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome
Autoimmune regulator (AIRE)
Defect in these serum proteins results in lupus-like disease
C2 & C4
Defect in this gene results in X-linked polyendocrinopathy and enteropathy (IPEX)
Foxp3
Defect in these genes results in autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome
Fas/FasL
Similarity between microbial and self antigens
Molecular mimicry
Types of antigens that activate large numbers of T cells without binding to antigen recognition site of the TCR
Superantigens
Mechanism by which infection may “break” T cell anergy
Inducing co-stimulators on local APCs
Tissues/organs normally sequestered from immune response (immune privileged sites)
Eye, testes, ovary
Type of antigen present in primary lymphoid tissue
Tolerogenic self antigens
Type of antigen typically presented to lymphocytes without second signals
Tolerogenic self antigens
Type of antigen typically present throughout life
Tolerogenic self antigen
Type of antigen typically present in peripheral lymphoid tissue
Immunogenic foreign antigens
Type of antigen typically presented to lymphocytes with second signals
Immunogenic foreign antigens
Type of antigen typically short-lived and eliminated by immune response
Immunogenic foreign antigens
Route of administration of an antigen most likely to induce tolerance
Oral
Route of administration of an antigen most likely to induce an immune response
Subcutaneous or intramuscular
Most important antibody for complement activation
IgM > IgG
Primary antibody for defense against helminths
IgE
Antibody that provides mucosal immunity
IgA
Antibody that crosses the placenta to protect neonates
IgG
Major opsonizing antibody
IgG
Neutralizing antibodies
IgG, IgA
Antibody that mediates mast cell degranulation
IgE
Binds to dimeric IgA and facilitates transcytosis
Poly-Ig Receptor
NK cell-mediated killing of IgG-coated cells
Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity
Fc receptor involved in ADCC
FcgRIII (CD16)
Fc receptor involved mast cell degranulation
FceRI
Fc receptor involved in down-regulation of B cell activity
FcgRIIB (CD32)
Fc receptor involved in transporting IgG from blood to extracellular spaces
FcRn
C3 convertase of classical pathway
C4b2a
Complement products that are chemotactic
C5a > C3a, C4a,
C3 convertase of alternative pathway
C3bBb
Stabilizes C3bBb complex on pathogen surface
Properdin
Components of membrane attack complex
C5b6789
C5 convertase of classical pathway
C4b2a3b
C5 convertase of alternative pathway
C3bBbC3b
Component of MAC that polymerizes
C9
Complement product that is an opsonin
C3b
Deficiency of this complement regulatory protein results in Hereditary Angioneurotic Edema
C1 inhibitor
Host protein that displaces Bb from C3b
Decay accelerating factor
Proteins unique to the alternative pathway of complement
Properdin, Factor B and D
Type of immune protection induced by bacterial vaccines
Antibodies
Type of immune protection from live attenuated viral vaccines
Antibodies and CMI
Type of immune protection from subunit vaccines
Antibody
Type of immune protection from conjugate vaccines
Antibody
Type of immune protection from synthetic vaccines
Antibody
Mechanism of immune evasion by altering surface antigens recognized by immune system
Antigenic variation
Two heavy chains and two light chains
Ig or B cell receptor
Antigen-binding domains of a B cell receptor (BCR)
VH: VL
Predominant version of T cell receptor in adaptive immunity
ab receptor
Antigen-binding domains of the T cell receptor (TCR)
Va: Vb
Signaling molecules of BCR complex
Iga and Igb
Signaling molecules of TCR complex
CD3 and z (zeta)
Complexes of peptide: MHC molecules
T cell antigen
Proteins, polysaccharides, lipids, nucleic acids, small chemicals
B cell antigens
Cells whose antigen receptors that are both membrane bound and secreted
BCR/ Immunoglobulins (Ig)
Portion of Ig molecule that binds antigen
Fab
Portion of Ig molecule that binds complement
Fc
Portion of Ig molecule that binds to macrophages
Fc
