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40 Cards in this Set

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Descartes
doubt existance of everything and what left that can be doubted is truth, 'I think therefore I am', pineal gland central control, mind is for church and body for science, intellectual capabilities native, deduction
Hobbes
founder of British empiricism, deduction, humans were mechanical and governed only by physical laws, materialist, determinist, hedonist, physical monism
Locke
start British empiricism, passive mind, 'nothing exist in midn that was not first in the senses', tabula rasa, Occam's razor, ideas from sensation or reflection (active reflection)
Descartes
doubt existance of everything and what left that can be doubted is truth, 'I think therefore I am', pineal gland central control, mind is for church and body for science, intellectual capabilities native, deduction
Hobbes
founder of British empiricism, deduction, humans were mechanical and governed only by physical laws, materialist, determinist, hedonist, physical monism
Locke
start British empiricism, passive mind, 'nothing exist in midn that was not first in the senses', tabula rasa, Occam's razor, ideas from sensation or reflection (active reflection)
Berkeley
empiricist, idealist, mind creates reality, geometry from habitual experience b/c no conscious awarenes of calculations, only secondary qualities exist
Hume
empiricist, idealist, associationist, impresions (strong vivid perceptions tied to stimulus input) vs. ideas (weak perceptions generated from mind), reductionism, self awareness is only bundle of perceptions
Hartley
associationism (contiguity, personality is bundle of perceptions, impresions by vibrations sensations, no active mind, association decomplex ideas
James Mill
empiricist, associationist, determinist, mechanist, materialist, ideas are residuals of experience, mind is passive, habit key to continual movement, complex ideas composed of simple ideas
John Stuart Mill
mental chemistry, Gestalt, association by contiguity and similarity, frequency of association lx with frequency, conscious experience must be inderstood by understanding how it is a foundation of its elements
Newton
Principa Mathematica, physical laws explain movement in universe, discover calculus, Universal laws of Motion/Gravitation, Occam's razor
Spinoza
empiricism, mechanistic, materialistic, God is nature, monist, emotions are native and rational choices control emotions, behavior determined by nature not God, double aspectism, extension/thought from God
Compte
positivism, study of mind based on observables, 'founder' of sociology, mechanistic, empiricist, only sure of that whic is shared with others, phrenology
Kant
try to resolve scholasticism, a priori intuitions, categroeis a priori, active mind, mind can't study self through introsepction so psych is nto science, don't experience physical world directly and thus have no certain knowledge of it, categorical imperatives
Leibnitz
discover calculus, nativism, animals have souls but only humans are rational, petite perceptions composite make up apperceptions, psychophysical parallelism, occasionalism, monads, innate only is the idea to have an idea, pre-established harmony, law of continuity (nature doesn't leap), limen of consciousness
La Mettrie
extend Descartes mechanistic and materialistic view, empiricist, soul and mind are distinct, physical monist (everythign consists of matter and nothing else)
Herbart
psych is not experimental science b/c can't be objetively studied, psych = mechanical/empirical/mataphysical/mathematical/NOT analytical or experimental, ideas fall below limen, apperceptive mass
Condillac
mental activites could be reduced to experience alone, mind passive, mind is derived from ability to sense,
Reid
27 different faculties of human intellect, localization of intellectual functions in brain, to doubt reason is to use reason, b/c all humans convicned of physical reality then it must exist,
a priori intuitions
Kant, thinking relationships count not be derived from experience and thus exist innately and independently of senses - infinity, time, etc.
sensationalism
France, senses role in mind/explaining conscious experience, La Mettrie, Condillac
mental chemistry
effort to analyze scientifically and break into elements of consciousness, Wundt's lab
phenomenology
German, look within and accept expereince as reality, Kant
positivism
study of mind based on directly observable, Comte (publically observed), Mach (scientist sensations)
causality
Hume, causation from the habitual order of events
primary and secondary qualities
Galileo, then Boyle, then Locke...primary (actually exist), secondary (perception, color)
blank tablet (tabula rasa)
Locke, experience fills in mind
contiguity vs. contingency
contiguity - a follows b, not reversal, correlation
Contingency - determine causality, contemporary view
psychophyscial parallelism
mind and body parallel each other but don't interact, Leibnitz
unity position
La Mettrie, mind and body linked but seperare from soul, --> science has mind, church has soul only
pineal gland
Descartes, valve to control fluid of behavior
sensations-simple ideas-complex ideas
sensation - rudimentary mental experience that results from stimulation of one or more sense receptors
simple idea - mental remnants of sensations
complex ideas are composites of simple ideas
depth perception
nativism, Descartes - based on native understanding of geometry, Berkley - arise form experience
creative synthesis
creation of ideas by the mind, James Mill - mind passive with creativity
monad
substance of pure quality not quantity, infinitesmially small, Leibnitz
petite perceptions
insensible subliminal perceptions (like drop of water within sound of wave), Leibnitz, occure below level of awareness b/c few monads involved
apperception
awareness (sound of whole wave crashing), above line of consciousness
apperceptive mass
Herbart, contains all ideas to which we are attending, cluster of interrelated ideas of which we are conscious of at any given moment
limen of consciousness
threshold, point at which you are no longer aware of being in mind, Leibniz, Herbart