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14 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Alcohol Use and Pregnancy
Maternal prenatal alcohol use is one of the leading preventable causes of birth defects and developmental disabilities. There is no known safe amount of alcohol to drink while pregnant nor a safe time to drink while pregnant. when pregnant woman drinks, so does her baby. CDC is trying to prevent alcohol exposure during pregnancy by educating women of childbearing age about the dangers of alcohol and intervene with at risk alcohol users that are prego.
Evaluation of Contraceptive Efficacy and Cycle control of a Transdermal contraceptive patch vs an oral contraceptive
Oral contraceptive pills are effective but poor compliance increases rates of pregnancy during treatment. Results: overall and method-failure pearl indexes were numerically lower with the patch vs OC (oral). the diff. was not statistically significant. the incidence of breakthrough bleeding/spotting was higher only in the first 2 cycles in the patch group. the avg. compliance with ppl was about 10% lower in the OC, both treatments were similarly well tolerated, however application site reatctions, breast discomfort, and dysmenorrhea were significantly more common in the patch group. Conclusion: THE CONTRACEPTIVE PATCH IS COMPARABLE TO A COMBO OC IN CONTRACEPTIVE EFFICACY AND CYCLE CONTROL. COMPLIANCE WAS BETTER WITH THE WEEKLY CONTRACEPTIVE PATCH THAN WITH THE OC.
Psychological Responses of Women after First-Trimester Abortion
Objectives: to sudy women's emotions, evaluations and mental health after an abortion as well as changes over time in these responses and their predictors.RESULTS: 2 years postabortion: 72% satisfied, 69% would do again, 72% said more benefit that harm, 80% were not depressed, 1% reported posttraumatic stress disorder. Depression decreased and self-esteem increased from preabortion to postabortion, BUT negative emotions increased and decision satisfaction decreased over time. Prepregnancy history of depression was a risk factor for depression, lower self-esteem, and more negative abortion specific outcomes 2 years postabortion. younger age and having more kids preabortion also predicted more negative abortion evaluations. CONCLUSIONS: most women do not experience psychological problems or regret their abortion 2 years postabortion, but some do. those who do tend to be women with a prior history of depression.
The Lives and Voices of Highly Sexual Women
American women who experience very strong and grequent sexual desire have often been either ignored or stigmatized. A study of highly sexual women (convenience sample)described how their sexuality has affected their lives strongly. first they internally sensed demand for sex excitement and satisfaction too intense to be ignored. for some it was a major organising principle of their time and enrergy. second their lives are lieved in a society that often defines highly sexual women in pejorative ways. women reported experiencing struggles and challenges in almost every area of their lives because of their sexualitym including feelings about themselves and their relationships with partners, female friends and acquaintances. for women to be allowed to experience their sexual selves fullym political and social changes permitting women to feel not only more sexual but also safer must occur.
Investigating the Underlying Structure in Sadomasochistically Oriented Behavior
A study of 29 sexual behaviors associated with 1 out of 4 diff broad themes of SM behavior, and how they represent diff scales of intensity within each theme. The themes were: Hypermasculinity, administration and receipt of pain, physical restriction, and humiliation. e.g.: wanted to examine whether skin branding is more intense expression of pain that spankin or faceslappin is a more intense expresion of humiliation than flagellation, etc.S/M ppl reported which of the 29 behaviors they had done in the past year. Analysis supported the existence of cumulative scales in each of the 4 themes, SUGGESTING THAT THE ORDER IN WHICH PPL ENGAGE IN DIFF SM BEHAVIORS IS NOT RANDOM AND THAT SPECIFIC, LESS INTENSE BEHAVIORS GENERALLY PRECEDE MORE INTENSE BEHAVIORS GENERALLY PRECEDE MORE INTENSE BEHAVIORS
Childhood Sexual Abuse and Adult Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders in Women
Women who report childhood sexual abuse are at increased risk for developing psychiatric disorders in adulthood. population based sample of twins self reported 3 levels of CSA:nongenital, genital and intercourse. Women with CSA have a substantially increased risk for developing a wide range of psychopathology. most of this association is due to more severe forms of CSA and connot be explained by background familial factors. Although other biases cannot be ruled out, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that CSA is casually related to an increased risk for psychiatric and substance abuse disorders.
Sexual Harassment of Adolescents Perpetrated by Teachers and Peers: An Exploration of the Dymanics of Power, Culture, and Gender in Secondary Schools
study compares and contrasts sexual harassment on students from peers and from teachers. (14-15yr olds). There are important differences. Unwanted sexual behavior by peers is a cultural phenomenon that occurs in public areas. the relatively low incidence of unwanted sexual behavior (18%) however does not fully reflect the culture model. sexual harassment by teachers is a particularly detrimnetal experience for adolescents, and health-related probs are therefore reported in higher numbers. contrary to the assupmtons of the Power Model, sexual harassment perpetrated by teachers is not incidental (27%) and does not only occur in secluded places.
"Just trying to Relax":
Masculinity, Masculinizing Practices, and Strip Club Regulars
explores customers understandings of their visits to heterosex strib clubs and ways in which those visity become moeaningful to them in relation to cultural discourses around masculinity, sexuality, leisure, and consumption, as well as in relation to their everyday lives and relationships. no every guy finds strip clubs pleasurable. it examines regular customers and how their visits are touristic and masculinizing. it also explores gender, sexualitym and power in the mens performances of desire in the clubs
A New View of women's sexual problems: why new? why now?
unnecessary medicalization, hoping that their new view will influence the sexuality theory. fortunately the global feminist mvt. has produced an unshakeable commitment to women's sexual self-determination that can serve as both inspiration and gadfly as sexology navigates the challenges of sex in the twenty first century
Effect on condoms of reducing the transmission of herpes simplex virus type 2 from men to women
HSV-2 is on of most commone STI's in US. no prospective sudy has shown the ability of condoms to reduce transmission of it. this evaluates resk factors for hsv2 and efficacy in condoms as prevention.CONCLUSION: condom use offers significant protection against HSV2 infection in susceptible women. changes in sexual behavior, correlated with counseling about avoiding sex when a partner has lesions, were associated with reduction in hsv-2 acquisition over time. these data suggest that identification of discordant couoples can reduce transmission of hsv-2 especially for heterosexual couples in which the male partner has hsv.2 infection
Sexually transmitted diseases among american youth: incidence and prevalence estimates, 2000
ppl age 15-24 are a quarter of sexually experienced pop. but the incidence and prevalence of STDs are unknown for them. This was researched and found that out of 18.9 million new cases of STDs, 48% were in that age group.three specific STD's accounted for 88% of all of these amon 15-24yr olds.CONCLUSION: these estimates emphasize the toll that STDs have on american youth. more representative data are needed to help monitor efforts at lowering the burden of these infections
Prospects for Utero Human Gene Therapy
gene therapy for the retament of disease is being pursued. However a number of genetic disorders result in irreversible damage to the fetus before birth. in these cases, as well as for those with genetic diseases who may benefit from therapy before symptoms are manifested, in utero gene therapy (IUGT) could be beneficial! some success in animals, but still some questions before trials in humans can begin. this says what studies still need to be done before put on trial.CONCLUSION: though IUGT is promising, b4 clinical trials on humans, you have to answer questions concerning the appropriate disease, delivery procedure, efficacy, safety, and germ line transmission are successfully resolved by further animal experiments.
the accessibility of abortion services in the US, 2001
an analysis of all abortion clinics in the US.
CONCLUSION: avotion at very early and late gestations and early medical abortion are more available that before, but charges have increased and antiabortion picketing remains at high levels. thus many women still face substantial barriers to obtaining an abortion.
Sex offenses:
there are many sex crimes that are sometimes labeled as consensual. they include adultery, bigamy, fornication, incest bet. adults,etc. criminalization is controversial at least in part because of the consent issue.if two adults agree to participate ina private sex act, what harm can justify state intervention? maybe harm to third party. etc.