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79 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
theory, theory guides observations, Principle of Falsifiability (all theories refuted and replaced in time)
paradigms of community govern science
uncertainty principle - observing influences activity so nothing can be known with certainty
science is flow from inductive to deductive periods, schema/empiric approach
personalistic history
individuals as prime mover, Fechner
naturalistic history
idea as mover, driven by zeitgeist, Darwin
use present state of psychology as guide to understand past
paradigm (Kant)
widely accepted viewpoint
psychic determinism
non-natural laws, mind causes behavior, beleifs/emotions/sensations/perceptions/ideas/goals determine behavior
physical determinism
natural laws, body causes behavior, environment/cultural customs determine behavior
don't know if mind or body causes behavior, human behavior determined, but causes not known
neither or body causes behavior, have free will
schema-empiric approach
SS Stevens, flows from deductive (theoretical) to inductive (empirical)
only one thing exist - either mind or body
both mind and body exist
dualism in which each influence the other reciprocally, Descartes/Aristotle
body sole determiner of behavior, menatl events are by-product of brain, Skinner
psychophysical parallelism
dualism in which neither influences the other but both linked to 3rd factor (environment)
double aspectism
dualism in which both exist but are inseperable form each other, Fechner, different aspects of same thing - don't interact
pre-established harmony
both mind and body exist independently but appear interrelated b/c fate
600 BC, world of fire/water/earth/air, all derives from water, predicted ecplises
400 BC, world made up of atoms
540 BC, sensations into body through pores and to sensorium, 4 basic elements, love and strife are causal powers of world
Hippocrates the physician
400 BC, equilibirum of 4 body humors, brain is seat of psyche
540 BC, geometry, math is pure reason and intuition and thus truth, senses can't provide knowledge
mathematical perspective
trust sense b/c directly part of physical world, danger to generalize beyond physical world, truth relative to perceiver, "Man is the measure of all things"
assocaited Hippocrates 4 humors with 4 temperments, defines sensory and motor nerves
'unexamined life not worht living', inductive, basic nature, only certainty was own ignorance
mytics, mind eternal not body, everything in empirical world is imperfect perceptions which cause to seek rational truth, allegory of the cave, knowledge innate and attained through introspection, nativist, rationalist, empiricist
empiricist, rational process to know soul, senses (body) inform soul(mind) but mind interprets and corrects info, categorization to organize knowledge, golden mean, rationalist
free willl, atoms not created or destroyed, death = atoms cease to be (this don't fear death), hedonism, avoid extremes
discover 4 Jupiter moons (11 things in sky), primary and secondary qualities, gravity, mathematival deduction over experimentation, realism
St. Augustine
body is extension of God, essence and existence interrelated, instrospeculation to know God, transfer sensory info to primitive lvel and emphasize metaphysical nature of knowledge and consciousness, predestination
1200ish, reconcile Aristotle with church dogma - rational thoughts can acheive salvation, empirical/deductive approach,
reconcile Aristotle with Islamic faith, 5 external senses and 7 internal senses,
Roger Bacon
1200s, opposed deductive/rational views of Aristotle, empiricist/inductive (truth in agreemnt between observers), fit Aristotle into Western culture
St. Thomas Aquinas
scholasticism --> weaken church hold on knowledge, faith and reason seperate
William of Occam
experience is knowledge, 'shave away rational assumptions to see how things really are', reality is what we experience directly
deductive, math/reasoning, heliocentric theory (sun at center)
planets motion are ellipses, mathematical harmony describe all universe
Sir Francis Bacon
skeptical inductive, classification/description of data --> theory later, don't trust obervations but primar qualities description instead, 4 observer biases, positivism, science for human benefit,
humanistic perspective
active mind, molar approach, Anaxagoras, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle
Ionian perspective
natural/environemntal causes for behavior
don't trust rational processes b/c use reason to distort truth, only accept reality of the moment of truth
biomedical perspective
body functions must be in equilibrium, Hippocrates
mathematical perspective
truth and order found in pure math, Euclid, Pythagorean
body humors
Hippocrates, balance of blood/black bile/yellow bile/phlegm
inductive logic
specific to general
deductive logic
general proposition to truth
root of psycholgy, 'mind'
metaphysical explanantions, based on unobservables, Pythagoreans
pure reason
Knt, truth based on totally rational processes, reason unique to humans, math is pure reason to Pythagorus
movement b/c spirit in all living things, death = loss of spirit, spiritual interpretation, nature as alive
beleif that all beleifs can be proven false, beleive nothing, reason for living is appearance and convention
explain everything in terms of consciousness (monist)
Socratic method
move from general problem to definitions and logic via questioning
spirit, force all over world, Anaxagoras - all different by connected through it
Greek dogma
Socrates right/truth/authority
allegory of the cave
Plato, reality limited based on experience, distrust senses
Zeno's paradox
never finish race b/c always going half the distance...illogical but logic
Law of Contiguity
Aristotle association, when think of thing, think of things experienced along with it
Law of Similarity
Aristotle association, think of things similar
Law of Contrasts
Aristotle association, think of opposite
Law of Frequency
Aristotle, more experiences occur together the stronger association there will be
Pax Romana
quiet period in Rome when knowledge flouished b/c lack of war
no active (immortal) soul, mind fucntioned to react ot stimuli (perceive), hedonism, balance pain/pleasure
humans passive matter acted upon by fates, best possible life is cooperating with causality of universe, don't fight fate
Plotinus, body is agent and prison of soul/mind, soul responsible for highest intellectual/reason - use sesnory info to createideas, soul strive to find truth in nature/God, don't fight fate
Papal authority
replaced government rule b/c disintegration of western empire/civil rule, transition when Roman army fell apart - Christianity filled the void and pope saved city from invasion
church dogma
repalced scientific dogma, 7 celestial bodies, earth center of universe, humans created in God's image
Dark Ages
little/no progress in arts, Roman laws collapsed, uncertainty, church increase in power, mysticism, accept God on faith alone, Aristotle rediscovered in East
1100ish, secure holy land from Islamic control, failure led to show weaken of church power, brough back Islamic culture/stories --> renaissance/scholasticism
weaken church hold on science, weaken papal authority
1450-1600, rebirth of open objective inquiry of early Greek philosophers, Luther reform Christian church,
Occam's razor
Law of Parsimony, Morgan's Cannon, explanation with fewest assumptions is best, shave off rationality
reason or faith to know God, Aquinas,
helioentric theory
sun at center of universe, Copernicus
geocentric theory
earth at center of universe, Ptolomy