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59 Cards in this Set

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When researchers address a problem they are doing a study, investigation or research project, they use terms for THOSE WHO ARE INVOLVED. what are the terms for quantitative?
subjects, study participants, or respondents, sample.
what are the names for subjects in qualitative?
informants, key informants, sample
who is the Researcher or investigator?
the one who conducts the study
who is the Project director or principal investigator (PI)?
the lead person when a study is done by a team
what does Collaborative research invlove?
– involves a research team with different skills
how diverse are their skills?
what do you call researchers when they are are collaborating equally?
they are called Co-investigators
who are "Reviewers?"
they critique various aspects of a study and give feedback
what are Peer reviewers
reviewers at the same level of experience as the researchers
what is the place called where the data is gathered?
setting
what is the naturalistic setting?
– in the field e.g. people’s homes, work. (fieldwork)
which type of research does feildworkapply to?
qualitative
describe Multisite setting
multiple sites (offers larger, diverse sample
what is a concept?
an abtraction (preoccupation)based on observations of charicteristics or ideas
what is a construct?
a concept that is deliberately invented (constructed) by researchers for a scientific purpose. ex: "self care" in Orem's model
do Phenomena apply to quan or qual studies?
qualitative
what is a theory?
a Theory is abstract (not so simple to understand) explanation of an aspect of reality
what is a Framework or conceptual model used for
– used to organize concepts by virtue (benefificial quality) of their relevance to a common theme in quantitative research
what is a Conceptual or sensitizing framework derived from?
derived from qualitative studies and are used to explain phenomena as they exist.
what are the 2 types of variables (measurement) in thye building blocks of research?
continuous and discrete
what is a continuous variable?
It has values along a continuum, between two points Like body weight: The measurements can go on and on, ex: can be 60, 60.75 etc...
what is a Discrete variable?
a variable that has a finite number of value between two points e.g. number of children, 3 4 or 5
what is a categorical variable?
a range of values that do not represent a quantity. Like, hot or cold.
what is a Dichotomous variable?
a variablethat has 2 values.
VERY IMPORTANT
with independent and dependent variables, which one would be the presumed cause?
The independent variable
VERY IMPORTANT
with independent and dependent variables, which one would be the presumed EFFECT?
The dependent variable
Female clients diagnosed with schizophrenia who attend a support group on a weekly basis will adhere to their medication regimen better than female schizophrenics who do not attend a support group.

What is the independent variable in this hypothesis?
the support group
Female clients diagnosed with schizophrenia who attend a support group on a weekly basis will adhere to their medication regimen better than female schizophrenics who do not attend a support group.

What is the dependent variable in this hypothesis?
adhering to the medication regimine better
what are 2 DEFINITIONS?
conceptual definition and operational definition.
what is conceptual definition?
the abstract or theoretical (confined to speculation) meaning of the concept being studied.

even straightforward terms need to be conceptually defined.

ex: "caring" could be concetually defined mutliple ways: a human trait, a moral imeperative, an affect, an interpersonal relationship
or a theraputic intervention
what is operational definition?
method for observing and measuring
what is an example of an operational definition:
numeric pain scale
are actual numeric values used in qualitative or quanitative research?
quantative
what type of research are narritive descriptions used in?
qualitative
In terms of connection between variables, what does quantitative look at?
a phenomena is predicted e.g. relationship between exercise and body weight.
when a change is observed in one variable with quantative, what likely happend to the other variable?
a corresponding change will likely be observed in that variable.
what are the 2 types of quantitative methods?
Experimental
Controlled or clinical trial

Non-experimental or
Observational
what do you do when you use the experemental method in quantative research?
You control the independent variable and randomly asign subjects to different groups.
what do you do in a nonexperemental or "observational" method?
you collect the data without doing an intervention
how many phases are there is quantitative studies?
5
what happens in phase 1 (Conceptual phase) of a quantitative study?
You Formulate the problem
You Review related literature
Clinical fieldwork
You Define framework, develop conceptual definitions
You Formulate hypothesis
what happens in phase 2 of a quantitative study?
(Design and Planning)
6. Select a design
7. Develop protocol for intervention
8. Identify the population
9. Design sampling plan
10. Specify methods to measure variables
11. Develop methods to safeguard subjects
12. Review and finalize research plan
what happens in Phase 3 of quan: (Empirical Phase)
you Collect data, Prepare data for analysis
what happens in Phase 4 of quan? (Analytic Phase)
Analyze data
Interpret results
what happens in Phase 5: (Dissemination Phase)
You Communicate findings
and Use findings in practice
what is "grounded theory" in qualitative methods
social and psychological stages characterizing an event
what is Phenomenolgy in qualitative methods?
life experiences
what is ethnography in qualitative methods?
life and experiences of a cultural group
what are the steps to Conceptualizing and Planning a Qualitative Study?
Identify a research problem

Do a literature review

Select and get access into a site

Develop an overall approach – emergent design (important, this is common on qualitative. you have something in mind but it changes as you start to see the data.)

Address ethical issues
what is data saturation?
when you start to hear the stuff over and over again. A sense of closure is attained here because new data yield redundant information.
when you dessimenate info from qualitative studies, what are you putting out there?
Rich verbatim from participants
Findings that are the basis for formulating hypothesis, developing measurement tools for research and clinical practice
In the content of a Research or Journal Article, what is in the abstract?
research questions, methods, findings, implications for practice.
what is in the inroduction in quan?
explaination of the central phenomena, concepts, or variables; purpose, research question or hypothesis; literature review; theoretical or conceptual framework; significance, need for study
what is in the "Method" Section?
The Research design
the Sampling design, study participants
The Data collection methods, The instruments
The Study procedures
The Analytic procedures
what is in the "results" section?
The Findings.
The Names of statistical tests
The Value of calculated statistics
the Significance – statistical, clinical. Level of significance (index of how probable it is that findings are reliable e.g. .05 = 95 times out of 100), similar results would be obtained with a new sample
what is the lowest result we will accept on the probability index?
<.05 (95 times out of 100, similar results would be obrained with a new sample.)
what is in the "discussion" section?
Interpretation of the results
Implications for practice – clinical, research
Limitations and ramifications for believability of results
What is a primary literature review?
one that is written by researchers who conducted them;
what is a "secondary" literatur review?
one that is written by someone other than the researcher who conducted the research
What is the big question you ask of a study when you evaluate it?
To what extent do the findings reflect the “truth” This consists of:

powerful design,

good sampling plan,

strong data collection

instruments and procedures,

appropriate analyses