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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Wundt elements of consciousness
2 - sensation (objective, same as idea except immediate not memory) and feelings (subjective, 3-D [excitation/depression, tension/relaxation, pleasure/displeasure
Weber's ratio
JND, constant proportion of standard stimulus
complication clock
use reaction time to measure mental time to process info, Wundt base for reaction time and prior entry, Helmholtz nerve speed, Cattell
unconscious inference
Helmholtz, past expereinces are activated by sensations thus converting them into perceptions
Unity of Mind
idea of Fechner that mind and body = 1, equal with Weber/Fechner law
Fechner methodological contributions
1st time taken perception and organized it into physiological basis - 1st book of psychophysics - showed possible to measure mental events and relate to physical one
Constant stimuli, method of limits, etc. methods
'Physiological Psychology' establish psychology as science with methods of physiology; experimental psych lab at Leipzig (1st); Volkerpsychologiem analyze content of conscious experience into elements with immediate introspection (mental chemistry), Tri-dimensional theory of feelings; origin of formal experimental psychology, method of introspection,
functionalism, personality testing, reaction time experiment with lip-sensors, words perceived as unit not letter by letter, complication and prior entry
psychology should be act of conscious experience not contents, Act movement, empirically observable rather than experimental focus, intentionality, phenomenological introspection
student of Brentano, Act movement, phenomenological, his students founded Gestalt, clever Hans horse
School of Act psychology - Gestalt psych, introspection, impalpable awareness of underlying process not aware of, all introspection is retrospection once go to study it b/c past, Wurzberg school of act psych (away from Wundt), some mental operations are imageless
empiricist, associationist, resticted Wundt to American structuralism of breaking conscious experience into elements, stimulus error - reduction screen, 3 categories of conscious experience (sensation, feelings, images; psych = analytic study of generalized, adult, normal human mind through introspection; 'Experimental Psychology' - basic experimental methods
banana image experiment --> can't tell difference between image and projections; reject Titchener and support Wundt
empiricist, first truly experimental psychology experiment with learning and memory associations
Wundt student, use reaction time to measure timing for various mental acts, subtraction method
von Tschich
prior entry (bell/clock timing), original complication with prior entry - Kinnebrook replication/implications
prior entry
von Tschich, bell/clock timing - visual processing delayed
mental chemistry
John Stuart Mill, used by Wundt for content of conscious experience with introspection
directed toward prescence or absnece of sensation (Wundt/Titchener) or directed toward detection of complex thought processes (Brentano, Stumpf, Kulpe, Husserl)
mediate experience
Kulpe, symantic process accompany introspection
element of consciousness
Wundt - 2 (sensations/feelings)
Titchener - 3 (sensations/feelings/images)
extracting from experience, see elements and molecules of consciousness
impalpable awareness
Kulpe, underlying process not directly aware of, process might be more important than content
stimulus error
Titchener, when mediation occured by labeling an object of introspection (apple instead of red, shiny), error is to report perception not sensation
reduction screen
peephole to view object to eliminate stimulus error, Titchener
imageless thought
Kulpe, no sensory/image elements, pure mental thoughts with no reference or image
unconscious inference
Helmholtz depth perception learned but not aware of any process, perception is unconscious based on experience
cultural anthropology, social psychology cannot eb experimental, Wundt
doctrine of apperception
Wundt, for unified experience, we see environment as holistic experience not its elements, creative synthesis
Act school
mental processes aimed at peforming some function, Brentano - Stumpf, mental operations
take it as is or leave it, can't use rational processes to understand how distorted
Titchener images vs. sensations
Differ by quality (kind), attensity (clarity), intensity (strength), protensity (duration - Perky), extensity (spatial fullness)
Wundt 'Contributions to the Theory of Sensory Perception'
laid out problems and methods for a science of the 'new psychology', described Wundt experiments
Wundt 'Principles of Physiological Psychology'
*most important work*, established psychology as a science using the methods of physiology, reaction time could supplment introspection as a technique for studying elemental contents and activites of mind
Wunt 'Volkerpsychologie'
social psychology study (simple mental processes) can't be studied experimentally
Wundt 'Philosophical Studies'
journal of outlet for area of research
Ebbinghaus 'On Memory'
first time process of learning and memory has been studies AS they occured rather than after, investigated experimentally
Ebbinghaus 'Journal of the Psychology and Physiology of Sense Organs'
psychology's 2nd experimental journal, broke Wundt publishing monopoly
Psych mission/goal according to Wundt
Analyze content of conscious experience into its elements using immediate introspection, reduce to elements and discover how elements connected