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54 Cards in this Set

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True or False:

According to Charles Van Riper, stuttering occurs only when the forward flow of speech is interrupted by a motorically disrupted sound, syllable or word.
False

According to Charles Van Riper, stuttering occurs when the forward flow of speech is interrupted by a motorically disrupted sound, syllable or word OR by the speaker's reactions thereto.
Finish the sentence:

"Stuttering is everything we do...."
"...trying not to stutter."

Charles van Riper
True or False

Stuttering is a highly complex, multidimensional problem
True
Four behavior types observed in stuttering:
Core behaviors
Escape behaviors
Secondary behaviors
Avoidance behaviors
Core behaviors are
the actual disfluency
Escape behaviors occur
at the moment of the stuttering event
Stuttering involves ____, ____, and ____.
1. disruption of speech flow
2. person's reactions/perceptions
3. listener's perceptions
True? False?

Stuttering is a linear disorder that consists of a continuum of behaviors, and occurs in a progressive, more or less predictible pattern that grows worse over time.
False

Stuttering is a non-linear disorder that consists of a continuum of behaviors that change over time, is progressive, but not necessarily in a predictible fashion.
Name 5 "more typical" types of disfluency for me.
1. Hesitation
2. Revision
3. Interjection
4. Word repetition
5. Phrase repetition
More typical or less typical?

Part word repeition
Less.
More typical or less typical?

Hesitation
More.
More typical or less typical?

Prolongation
Less.
More typical or less typical?

Block
Less.
More typical or less typical?

Word Repetition
More.
More typical or less typical?

Interjection
More.
More typical or less typical?

Phrase repetition
More.
More typical or less typical?

Revision
More.
More typical or less typical?

Tension
Less.
More typical or less typical?

Breathing abnormalities
Less.
True or False

More than 3-4 word repetitions, phrase repetitions or interjections in a row is a more typical type of disfluency.
False.

It's less typical.
More typical or less typical?

Avoidance
Less.
More typical or less typical?

"Starters"
Less.
_____ involves excessive muscular effort within the speech mechanism
Tension
____: hand or foot movements, rapid eye blinking or closing, eyebrow movement, lip pursing, other movements of tongue or other body parts
Associated behaviors
____: holding the breath, speaking on residual air, exhaling during stutter, speaking on inhalations, speakign without inhaling proper air, rapid and jerky breathing.
Breathing abnormalities
____: starting a word and switching to a synonym because the word was stuck, talking around a word or circumlocuting becasue the first sound won't start; using a word or phrase to help start a word ("starters" such as now..now..now..now..); saying "I don't know" or pretending to forget what something is called.
Avoidances
3 types of conditioning that can occur with stuttering:
Operant, Classical, Avoidance
The DSM 4 has some curious criteria for Stuttering (307.0):

Stuttering is the disturbance in the normal ____ and ____ of speech, characterized by frequent occurences of one or more of the following (8)
Stuttering is the disturbance in the normal FLUENCY and TIME PATTERNING of speech, characterized by frequent occurences of one or more of the following:SOUND REPETITIONS, SYLLABLE REPETITIONS, SOUND PROLONGATIONS, INTERJECTIONS, BROKEN WORDS (PAUSES W/IN A WORD), BLOCKING (AUDIBLE OR SILENT), CIRCUMLOCUTIONS, EXCESS PHYSICAL TENSION, MONOSYLLABIC WHOLE-WORD REPETITIONS.
True or False

In order to be classified as 307.0 Stuttering under the DSM-IV, the disturbance in fluency has to interfere with academic or occupational achievement or with social communication.
True.
Stuttering is considered a disorder of _____, with onset typically occuring between ____ years of age and rarely after the age of ___.
Stuttering is considered a disorder of CHILDHOOD, with onset typically occuring between 2-6 years of age and rarely after the age of 12.
____% of children who start to stutter will recover spontaneously, especially when behaviors develop prior to age ____.
74%
Age 3
True or False

Children whose stuttering behaviors relapse and return frequently often persist in stuttering.
True
What's the difference between prevalence and incidence?
Prevalence is the number of people within a population who will exhibit a certain behavior or symptom at some point during their lives, incidence is the number of people who are currently exhibiting a behavior.
Stuttering has a prevalence rate of ___ and an incidence rate of ___, which indicates what?
Stuttering has a prevalence rate of 5% and an incidence rate of 1%, which indicates that about 5% of the population will exhibit stuttering behaviors at some point in their lives, and 1% are currently exhibiting stuttering behaviors.
True or False

Stuttering runs in families: 1/3 of children who stutter have relatives who stutter.
False!