Number of antigen binding sites on the TCR
One
Most abundant antibody in the bloodstream
IgG
IgG heavy chain
g
Antibody found in GI tract, colostrum, sweat, tears, saliva
Dimeric IgA
IgA heavy chain
a
Pentameric antibody that potently activates complement
IgM
IgM heavy chain
m
Only antibody that crosses the placenta
IgG
Major class of antibody directed at helminth infections
IgE
IgE heavy chain
e
Classes of antibody that serve as BCR on naive B cells
IgD and IgM
IgD heavy chain
d
Antibody that activates mast cells
IgE
Opsonizing antibodies
IgG and IgA
Two classes of Ig that possess a J chain
IgM and sIgA
Half-life of IgG
21 days
Derivation of antibodies from a single clone of B lymphocytes that have identical antigen specificity
Monoclonal antibody
k and l
Ig light chains
Portion of Ig molecule that determines isotype
Heavy chains
Activated and differentiated B cell that secretes antibody
Plasma cell
Gene segments in variable regions of Ig heavy chain and TCR b chain
V, D, and J
First recombination event in BCR heavy chain and TCR b chain
D-J joining
Ig light chain and TCR a chain gene segments in variable regions
V and J
Rearrangement of V, D, and J segments
Somatic recombination
Process that ensures expression of BCR with single specificity
Allelic exclusion
Change of Ig class but preservation of antigen specificity
Isotype switching
Nucleotide changes in variable regions of Ig genes affecting affinity for antigen
Somatic hypermutation
Enzymes responsible for somatic recombination
VDJ recombinase (RAG-1 and RAG-2)
Number of CDRs in an intact TCR
Six
Total number of V-(D)-J combinations
Combinatorial diversity
Number of CDRs in an intact BCR
Six
Stage of B cell with no detectable recombination events
Pro-B cell
Stage of B cell with recombined H chain and m RNA and surrogate light chains
Pre-B cell
Stage of B cell with IgM expressed on surface
Immature B cell
Stage of B cell with IgM and IgD expressed on surface
Mature B cell
Stage of T cell with no recombined b chain
Double negative thymocyte; Pro-T cell
Stage of T cell with recombined b chain and expressed pre-Ta
Pre-T cell
Stage of T cell with expressed TCR and both CD4 and CD8
Double-positive T cell; immature T cell
Weak recognition of MHC Class II + self-peptide
Positive selection for CD4+
Weak recognition of MHC Class I + self-peptide
Positive selection for CD8+
No recognition of MHC + self-peptide
Failure of positive selection
Strong recognition of MHC + peptide
Negative selection
Processed peptides bound to MHC molecules
T cell antigens
Recognition by T cells of peptides bound to one’s own MHC molecules
MHC restriction
Cells that capture and present peptides to T cells
Antigen-presenting cells (APC)
Dendritic cells, macrophages, B cells
Professional APC’s
Another name for immature dendritic cell in the skin
Langerhans cell
Transports antigen from epithelia to draining lymph node
Dendritic cells
Destination of antigens captured in epithelia and sub-epithelial tissues
Lymph nodes, MALT, GALT, BALT
Destination of blood-borne antigens
Spleen
Microbial-induced activators of dendritic cells
TNF, IL-1, TLR signaling
Destination of dendritic cells in lymph nodes
T cell zones
Chemical signal that attracts activated dendritic cells to draining lymph node
Chemokines that bind to CCR7 on dendritic cell
Afferent lymphatic vessel—lymph node---efferent lymphatic vessel
Flow of lymph through a draining lymph node
Human Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) proteins
Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA)
Genes that encode the Class I MHC molecules
HLA-A, B, C
Cells that express Class I MHC molecules
All nucleated cells
Genes that encode the Class II MHC molecules
HLA-DP, DQ, and DR
Cells that express Class II MHC molecules
Professional APC’s
Set of MHC alleles present on each chromosome
MHC haplotype
MHC molecules that are recognized by CD8+ T cells
Class I
MHC molecules that are recognized by CD4+ T cells
Class II
Domains of peptide-binding groove of MHC Class I molecules
a1:a 2
CD8 binding site of MHC Class I molecule
a 3
Domains of peptide-binding groove of MHC Class II molecules
a1:b1
CD4 binding site of MHC Class II molecule
b2
Source of antigens for MHC Class I molecules
Endogenous cytosolic proteins
Source of antigens for MHC Class II molecules
Endosomes/Lysosomes
Site of peptide loading for MHC Class I molecule
Endoplasmic reticulum
Site of peptide loading for MHC Class II molecule
Vesicle
Enzymes that generate peptides for MHC Class I molecules
Proteasome
Enzymes that generate peptides for MHC Class II molecules
Proteases in vesicles
T cell population that responds to peptide: MHC Class II molecules
CD4+ T cells
T cell population that responds to peptide: MHC Class I molecules
CD8+ T cells
Intracellular location of phagocytized microbes
Vesicles (phagolysosome)
Location of most intracellular pathogens that have invaded cells
Cytoplasm
T cell accessory molecule that binds co-stimulators
CD28
T cell accessory molecule involved in negative regulation of activated T cells
CTLA-4
APC molecule that provides second signal to T cells
B7
T cell accessory molecules involved in signal transduction
CD4, CD8, CD3 & z (zeta)
T cell accessory molecules involved in adhesion
LFA-1 and VLA-4
Substances that induce expression of co-stimulators on APCs
Adjuvants
Autocrine cytokine that promotes T cell proliferation
IL-2
Region of contact between APC and T cell
Immunologic synapse
Anatomical site of activation of T cells by APCs
Paracortex of lymph nodes
Tyrosine motifs on CD3 and z chains involved in signaling
ITAMs
Tyrosine kinase that triggers several signaling pathways
ZAP-70
High affinity version of the IL-2 Receptor
IL-2Rabgc
T cell population that defends against intracellular microbes
Th1
Cytokines that drive development of Th1 cells
IL-12, IFNg
Signature cytokines of Th1cells
Interferon-g, TNF, IL-2
T cell population that defends against extracellular microbes
Th2
Cytokine that drives development of Th2 cells
IL-4
Signature cytokines of Th2 cells
IL4, IL-5, IL-13
T cell population involved in inflammatory disorders
Th17
Signature cytokines of Th17
IL-17, IL-22
Cytokine that inhibits T cell activation
TGFb
Cytokine that induces B cell switching to produce IgE
IL-4
Cytokine that activates eosinophils
IL-5
T cell population that drives activation of macrophages and production of some classes of antibodies
Th1
T cell population that drives production of some classes of antibodies
Th2
T cell population that directly kills infected cells
CTLs
Ligand expressed on CD4+ T cells that makes APC better at stimulating T cells
CD40L
Cellular receptors for microbial antigens on innate immune cells
Pathogen recognition receptors
LPS, peptidoglycan, lipoteichoic acid, viral RNA, fungal mannans
Pathogen associated molecular patterns
General characteristics of innate immunity
No induction period, specificity or memory
Extensive physical barrier to infection
Epithelial lining of portals of entry
Most active phagocytic cell and most abundant circulating WBC
Neutrophil
Neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells, B cells
Phagocytic cells
Lysozyme, reactive oxygen intermediates, nitric oxide
Microbicidal molecules of phagocytes
Enzyme responsible for production of reactive oxygen species
Phagocyte oxidase
Pro-inflammatory cytokines that target endothelium, among others
TNF, IL-1
Adhesion molecules expressed on endothelium that mediate rolling of leukocytes
E and P Selectins
Adhesion molecules expressed on leukocytes that mediate tethering of leukocytes
Integrins
Lymphocytes of innate immunity that provide early defense against viral infections
NK cells
Major source of interferon-g (IFN) in innate immune system
NK cells
Structural domains found on inhibitory receptors of NK cells
ITIMs
Structural domains found on activating receptors of NK cells
ITAMs
Intraepithelial lymphocytes that are early sentinels of bacterial infections
gd T cells
Activator of classical pathway of complement
Antibody binding to C1q
Activator of alternative pathway of complement
Binding of C3b to microbial surfaces
Activator of lectin pathway of complement
Terminal mannose residues of microbial glycoproteins
Major opsonin generated by complement activation
C3b
Pro-inflammatory molecules generated by complement activation
C3a and C5a
Polymeric protein complex that lyses microbes
Membrane Attack Complex (MAC); C6-C9
Cytokines that activate endothelium
TNF and IL-1
Class of cytokines that increase integrin affinity and are chemotacic
Chemokines
Cytokine that induces interferon-g production by NK cells and T cells
IL-12
Cytokine that activates macrophages
IFNg
Anti-viral cytokines
IFNa/b (Type I IFNs)
Cytokine that down-regulates immune responses
IL-10
Pro-inflammatory cytokines
TNF, IL-1, IL-6
Inducers of the acute phase response
IL-6, TNF, IL-1
Induces proliferation of plasma cells
IL-6
C-reactive protein, mannose-binding lectin and others
Acute phase proteins
Signals generated by innate immune response to stimulate lymphocytes
B7, C3d and IL-12
Substances given with vaccines that stimulate immune responses
Adjuvants
Neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes, basophils, eosinophils
Cells quantified on a CBC
Two types of host defense systems
Innate & Adaptive immunity
First line of defense; nonspecific; always present
Innate immunity
Specific or acquired defense
Adaptive immunity
Two major classes of lymphocytes in adaptive immunity
B and T cells
Lymphocyte most responsible for the clearance of extracellular microbes.
B cells
Lymphocyte population most responsible for the clearance of intracellular microbes.
T cells
Classes of T cells
Helper, Cytolytic, Regulatory
Substance, usually foreign, that reacts with an antibody.
Antigen
Substance, usually foreign, that elicits an immune response.
Immunogen
Lymphocyte population that secretes antibodies
B cells (plasma cells)
Lymphocyte population that directly kills infected cells
Cytotoxic T cells
Lymphocyte population that helps B cells make antibodies
T helper cells
Lymphocyte population that helps activate macrophages
T helper cells
Active immunity that is naturally acquired.
Recovery from infection
Active immunity that is artificially acquired.
Vaccination
Passive immunity that is naturally acquired.
Placental transfer of IgG
Passive immunity that is naturally acquired.
Breast feeding of IgA
Passive immunity that is artificially acquired.
Injection of immune globulin
Maturation stage of a mature lymphocyte that has not yet engaged antigen.
Naive lymphocyte
Maturation stage of a mature lymphocyte that has been activated by antigen.
Effector lymphocyte
Maturation stage of a mature lymphocyte that is long-lived and ready to rapidly respond to antigen on the second/subsequent exposures.
Memory lymphocyte
Secondary lymphoid tissue where the response occurs to blood-borne antigens.
Spleen
Secondary lymphoid tissue where the response occurs to tissue-borne antigens.
Lymph nodes, MALT, GALT, BALT
Major cell types involved in innate immunity
Granulocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, NK cells
Neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
Granulocytes
Primary lymphoid tissue
Bone marrow, thymus
Anatomic location where stem cells reside
Bone marrow
Anatomic site of B cell maturation
Bone marrow
Anatomic site of T cell maturation
Thymus
Cells that capture and present peptides to T cells
Antigen-presenting cells (APC)
Professional antigen presenting cells
Dendritic cells, macrophages, B cells, FDC
Response to first exposure to an antigen
Primary immune response
Response to repeat encounters with the same antigen
Secondary immune response
Major antibody produced in serum during primary immune response
IgM
Major antibody produced in serum during secondary immune response
IgG
Anatomic location of T cells in lymph nodes
Paracortex
Anatomic location of B cells in lymph nodes
Follicle (cortex)
Anatomic location of T cells in spleen
Periarteriolar sheath
Specialized venules in lymph nodes where T cells enter
High endothelial venules