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233 Cards in this Set

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combination birth control pills
birth control pills that contain a combination of estrogen and progestin
how pills work
mainly by preventing ovulation
failure rate % for contrception pills
.03%
side effects of pills
blood clots, stroke
Advantages of pill
near 100% effective, doesnt interfere with intercourse, is'nt messy, reduces menstral flow and cramps, iron deficiencty is less likely, can clear up acne, protective effect against pelvic inflammatory disease and ovarian and endomerial cancer.
Disadvantages of pill
cost, place burden of contriception, taking correctly is complicated, no protection agains STD's.
triphasic pill
pill containing a steady level of estrogen and three phases of progesterone, intended to mimic more closely women's natural hormonal cycles.
patch
same hormones as pills, lasts 7 days,
vaginal ring
same hormones as combination pill just in smaller doses, remains in vagina for 21 days, once removed she waits 7 days to put a new one in
depo-provera injections(DMPA)
progestin administered by iinjection, failure rate of 3%
intrauterine device(IUD)
inserted into the uterus by a doctor and remains in place until the woman wants it removed.
how the IUD works
it prevents fertilization, failure rate for first year is .07% then drops as the years go.
diaphragm
circular, dome-shaped piece of thin rubber with a rubber-covered rim of flexible metal. it fits snug over the cervix. must be applied with spermicide. must be in for atleast 6 hrs and no more then 24
cervical cap
pretty much the same as the diaphram but is a more snug fit on the cervix. must be applied with spermicide. can remain in place for up to 48 hrs
male condom
thin sheath that fits over the penis.
female condom
made of polyurethane and resembles a clear baloon. it has 2 rings. one is inserted into the vagina and the other is spread over the vaginal enterance
spermicides
substance that kills sperm
douching
flushing out the inside of the vagina with a liquid
rhythm (fertility awareness) methods
involves abstaining from intercourse around the time a woman ovulates
calendar method
woman determines when she ovulates by keeping a calendar of the lenght of menstrual cycles
basal body temperature(BBT)
woman keeps track of ovulation by keeping track of her temperature
cervical mucus method
woman determines when she ovulates by checking cervical mucus
sympto-thermal method
combination of basal and cervical mucus methods
minilaparotomy(tubual ligation)
type of female sterilization
erotophobes
people who feel guilty and fearful about sex
erotophiles
people who feel comfortable with sex
vacuum aspiration
method of abortion performed during the first trimester and involves sucking out the contents of the uterus, done in doctors office/clinic
dilation and evacuation(D&E)
similar to vacuum but it is done in a hospital
induced labor
done during late 2nd trimester, forcing labor and misscarriage
hysterectomy
surgical method of abortion in late 2nd trimester
mifepristone
the abortion pill
vasocongestion
accumulation of blood in the blood vessels of a region of the body, especially the genitals; a swelling or erection results
Myotonia
muscle contraction
excitement
the first stage of sexual response, erection in male and vaginal lub in female
plateau
second stage of sexual response, just before orgasm
orgasmic platform
tightening of entrance of vagina caused by contractions of muscles that occur during plateau stage
orgasm
third stage of sexual response, an intense sensation that occurs at the peak of sexual arousal
resolution
fourth stage of sexual response, body returns to unaroused state
retractory period
period following orgasm during which the male cannot be sexually aroused
clitoral orgasm
orgasm in females from stimulation of clitoris
vaginal orgasm
orgasm from stimulation of vagina in heterosexual intercourse
multiple orgasm
series of orgasms occurring within a short period of time
triphasic model
Kaplans model with the three phases: desire, vasocongestion, orgasmic release
retrograde ejaculation
orgasm in male is not accompanied by an external ejaculation (dry ejaculation)
grafenberg spot(G-Spot)
small region on front wall of vagina, responsible for female orgasm
limbic system
set of structures in the brain believed to be important in sexual behavior
organizing effects of hormones
early development, result in permanent change in brain or reproductive system
activating effects of hormones
adulthood, activation of sexual behaviors
pheromones
biochemicals secreted outside of the body that help animals communicate, also a sex attractant
menstraul synchrony
convergence of the dates of menstrual periods among women who are in close contact with each other
coitus
sexual intercourse
man on top advantages
best position for contraception, leaves womans hand free to stroke the mans body, couples may better express their love
man on top disadvantages
not good for pregnant women, not good if man or woman is extremely obese, not good for conroling ejaculation
woman on top advantages
alot of clitoral stimulation, woman can control stimulation she gets, good for man who want to delay ejaculation, also good if the man is tired
rear entry advantages
mans hands are free to stimulate clitoris
rear entry disadvantages
not facing eachother, small amount of air may enter vagina making a noise
side to side advantages
good for leisurely or prolonged intercourse, good if one or both of partners are tired, good for pregnant and obese
chlamydia trachomatis
bacterium that is spread by sexual contact, male have thin, clear discharges and mild pain or urniation. females usually have no symptoms(asymptomatic)
chlamydia treatments
is treatable with azithromycin or doxycycline.
