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82 Cards in this Set

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hypothesis states that psychological and behaviorial differecnes between boys and girls become greater during early adolescence because of increaed socialization pressure to conform to masculine and feinine gender roles
GENDER INTENSIFICATION HYPOTHESISThis
A grouping of people with similar occupational, educational, and economic characteristics
SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS (SES)
Diseases that are contracted primarily through sexual contact. this contact is not limited to vaginal intercourse but includes oral-genital contact and anl-genital contact as well
SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES (STDs)
A form of education that promotes social responsiblity and service to the community
SERVICE LEARNING
The prescence of a high degree of desirable feminine and maculine characteristics in the same individual
ANDROGYNY
A dimension of culture based on cultural heritage, nationality, race, religion, and language
ETHNICITY
A tendency to favor one's own group over other groups
ETHNOCENTRISM
Cultural change that results from continuous, firsthand contact between two distinctive culural groups
ACCULTURATION
Ceremonies or rituals that mark an individual's transition from one status to another, such as the entry into adulthood
RITES OF PASSAGE
The fact that far more women than en live in poverty. Women's low income, divorce, and the resolution of divorce cases by the judical system, which leaves women with less money than they and their children need to adequately function, are the likely causes
FEMINIZATION OF POVERTY
An unjustified negative attitude toward an individual because of her or his membership in a group
PREJUDICE
The adolescent's cognitive representation of the self; the substance and content of the adolescent's self-conceptions
SELF-UNDERSTANDING
The factor that is manipulated in experimental research.
INDEPENDENT VARIABLE
(1) The absorption of ethnic minority groups into the dominant group, which often means the loss of some of virtually all of the behavior and values of the ethnic minority group. (2) The incorporation of new information into existing knowledge.
ASSIMILIATION
The factor that is measured in experimental research.
DEPENDENT VARIABLE
The behavior, patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a particular group of people that are passsed on from generation to generation
CULTURE
Marica;s term for the state adolescents are in when they have not yet experienced a crisis or made any commitments
IDENTITY DIFFUSION
What individuals might become, what they would like to become, and what they are afraid of becoming
POSSIBLE SELF
Erikson's fifth development stage, which occurs during adolescence. At this time, individuals are faced with deciding on who they are, what that are all about, and where they are going in life
IDENTITY VERSUS IDENTITY CONFUSION
Marica's term for the state of adolescents who are in the midst of a crisis, but who have not made a clear commitment to an identity
IDENTITY MORATORIUM
Erikson's term for the gap between childhood security and adult autonomy that adolescents experience as part of their identity exploration
PSYCHOSOCIAL MORATORIUM
Marica's term for an adolescent who has undergone a crisis and made a commitment
IDENTITY ACHIEVEMENT
Domain-specific evaluations of the self
SELF-CONCEPT
An important element in adolescent identity development. It consists of two dimensions: mutuality, sensitivity to and respect for others' views; and permeability, openness to others' views
CONNECTEDNESS
The global evaluative dimension of the self; also referred to as self-woth or self-image
SELF-ESTEEM
An enduring, basic aspect of the self that includes a sense of membership in an ethnic group and the attitudes and feelings related to that membership
ETHNIC IDENTITY
Erikson's sixth development stage, which individuals experience during the early adulthood years. At this time, individuals face the developmental task of forming intimate relationships with others
INTIMACY VERSUS ISOLATION
Occur when individuals turn problems inward. Examples include anxiety and depression
INTERNALIZING PROBLEMS
Occur when indivduals turn problems otward. An example is juvenile delunquency
EXTERNALIZING PROBLEMS
The second, or intermedimate, level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development. Interalization is intermediate. Individuals abide by certain standards (internal), but they are the standard of others (external), such as parents or the laws of society
CONVENTIONAL REASONING
The second, or intermedimate, level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development. Interalization is intermediate. Individuals abide by certain standards (internal), but they are the standard of others (external), such as parents or the laws of society
CONVENTIONAL REASONING
Marica's term for the state adolescents are in when they have made a commitment but have not experienced a crisis
IDENTITY FORECLOSURE
The sociocultural and psychological dimensions of being male of female
GENDER
The highest level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development. Morality is completely internalized
POSTCONVENTIONAL REASONING
The lowest level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development. The individual shows no internalization of moral values- moral reasoning is controlled by external rewards and punishment
PRECONVENTIONAL REASONING
A set of expectations that prescribes how females and males should think, act, and feel
GENDER ROLE
This theory emphasizes that children's and adolescents' gender development occurs through observation and imitation of gender behavior, and through rewards and punishments they experience for gender-appropriate and inappropriate behavior
SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY OF GENDER
In this view, children's gender-typing occurs after they have developed a concept of gender. Once they begin to consistently conceive of themselves as male or female, children often organize their world on the basis of gender
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT THEORY OF GENDER
A cognitive structure that organizes the world in terms of male and female
GENDER SCHEMA
According to this theory, an individual's attentionand behavior are guided by an internal motivation to conform to gender-based sociocultural standards and stereotypes
GENDER SCHEMA THEORY
Broad categories that reflect our impressions and beliefs about females and males
GENDER STEREOTYPES
Prejudice and discrimination against an individual becasue of her or his sex
SEXISM
A mental concept of framework that is useful in organizing and interpreting information
