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33 Cards in this Set

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S&S of hematological disorders
edema
congestion
thrombus
embolus
infarction
lymphedema
shock
anemia
polycythemia
leukocytopenia
leukocytosis
edema
accumulation of fluid in interstitial tissues/body cavities
congestion
accumulation of blood in vessels
thrombus
blood clot in vessel that is stationary
embolus
blood clot that has broken off and moved
infarction
cell death and tissue necrosis caused by dysruption in blood supply
lymphedema
chronic swelling due to accumulation of interstitial fluid 2ndary to obstruction of lymphatic vessesl of lymph nodes
shock
blood pressure falls so low that perfusion of organs can't occur
anemia
RBC count falls, reduction in hemoglobin and ability of blood to carry O2 to organs
polycythemia
too many RBC cause viscosity increase of the blood and congestion
leukocytopenia
significant reduction in total WBC count (vulnerable to infection)
leukocytosis
blood disorder in which immature WBC accumulate
shock
hypovolemic (heart doesn't have enough blood to pump)
cardiogenic (heart fails)
obstructive (obstruction of bowel, fluid goes to this area)
septic (blood born infection)
neurogenic (injury to CNS)
aging and hematopoeitic system
decrease in red bone marrow
decrease total serum iron, iron binding capacity, intestinal absorption of iron
increased fragility of RBC membrane
rise in plasma fibrinogen and platelet adhsiveness
decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit
decreased Vit B12 absorption (pernicious anemia)
decreased number and size of lymph nodes
decline in cellular immunity due to altered T cell fxn
erythropoietin
normally in blood in inactive form, converted to its active form by erythropoietic factor (produced by kidneys), stimulates bone marrow, promotes hematopoiesis
blood transfusion (need for)
surgery/bleeding
trauma
burns
certain disease states
complication with blood transfusion
ABO incompatibility
type II hyperimmune reaction
HBV, HCV, HIV
air embolism
circulatory overload
Adverse Reactions: S&S
fever and chils
rash
jaundice
hematuria
transfusion related acute lung injury (resmebles adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS))
adult respiratory distress syndrome
break down barrier of alveolus and fluid comes in , breathe through water, fibrorenigin causes clotting and thickens edge of alveolus, O2 diffusion problem, lungs are stiff and uninflatable, can't breathe well on own
blood tranfusions
autologous transfusions (donate own blood before surgery, and transfer back to you)
recombinant human erythropoietin (see other notecard)(cancer patients getting chemotherapy)
hemochromatosis

accumulation of iron
arthropathy (in joints)
cirrhosis and hepatomegaly (liver)
cardiomyopathy (heart)
diabetes mellitus (pancreas)
emphysema (lungs)
sterility (reproductive organs)
rusty colored skin
porphyria

genetic disease
accumulations of porphyrins
porphyrins needed to form hemoglobin (precursors to hemoglobin)
accumulate in tissues (CNS)
seizures, behavioral changes
port wine urine
leukocyte differential count
granulcytes
neutrophils (50-75%)
eosinophils (1-2%)
basophils (0.5-1%)

angranulocytes
more lymphocytes than monocytes
RBC indices
MCV - red blood cell size
MCHC - hemoglobin concentration in each RBC (percentage)
MCH - amount of hemoglobin in each RBC
Hemoglobin variants
HbA or HbA2 (adult hemoglobin)
HbF (fetal hemoglobin, replace it with adult hemoglobin)
HbS, HbC, HbMemphis : sickle cell anemia (abnormal type of hemoglobin)
normal RBC lifespan
120 days
Anemia values for males and females
hemoglobin <14 gms/100ml males
hemoglobin <12gms/100ml females
Anemia S&S
pallor
tachycardia
cardiac murmurs
angina
dyspnea
fatigue
headaches
dizziness
syncope
tinnitus
anorexia
constipation/diarrhea
stomatits
pica
Anemia causes
excessive blood loss
destruction of erythrocytes
decreased production of erythrocytes
Excessive blood loss
normocytic (cells look normal), normochromic (normal amount of hemoglobin in them)
just don't have enough of them
destruction of erythrocytes
autoimmune hemoltyic anemia (attack RBC)
malaria (parasites invades RBC and destroys them)
hypersplenism
decreased production of Erythrocytes
macrocytic, normochromic
too few RBC and are bigger than they should be
pernicious anemia (vit B12 def)
decreased production fo erythrocytes
microcytic, hypochromic
RBC are smaller than normal
hemoglobin concentration is low
insufficient heme synthesis (iron def states) insufficient globin sythesis (thalassemia, alpha or beta protein def in hemoglobin (protein parts are missing)recessive genetic trait)