untreated chlamydia in males
can cause urethra damage, epididymitis, reiters syndrome
untreated chlamydia in females
pelvic inflammatory disease(PID), possible infertility due to scarring of fallopian tubes.
Gential warts
cauliflower like warts appearing on the genitals
genital warts treatment
several are available, usually involve applying a treatment directy to the warts until they fall off
HPV
virus that causes genital warts
HPV causes
leading cause of cervical cancer
genital herpes
disease of the genital organs caused by the herpes simplex virus
genital herpes symptoms
small, painfull bumps or blisters on the genitals. vaginal lips for females and on the penis for males
AIDS(acquired immune dificiency syndrome)
disease that destroys the body's immune system
HIV
human immune difiency virus, virus that causes AIDS
gonorrhea
oldest of sexual diseases. causes pusslike discharge and painfull, burning urination. no symptoms in 80% of women
gonorrhea treatment
treated with a drug called ceftriaxone
treponema pallidum
bacteria that causes syphilis
syphilis
disease that causes a chancre to appear in the primary stage
chancre
painless, ulcerlike lesion witha hard, raised edge
primary-stage syphilis
first few weeks of a syphilis infection during which the chancre is present
secondary stage syphilis
2nd stage occuring several months after infection, chancre disappears and a body rash appears
latent syphilis
3rd stage which may last for years, symptoms disappear but person is still infected
late syphilis
4th and final stage disease does damage to major organs of the body
congenital syphilis
infection in a newborn baby, gets from infected mother
treatment of syphilis
penicillin
hepatitis B
can be transmitted through blood, saliva, semen, vaginal secretions and other bodily fluids
trichomoniais
caused by protozoan, causes white or yellow discharge with an unpleasant odor
trichomoniais treatment
metronidazole
moniliasis/candidiasis
form of vaginitis caused by yeast fungus candida. causes a thick white discharge
christianity
thought wet dreams were intercourse with tiny spiritual creatures
islam
believed sex was one of the finest pleasures of life
judaism
believed that sex was a gift that should be used responsibly, never used for evil
antoni von leewenbeck
first to see sperm through microscope
oscar hertwig
first to see fertilization
sigmund freud
looked at human mind
clelia mosher
looked at females and their sexual behaviors
henry havelock ellis
first to talk about abnormal sexual behaviors
richard von kraft ebing
abnormal behavior that leads to psycho illness, "psychopathia sexualis"
santals
have sex 5 times a day in early marrage
inis baeg
believe intercourse is hard on health
mehinaku
have little sex
managaia
boys first hear about masturbation at 7
trobiriand
kissing consist of sucking lips and tongue
popapean
man places fish in vulna then gradually licks it out
hispanics
motherhood and virginity are highly valued untill marriage
chinese
are repressive about sexuality
africans
some emphasize sexual propriety and teach their girls to be modest
uniqeness of animals and humans
many mammals such as primates masturbate like humans do, there are also alot of mammals that have homosexual behaviors
id
basic personality, operates on pressure principle
ego
keeps id in line, operates on reality principle
superego
conscience, operates on idealism principle
oral phase
1st phase of psychosexual development, suckling, 1-2 yrs
anal phase
2nd phase of psychosexual development, elimination, 2-4 yrs
phallic phase
3rd phase of psychosexual development, develops oedipus complex, 5-6 yrs
genital phase
4th phase of psychosexual development, puberty and sexual urges, 8-9 to adult
penis
external sexual organ, used for urination
corpora cavernoso