SCHEMA
The language of conversation, establishing connections, and negotiating relationships
RAPPORT TALK
Sexual harassment in which students are subjected to unwelcome sexual conduct that is so severe, persisten, or pervasive that it limits the students' ability to benefit from their education
HOSTILE ENVIRONMENT SEXUAL HARASSMENT
Sexual harassment in which a school employee threatens to base an educational decision (such as a grade) on a student's submission to unwelcome conduct
QUID PRO QUO SEXUAL HARASSMENT
The belief that, when an individual's competence is at issue, it should be conceptualized not on the basis of masculinity, femininity, or androgyny but, rather, on a person basis
GENDER-ROLE TRANSCENDENCE
The first stage of moral development in Piaget's theory, occurring at 7 to 7 years of age. Justice and rules are conceived of as unchangeable properties of the world, removed from the control of people
HETERONOMOUS MORALITY
Hoffman's theory that adolescence is an important period in moral development, in which, because of broader experiences associated with the move to high school or college, individuals recognize that their set of beliefs isbut one of many and that there is considerable debate about what is right and wrong
COGNITIVE DISEQUILIBRIUM THEORY SECURE
The theory that distingusihes between moral competence (the ability to produce moral behaviors and moral performance (performing those behaviors to specific situations)
SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT
Reported to be one of the most common STIs in the United States, this sexually transmitted infection is caused by a bacterium called Neisseria gonorrhoeae, which thrives in the moist mucous membranes lining the mouth, throat, vagina, cervix, urethra, and anal tract. This disease is commonly called the "drip" or the "clap"
GONORRHEA
A sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum a spirochete
SYPHILIS
One of the most common sexually transmitted infections, named for chlamydia trachomatis, an organism that spreads by sexual contact and infects the genital organs of both sexes
CHLAMYDIA
A sexually transmitted infection caused by a large family of viruses of different strains. These strains produce other, non-sexually transmitted diseases such as chicken pox and mononucleosis
GENTIAL HERPES
Acquired immune deficency syndrome, a primarily sexually transmitted infection cuased by the HIV virus, which destroys the boy's immue system
AIDS
Foricle sexual intercourse with a person who does not give consent
RAPE
Coerive sexual activity directed at someone whom the perpetrator knows
DATE, OR ACQUAINTANCE RAPE
The belief that one can master a situation and produce positive outcomes
SELF-EFFICACY
Talk that gives information; public speaking is an example
REPORT TALK
Performed by youths under a specified age, these are juvenile offenses that are not as serious as index offenses. These offenses may include such acts as drinking under age, truancy, and sexual promiscuity
STATUS OFFENSE
Thoughts, feelings, and behaviors regarding standards of right and wrong
MORAL DEVELOPMENT
The second stage of moral development in Piaget's theory, displayed by older childen (about 10 years of age and older). The child becomes aware that rules and laws are created by people and that, in judging an action, one shoud consider that actors intentions as well as the consequences
AUTONOMOUS MORALITY
Piaget's concept that if a rule is broken, punishment will be meted out immediately
IMMANENT JUSTICE
The moral perspective of Carol Gilligan, which views people in terms of their connectedness with others and emphasizes interpersonal communication, relationships with others, and concern for others
CARE PERSPECTIVE
The developmental change from behavior that is externally controlled to behavior that is controlled by internal standards and principles
INTERALIZATION
A moral perspective that focuses on the rights of the individual; individuals independently make moral decisions
JUSTICE PERSPECTIVE
A stereotyped pattern of role prescriptions for how individuals should sexually behave. Females and males have been socialized to follow different sexual scripts
SEXUAL SCRIPT
The component of the superego that involves ideal standards approved by parents
EGO IDEAL
A discipline technique in which a parent removes attention or love from a child
LOVE WITHDRAWAL
A discipline technique in which a parent attempts to gain control over a child or a child's resources
POWER ASSERTION
A discipline technique in which a parent use reason and explanation of the consequences for others of a child's actions
INDUCTION
The pervasive moral atmosphere that characterizes schools
HIDDEN CURRICULUM
A direct moral education approach that involves teaching students a basic moral literacy to prevent them from engaging in immoral behavior or doing harm to themselves or others
CHARACTER EDUCATION
External motivatational factors such as rewards and punishments
EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION
An educational approach that focuses on helping people clarify what is important to them, what is worth working for, and what purpose their ives are to serve. Students are encouraged to define ther own values and understand others' values
VALUES CLARIFICATION
Internal motivational factors such as self-determination, curiosity, challenge, and effort
INTRINSIC MOTIVATION
An approach based on the belief that students should learn to value things like democracy and justice as their moral reasoning develops; Kolhberg's theory has been the basis for many of the cognitive moral education approaches
COGNITIVE MORAL EDUCATION
The psychiartic diagnostic category for the occrrence of multiple delinquent ativites over a six-month period. These behaviors include truancy, running away, fire setting, cruelt to animals, breaking and entering, and excessive fighting
CONDUCT DISORDER
An outlook in which individuals focus on the task rather than on ther ability, have positive affect, and generate solution-oriented strategies that improve their performance
MASTERY ORIENTATION
An outlook in which indivudals focus on their personal inadequacies, often attribute their difficutly to a lack of ability, and display negative affect (including boredom and anxiety). This orientation undermines performance
HELPLESS ORIENTATION
An outlook in which individuals are concerned with performance outcome rather than perfomance process. For perfomance-oriented students, winning to is what matters
PERFORMANCE ORIENTATION
The diagnosis when an individual experiences a ajor depressive episode and depressed characteristics, such as lethargy and depression, for two weeks or longer and daily functioning becomes impaired
MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER