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58 Cards in this Set

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Reflexology
Sechenov, frog leg reflexes; strictly objective study of human behavior that seeks to understand the relationship between environmental influences and overt behavior
coritcal irradiation
Pavlov, like ripples in a pond spreading out, theory for how things get connected in the brain
conditonal reflex
a learned reflex, Pavlov
classical aversive conditioning
Bekhterev, used on striate muscle to gain objective associationism
psychic reflex
Pavlov's conditioned and unconditioned stimuli
trophism
Watson work with Loeb, automatic orineting repsonse that Loeb studied in plants and animals
Tower of Silence
name for Pavlov's lab b/c sound proof nature
instinctive motivation
McDougall, all behavior governed by instinct motives
operational definition
definition that relates an abstract concept to the procedures used to measure it
radical behaviorism
belief that behavior cannot be explained in terms of unobserved internal events, all that can be directly observed are environmental events and overt behavior
methodological behaviorism
can postulate cognitive or psychological events but inssist that such events be validated by studying their monifestations in over behavior
logical positivism
Hull, Skinner, indiret study ok, theoretical concepts are admissible if tied to observable world throuh operational definition
intervening variable
hypothetical internal concepts such as hunger, confirmation, cognitive maps; Tolman, link between independent and dependen observable variables
purposive behaviorism
Tolman, behavioral methodological and cognitive with purpose/goal, emphasize molar over molecular
cognitive map
Tolman, mental representation of the environment
place learning
learn cognitive maps of environment
response learning
S-R connections
expectancies
Tolman, hypothesis that can been tentatively confirmed
E = (HxD)-I-V-O-K
E = momentay effectvie reaction potential, occurs only if habit and drive and subtracts inibition ; Hull, can predict all behavior with mathematical equation
descriptive behaviorism
behaviorism that is positivistic in that it describes relationships between environmental events and behavior rather attempting to explain those relationships
latent learning
Tolman, learning that has occured but is not translated into behavior
habit strength
Hull, strenth of association between a stimulus and a response, depends on nuber of reinforced pairings between the two
reaction potential
Hull - drive reduction
Skinner - anything that increases the rate or the probability of a response
Tolman - confirmation of a hypothesis, expectation, or belief
Hypothetico-Deductive Theory
Hull, set of postulates form which empirical relationships are deduced (predicted), if empirical relaships are predicted then gain strenth, but if not then theory must be revised or abandoned
Pavlov
empiricist, all behavior explainable from conditioned relfexes, coritcal irradiation, stimulus substitution (S-S association), conditioned and unconditioned stimuli,
Bekhterev
all behavior explaind by relfexive conditioning and physical laws, reflexology, radiacl behaviorism; mentored by Sechenov, Wundt, Reymond, Charcot
Sechenov
founder of reflexology --> classical conditioning; empiricist influence from Muller and Helmholtz, mental and physical behavior is sunction of associations derived from environmental experience
Thorndike
cat puzzle box - theory of learning; empiricist, passive mind (except for pleasure principle), learning = neural bond between sensory impression and impulse to action stmped in by rewarding consequence, Law of Effect (pleasure strengthen link between stimulus and reward), learning over time via trial and error experiences
Watson
radical behaviorism, strict positivism, directly observable, Little Albert conditioning, Psychology: that division of natural science which takes human behavior, verbal and motor, learned and unlearned, as its subject matter; Objective: given a stimulus to predict the response and given a response to be able to postdict the stimulus
Watson major constructs
1.denial of mind as active, mind = epiphenomenon
2. thinking was sub vocal speech
3. denial of insticts completely - totally empiricistic
4. total physcial deteminism, no free will, no moral responsibility
5. language totally conditioned (reflexive)
6. behavior is the sum of elementary responses which can be analyzed by natural science methods
7. all behavior is comprised on glandular secretions and muscle movement, reduced to physiology
8. learning is function of S-R continguity - no law of Effect
Loeb
famous neurologist that Watson studied with and Skinner referenced
Lashley
took over Watson human sexuality questionarries and pased onto Kinsey
Z.Y.Kuo
empiricist, denied existence of instinctive behavior (oppostion to McDougall), watched development of chicks through window in egg
Tolman
against reductionism, against twitchology/secretions as basis for behavior, molar approach, puposive beahviorism, cognitive map key to learning, logical postivism,
Tolman major constructs
1. learning is S-S association - learn where stuff is
2. organisms learn cognitive maps of environment
3. organisms select behaviors to reach purposive goals in the cognitive map
4. organisms generate hypotheses about outcomes directed by cognitve map and confirmation of hypothesis reinforces learning
5. beleif = strong history of confirmed hypothesis
6. reward affects performance not learning, learning can be vicarious
7. both human and non-hu,an learning is cognitive
W.S. Small
invented rat maze, found that rats fun it better than humans
Guthrie
radical theory of all learning based on S-R contiguity and occured all or none on single trial, behavior not gradual but based on single trial, reward is event that radically altered stimulus complex
Skinner
radical behaviorist, baby box operant conditioning, major methodological contributions, concept of reinforcement, rate of behavior as more sensitive measure for change, focus on individual
Hull
Pavlov/behaviorism/hypothetico-deductive model of natural science, influenced by Woodworth to put O in S-R and Tolman intervening variables as way to do it, E = HxD, predict all behavior with mathematical equations, reward necessary for learning and drive reduction necessary for reward, students were Spence, Muller, Mowrer
Spence
refined Hull model to make Hull-Spence model, explained apparent place learning with concept of habit family hierarchy and goal gradients, gestalt interpretation of transposition - learn concept not box is most parsimonius; inibition and excitation interact alebraically with shift of excitory to R and inibitory to L
Amsel
Spence student, theory of conditoioned frustration grounded in Hullian model
Estes
Skinner student, proposes one trial learning mathematical model of human concept learning
Bandura
social learning theory from Miller and Dollard book
McDougall
instict emphasized, psych = science of behavior, questioned introspection and called for objective study of behavior, purposeive behavior, behavior goal directed and stimulated by instincts not environment
Mary Cover Jones
early systematic desensitization work (extnesion of Watson)
Why did Hull's system require the group approach?
Oscillation factor - unknown factors that influence behavior make individual behavior difficult to predict but average to zero across group
In what ways is Skinner's view of psychology Baconian?
Baconian emphasis on applied technology to improve human condition - Skinner focus on individual organism
Inductive approach
connectionism
associationism, emphasis on connection between things that occur contiguously
all or none learning
Guthrie, all learning connected all at once, seems gradual b/c so complex but occur at molecular level
Law of Contiguity
2 things occur together in time --> associate with each other
stimulus complex
Guthrie, all learning occurs in complex of stimulus, not one focal stimulus - all or none but appear gradual
free operant behavior
one of Skinner's greatest contributions, look at behavior freely occuring without experimenter determining, free to respond or not, more like real world
Social Learning Theory
Bandura, higher mammalian behaviors learned by observing and modeling, vicarious learning
Bridgeman
operationism - all independent and dependent must be defined carefully (operational definition); all we mean by outcome is what has been defined
Romanes
animal intelligence, anecdotes on how clever pets are - data anthropormorphic (put human thoughts on animals)
Morgan
Morgan's cannon b/c Romanes, instinct = simple, direct
How is Skinner's position a-theoretical? relate to vitality in psych
not based on hypothetical, doesn't explain why/how, its a principle not a theory
Impossible to refure principls b/c work regardless of why
Why does Skinner consider 'Verbal Behavior' to be one of his most important contributions?
ability to use language makes humans unique - nothing mroe than behavior (last point attacking humanism)