spongy bodies on top half of penis
corpus spongiosum
spongy bodies on bottom half of penis
foreskin
skin covering tip of penis (uncircumsized)
scrotum
skin containing testes
testes
manufacture sperm and sex hormones
seminiferous tubules
tubes in testes that make sperm
interstitial cells
cells in testes that make testosterone
sperm
male reproductive cell
epididymis
highly coiled tube on edge of testes
vas deferens
tube from testes to epididymis, out of scrotum and to urethra
seminal vessicles
sacklike structures that lie above prostate, produce 70% of seminal fluid
prostate
gland that secretes some fluid in semen
coupers gland
glands that secrete clear alkaline fluid into urethra
prostate cancer signs
frequent urination, difficulty in urination, difficulty emptying bladder
testicular cancer signs
lumps on testes, change in consistency in testes, may be pain in lower abdomen or groin
vulva
all external female organs together
clitoris
small, highly sensitive sexual organ
mons pubis
fatty tissue under pubic hair
outer lips
(labia majora) fatty tissue one either side of vagina
inner lips
(labia minora) thin fold of skin on either side of vagina
bartholin glands
tiny glands on either side of vaginal entrance
perineum
skin between vagina entrance and anus
introitus
another word for vaginal entrance
urethra
tube which urine is passed from bladder
hymen
(cherry) thin membrane that may partially cover entrance
4 types of hymen
annular, septate, cribriform, imperforate
vagina
where penis is inserted
pubocorcygeus muscle
muscle around vaginal entrance
vestibular bulbs
erectile tissue running under inner lips
skene's gland
female prostate
uterus
organ where fetus develops
fallopian tubes
(oviducts) tubes extending from uterus to ovary
ovaries
where eggs are produced
clitoridectomy
removal of clitoris
infibulation
sewing outer lips together to prevent intercourse
% of breast cancer in upper outer quadrant
50%
% of breast cancer in upper inner quadrant
15%
% of breast cancer in lower outer quadrant
11%
% of breast cancer in lower inner quadrant
6%
% of breast cancer in nipple
18%
causes of cervical cancer
unknown but linked to: virus (HPV), early sexual intercourse, increase # of partners, long term pill use, mother used DES to prevent miscarriage
testis determining factor
the y chromosome determines the baby being a male
mullerian ducts
developes into the fallopian tubes in females
wolffian ducts
developes the epididymus, vas deferens, and ejaculatory duct in males
decent of testis
the travel down into the scrotum via a passage called the inguinal canal
cryptorchidism
(undescendend testes) when one or both testes fail to descend into the scrotum
inguinal hernia
when inguinal canal doesnt close off completely allowing it to reopen later in life. this can allow intestine to drop into the scrotum
xxy
male sudohermaph
xo
female sudohermaph
xo/xy
mixed gonads, both male and female. true hermaph
xyy
male sudohermaph
xxx
female sudohermaph
xx/xy
both male and female. true hermaph
androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS)
genetic male with normal female genitals
DHT deficiency syndrome
genetic male with what appear to be male genetals, then at puberty develop masculan
DES exposure or use
male genetals may not develope right
congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)
genetic female with normal male genitals
2 spirits
believed intersexuality and transexuality are gender roles
hormones
chemical substances secreted into the blood stream
hypothalamus
small region in brain that regualtes the body functions, including sex hormones
pituitary gland
gland on lower side of brain below hypothalamus, regulates levels of sex hormones
gonads
ovaries or testes
testosterone
hormone secreted by testes in the male
estrogen