Does run in families, but TWO-THIRDS of kids who stutter have family members who also stutter.
True or False

Having a parent who stutters increases the risk, especially if the parent is the father (since boys persist in stuttering more than girls)
False

Yes it does increase your risk if you have a parent who stutters, but it's more of a risk if the MOTHER stutters, AND yes, more boys do persist in stuttering.
True or False

Certain personality patterns have been shown to contribute to stuttering behaviors.
FALSE. FALSE. FALSE.

Though there is such a thing as psychogenic stuttering, it is NOT a personality disorder. Parents don't have certain behaviors and stutterers are not neurotic or maladjusted. BUT, people may exhibit lower self esteem or anxiety in response to stuttering. DIFFERENT PROBLEM.
True or False

Throughout childhood, more boys stutter than girls.
FALSE. More boys PERSIST in stuttering than girls.

Ratio at onset is 1:1
by 1st grade it's 3:1
by 5th grade it's 5:1
Has new research shown that CWS are different temperamentally from their fluent peers (Karrass et al, 2006)? If so, how? If not, why not?
Yes.
More reactive, less able to regulate emotions, gradual adaptation to change, difficulty shifting and refocusing attention and less rhythmic in daily/bodily functions.
True or False
CWS are three times more likely to exhibit "true dissociation" across all speech language domains. (Anderson et al, 2005)
True
True or False

CWS are no more likely to have a negative attitude towards speech than their nonstuttering peers. These attitudes do not seem to be affected by gender or age.
False.

While attitudes do not seem to be affected by gender and age, CWS reported a negative attitude toward speech than their nonstuttering peers.
The stuttering concordance rate for identical twins is __-__%.
30-80%
True or False

Fraternal twins are no more likely to both stutter than ordinary siblings
False

Identical twins more likely to both stutter than fraternal twins, fraternal twins more likely than ordinary siblings.
Neural functioning for speech in PWS may be _______.
inefficiently organized
Neural functioning in PWS:

Reduced ____ hemisphere function; increased activity in the ______ hemisphere, especially in _____
Reduced LEFT hemisphere functions; increased activity in the RIGHT hemisphere, especially in the SPEECH MOTOR AREA.
Neural functioning in PWS:

Reduced activation in the ______ cortex; increased activation in the ________ area.
Reduced activation in the AUDITORY cortex; increased activation in the SUPPLEMENTARY MOTOR area.
The supplementary motor area of the brain is involved in __________ and ________ (with regard to speech)
The SMA is involved in directing hemispheric operations and regulating speech motor organization.
Can neural functioning for motor speech patterns be trained to "go left"? When practice is discontinued, what happens?
Yes.
The neurological patterns revert.
True or False

PWS can alter L and R side neural activity at least temporarily with intensive behavioral therapy or fluency inducing conditions.
True
True or False

PWS may possess a structural abnormality in the primary motor speech region of the brain, though not in the regions primarly responsible for regulating language.
False!

Any structural abnormality or lesion most likely involves regions which MODULATE speech and langauge, not the primary regions themselves.
Preschoolers are more likely to stutter on ____ words
function words
What sorts of words are school-age children and adults more likely to stutter on? (7)
1. content words
2. less frequently used words
3. longer words
4. first sound or syllable
5. consonants
6. first word in a clause or sentence
7. first word in a grammatical clause.
What are four stimulus variables which can affect amount of stuttering?
1. adaptation
2. consistency
3. adjacency
4. audience size
True or false:

The onset and course of stuttering typically demonstrates a linear pattern with systematic progression towards increased severity.
No.