Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/28

Click to flip

28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
True/False
All children in Pre-K are disfluent.
True
True/False
75-80% of all people who stutter become fluent.
True
True/False
20% of all people who stutter remain disfluent.
True
True/False
Stuttering exists world-wide.
True
What percentage of the world's population are people who stutter?
1 percent
What are the 3 elements of stuttering?
1. Core behaviors
2. Secondary behaviors
3. Disfluency Related Feelings and Attitudes
What are core behaviors of stuttering?
1. Repitions-more than 2
2. prolongations
3. blocks
What is fluency?
Natural, effortless speech flow. Speaking with a forward flow of speech. No interuptions to the speech flow.
What is disfluency?
An interuption in speech, whether it is normal or not
What is stuttering?
Abnormally high frequency and/or duration of stoppages in the forward flow of speech.
What are core behaviors?
Basic behaviors that occur first in the development of stuttering. GENERAL order.
What are four things that would be repeated in the core behaviors to cause stuttering?
1. sound
2. syllable
3. whole word
4. phrase
What is a prolongation?
sound or airflow continues but mvmt. of articulators stopped—1/2 second or more. Holding sound too long, most likely stuttering
What is a block?
inappropriate stoppage of airflow, voice or articulators---1/2 second or more
What are secondary behaviors?
Patterns which develop secondary to core behaviors as stutterer attempts to avoid stuttering. (People’s reaction to their stuttering.
)
What are two secondary behaviors?
escape and avoidance behaviors.
What are escape behaviors?
(starters—old term) to get speech process going, things people do to hide f/ their stuttering. Things people do to fill the space.
Ex. eye blinks, jaw jerks, knee slap, interjection of sounds, etc.
What are avoidance behaviors?
(postponements—old term)
a. word substitutions
b. word circumlocutions
c. situations
When is the onset of stuttering?
18 months-12 years old.
Usually between 2-5 years old.
True/False
The onset of stuttering coincides with the period of rapid expansion of speech and language skills.
True
How many people in 100 are PWS?
1
True/False
More boys recover spontaneously (no therapy)from stuttering than girls.
False
What are the 3 characteristics of learned behavior?
1. anticipation-predict difficult words
2. consistency- stutter on the same words
3. adaptation- stuttering decreased through repeated readings.
What are the "loci" of stuttering (the place where stuttering occurs more frequently)?
-consonants
-initial position (word and sentence)
-purposeful speech vs. isolated words
-content vs. function words (not in very young children)
-longer words
-stressed syllables
-increased length and complexity of language
What are some fluency enhancing conditions (stuttering decreases under the following conditions)?
-speaking alone
-speaking in unison
-speaking to animal, infant, or toy
-singing
-delayed auditory feedback
-aside comments
-drugs/alcohol

May reduce the communicative stress
May change use of the motor speech system
In general: slower rate/less effort/air flow
What ratio of PWS have a family history of stuttering?
2/3
What type of person is at the highest risk to pass it on?
female who stutters or has family history of stuttering.
True/False
Stuttering is multifactoral-integration of both genetic and environmental factors.
True
Environmental factors would be an overload of language learning.