group of female hormones
proestrogen
female sex hormone secreted from ovaries
follicular phase
1st phase of menstration, egg matures for ovulation
ovulatory phase
2nd phase of menstration, release of an egg from ovaries
luteal phase
3rd phase of menstration, follows ovulation
menstrual phase
4th phase of menstration, endometrium of uterus is discharged
endometriosis
endometrium grows abnormally outside uterus
toxic shock syndrome
bacterial infection associated with tampoon use
pre-menstrual syndrome
combination of sever physical and psychological symptoms
quickening
1st movement of fetus
braxton-hicks
contraction
engagement
baby engages itself in mothers cervix
lightening
when baby moves lower with uterus
lamaze technique
breathing and relaxation technique
stages of pregnancy
dilation & effairment- 10cm
delivery of baby/fetus
delivery of placenta
episiotomy
cutting into perenial muscle to prevent tearing while babys head is coming out
breech position
bottom first
transverse position
laying down
oblique position
between preech and transverse or between lephalic and transverse
lephalic position
head first
pseudocyesis
false pregnancy, thinks she is pregnant but isnt
ectopic pregnancies
pregnancy in places other than uterus(usually fallopian tubes)
rh incompatibility
when protein in mothers blood is alittle different fron babies
rhogam
shot given to mother to prevent rh incompatability
toxemias of pregnancy
toxens that gather from being pregnant
signs of toxemias
excessive vomitting, diabetic, pre-eclampsia & eclampsia
pre-eclampsia
high blood pressure, water logging(ederma), protein in urine(albuming)
eclampsia
seizure, coma
thalidomide
causes birth defects(no limbs)
alcohol
causes vitamin depletion, low birth weight, prematurity, still birth, birth defects
morphine
causes low birth weight, irritable/hyperactive, feeding problems
cocaine
causes low birth weight, birth defects, still birth
steroids
causes low birth weight, jaundice, cleft palate, still birth
nicotine
causes early cancer
anti-histamine
causes birth defects
causes of infertility in females
PID caused by STD's, failure to ovulate, blockage of fallopian tubes, hostile mucus
causes of infertility in males
infections in reproductive system caused by STD's, low sperm count
artificial insemination
arifically planting semen in the vagina
paraphilias
unconventional sexual behavior that is obsessive and compulsive
learning theory
classical method
cognitive psychology
serious distortion of cognitive thinking
sexual addiction
pre-occupation and sexual thoughts, rituals, compulsion, despair, guilt, hopeless, helpless
discipline
need to restrict someone
exhibitionism
exposure of the genitals to an unwilling viewer
fetishism
arousal from non-animate objects. ie: shoes, door knobs
frotteurism
need to rub ones genitals against a stranger, especially ina tightly packed crowds
gerontophilia
need for a sex partner much older than oneself
masochism
need to be punished or hurt, having pain inflicted
mysophilia
dependency of something soiled or filthy. eg: sweaty underwear, jockstraps, used tampoons
narcissism
love of or sexual desire for ones own body
pedophilia
sexual activity with children
sadism
sexual gratification from inflicting pain pr humiliating on others
satryiasis
hypersexuality in the male
somnophilia
need to fondle a stranger who is asleep
triolism or troilism
need to be the third member of a sexual partnership
urolagnia
urination on another person or being urinated on
voyeurism
being dependently responsive to the risk of being caught while illicitly peering at another person undressing
primary intervention
psychologically altering behavior when they are children, or talking to them as adults
secondary intervention
sergical castration, hormonal treatment, anti-depressents