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76 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
patient presents with sudden onset of severe, diffuse abdominal pain. Exam reveals peritoneal signs and AXR shows free air under the diaphragm. Management?
emergent laparotomy to reparir perforated viscus, likely stomach
most likely cause of acute lower GI bleed in patients over 40
diagnostic modality used when ultrasound is equivocal for cholecystitis
HIDA scan
sentinel loop on AXR
acute pancreatitis
inspiratory arrest during palpation of the RUQ
Murphy's sign, seen in acute cholecystitis
most common organism causing diarrhea
diarrhea and camping
traveler's diarrhea
diarrhea and church picnics/mayonnaise
s. aureus (?)
diarrhea and uncooked hamburgers
E. coli O157:H7
diarrhea and uncooked rice
bacillus cereus
diarrhea and poultry/eggs
diarrhea and raw seafood
vibrio, HAV
diarrhea and AIDS
isospora, cryptosporidium, MAC
diarrhea and pseudoappendicitis
25 year old jewish male with pain and watery diarrhea after meals. fistulas between bowel and skin adn nodular lesions on tibias
crohn's disease
inflammatory disease of the colon with increased risk of colon CA
ulcerative colitis
extraintestinal manifestations of IBD
uveitis, ankylosing spondylitis, pyoderma gangrenosum, erythema nodosum, primary sclerosing cholangitis
medical treatment for IBD
5-aminosalicylic acid +/- sulfasalazine and steroids during acute exacerbations
difference between mallory-weiss tears and boerhaave tears
mallory-weiss: superficial tear in the esophageal mucosa and boerhaave: full-thickness esophageal rupture
charcot's triad
RUQ pain, fever/chills, and jaundice in the setting of ascending cholangitis
Reynold's pentad
charcot's triad plus shock and mental status changes, with suppurative ascending cholangitis
medical treatment for hepatic encephalopathy
decrease protein intake, lactulose, neomycin
first step in the management of a patient with an acute GI bleed
4 year old with oliguria, petechiae, and jaundice following an illness with bloody diarrhea. Most likely diagnosis and cause?
HUS due to e. coli O157:H7
post HBV exposure treatment
HBV immunoglobulin
classic causes of drug-induced hepatitis
TB meds (INH, rifampin, pyrazinamide), acetaminophen, and tetracycline
40 year old obese femal with elevated alk phos, elevated bilirubin, pruritis, dark urine, and clay-colored stools
biliary tract obstruction
hernia with highest risk of incarceration?
femoral hernia
management of acute pancreatitis
NPO, IVF, O2, analgesia, time
most common cause of hypothyroidism
labs in hashimotos
high tsh, low t4, antimicrosomal ab's
exophthalmos, pretibial myxedema, decreased TSH
most common cause of cushing's
iatrogenic steroid administration; 2nd is cushing's disease
hypocalcemia, high phos, low pth
headache, weakness, polyuria, HTN, tetany; hypernatremia, hyperkalemia, metabolic alkalosis
primary hyperaldosteronism - conn's or bilateral adrenal hyperplasia
tachycardia, swings in BP, headache, diaphoresis, altered MS, panic
should alpha or beta antagonists be used first in treating pheo?
alpha (phentolamine and phenoxybenzamine)
pt with hx of lithium use with lots of urine
nephrogenic DI
treatment fo central DI
post-op patient with lots of pain with hyponatremia and normal volume
SIADH due to stress
antidiabetic agent assoc. with lactic acidosis
pt with weakness, n/v, weight loss, new skin pigmentation; hyponatremia, hyperkalemia
primary adrenal insufficiency - addision's
treatment for addison's
replacement glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, iv fluids
goal Hb A1c in pt with DM
treatment of DKA
fluids, insulin, aggressive replacement of lytes (K+)
four causes of microcytic anemia
TICS - thalassemia, iron deficiency, anemia of chronic disease, sideroblastic anemia
precipitants of hemolytic crisis in pts with G6PD
sulfonamides, antimalarial drugs, fava beans
most common inherited form of hypercoagulability
factor V leiden
most common inherited form of hemolytic anemia
dipure RBC aplasia
diamond-blackfand anemia
anemia associated with absent radii and thumbs, diffuse hyperpigmentation, cafe-au-lait spots, microcephaly, pancytopenia
fanconi's anemia
medications and viruses that cause aplastic anemia
chloramphenicol, sulfonamides, radiation, HIV, chmo agents, hepatitis, parvovirus B19, EBV
how to distinguish p vera from secondary polycythemia
p vera should have normal O2 sat and low epo levels
TTP pentad?
fever, anemia, thrombocytopenia, renal dysfunction, neuro abnormalitites
HUS triad
anemia, thrombocytopenia, acute renal failure
treatment for TTP
emergent large-volume plasmapheresis, corticosteroids, antiplatelet drugs
treatmetn for ITP in kids
usually resolves spontaneously; may require IVIG &/or corticosteroids
what are increased in DIC?
fibrin split products and D-dimer; platelets, fibrinogen, and Hct are decreased
boy with hemarthrosis and increased PTT
hemophilia A or B
girl with prolonged bleeding after dental surgery & with menses, normal/increased PTT and increased bleeding time
von willebrands
treatment for von willebrands
desmopressin, ffp or cryoprecipitate
findings in multiple myeloma
monoclonal gammopathy, bence jones proteinuria, punched out lesions on xray
reed sternberg cells
boy with fever, weight loss, night sweats & anterior mediastinal mass
microcytic anemia with decreased iron, decreased TIBC, normal/increased ferritin
anemia of chronic disease
microcytic anemia with decreased iron, increased TIBC, decreased ferritin
iron deficiency
80 year old with fatigue, LAN, splenomegaly, isolated lymphocytosis
late, life-threatening complication of CML
blast crisis - fever, bone pain, splenomegaly, pancytopenia
auer rods
AML subtype associated with DIC
electrolyte changes in tumor lysis syndrome
decreased Ca, increased K, increased phos, increased uric acid
treatment for AML M3
retinoic acid
heinz bodies
intracellular inclusions seen in thalassemia, G6PD deficiency, and postsplenectomy
AI disorder with defect in GP IIb/IIIa receptor and decreased platelet aggregation
glanzmann's thrombasthenia
significant cause of morbidity in thalassemia patients; treatment?
iron overload; deferoxamine