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73 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the 4 characteristics of civilization
1) live in an urban, settled environment 2) Farming 3) occupational specialization – pol. & rel. leaders (Symarians and Egyptians) 4) writing
Middle Kingdom
"change"
-new capital “Thebes”
-New dynasty-return Egypt “balance the load”
Status of common people
-Idea that Pharaoh is as a shepherd

Osiris
-god of afterlife
Qualifications for common people to get to an afterlife
-mummified
-test (standard of behavior) in life
Hebrews
- small in number
• 1800 B.C. moved to the land of Goshen (Egyptian delta)
• Become slaves set free by Moses, wandered for 40 years
• Yahweh
• Wandering in the wilderness because they doubted and questioned God.
• No one who left Egypt saw the promise land
• Covenant- Yahweh will be their God, and the Hebrews will be his people
• Gods call the Hebrews to be monotheistic
• 1020 B.C.-930 B.C. Hebrew State moved into its Kingdom Age
• Saul
• David
• Solomon died 930 B.C. end of Kingdom Age
• Hebrew State splits: Northern-Israel 10/12 taken over by Syria 721 B.C. Southern-Judah Babylon takes over 586 B.C.
Hebrews Wandering in the wilderness
Become slaves set free by Moses, wandered for 40 years
• Yahweh
• Wandering in the wilderness because they doubted and questioned God.
• No one who left Egypt saw the promise land
• Covenant- Yahweh will be their God, and the Hebrews will be his people
• Gods call the Hebrews to be monotheistic
Hebrews kingdom age
1020 B.C.-930 B.C. Hebrew State moved into its Kingdom Age
• Saul
• David
• Solomon died 930 B.C. end of Kingdom Age
• Hebrew State splits: Northern-Israel 10/12 taken over by Syria 721 B.C. Southern-Judah Babylon takes over 586 B.C.
Persians
-satraps
• Divided the empire into satrapies, the satraps ruled over their respective satrapies
Zoroaster
• Halfway through the empire, many Persians adopted Zoroastrianism as their religion
• Zoroastrianism was named after Zoroaster
• Zend Avesta- views the world as constantly being a struggle between good and evil
• Ahuramazda “god of good”
• Ahrimon- evil spirit
• “House of Songs”-place you go after death if you were good.
• “House of Worst Thought”-place you go after death if you were bad.
Phonecians
Phoenicians- small group of people (trading people)
• Tyre-sea port
• Carriers and traders of the ancient world
• Their Alphabet worked its way into everybody else’s alphabet pg. 39 (Phonics)
Arthur Evans
he discovered the city of Crete
life in Sparta
• Farmers and Military
• Sparta ran out if land Uh-Oh! 730 B.C. took over Messenians
• They planned took over the Messenians and used their land and everybody would be farmers
• But, Sparta became soldiers, and Messsenians became farmers, basically “helots” slave
• Lycurgus “creator of Sparta” figured it out, military became the center of Sparta
• Oligarchy- ruled by a small group
life in Athens
• Trading, farming, crafts
• Largest navy
• Solon (594 B.C.)- pol. leader
 Debt – proclaimed that all debts of a certain kind are forgiven
 He limited the amount of money they can borrow or lend.
 Multi-levels of citizenship
 Tyrant-large amount of power, was elected
 Pisistratus- Athenian tyrant 560 B.C. he didn’t want to leave, Spartans came and ran him and his soldiers out, then Spartans wanted to stay, so other Spartans came and dragged the other Spartans back home.
Democracy- Cleisthens
Power give to the people of the city state
Not everyone had the power, only a good portion of people
Direct democracy
Assembly/Council
Chairman of Athens- chief executive of Athens, like our president
Peloponnesian War- Delian League
• Every year money is supposed to sent to the Delian League to buy weapons.
• Persia doesn’t come back, people stop paying.
• Athens sent army to force people to get the money.
• People thought they used the money to buy all their marble.
• Sparta vs. Athens. In 460 B.C. civil war (Peloponnesian War) broke out. Sparta won. Ended on 404 B.C.
agora-
acropolis
polis
phalanx
- market down the hill from the Acropolis
-high place/hill that had temples and political buildings on top of it
-Greek name for city-state
-military unit/ army of the city-state, goal: protect the front line
Homer
• The “Trojan War”-1250 B.C.- Mycenoeans had a rival trading town, Illuim move in on their trading, so they sailed 100 miles to Illuim, and told them they would squash them, and they did.
• Homer writes about it, it was before the Dark Ages
Herodotus
Early Historians
• Herodotus- historia- the real actual facts, not a real historian, cause he used a bit of fantasy
Thucydides
Early Historian
• Thucydides- stuck to facts
Corinth
League of Corinth- met in Corinth representatives of Greece and Macedonians, They tell Greece what to do
Philip of Macedonia
. assassinated by three of his top generals ; admiration of Greek culture; took over the Greeks
• 338 B.C. Battle of Chaeronea –he defeated the Greeks
• League of Corinth- met in Corinth representatives of Greece and Macedonians, They tell Greece what to do
Battle of Chaeronea
338 B.C. Battle of Chaeronea –Philip of Macedonia defeated the Greeks
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great” ran the empire created the largest empire the world had ever seen
• Cities called Alexandria
• Most Important was the one in Egypt
• Put Greek scrolls, and copies in all the Alexandrias
• Alexander died in 323 B.C.
Thales
1st generations of Hellenic philosophers
Thales of Miehis
-the stuff of life isWater
Heraclitus
Heraclitus- “change” “River-never put your foot in the same river twice”
Socrates
• Socrates- 469 B.C - 399 B.C.-
• You are born knowing the truth, but after years of not caring, the truth gets buried under layers of falsehoods.
• Asking questions is the key to life
• “the unexamined life is not worth living”
• He killed himself
Plato
• 429B.C.-347 B.C.
• Upper World- perfection; perfect love
• World of Shadow- no perfection; no perfect love
• Philosophers can see into the world of perfection
Aristotle
• 384 B.C-322 B.C
• Truth was in this world
• Observing is the key to truth
• Look at the world around you
• “The Lyceum”- his school
Skeptics
Hellenistic philosophers
Skeptics- doubted the existence of truth
The truth is that truth doesn’t exist
Cynics-Diogenes
Cynics
-Diogenes- “life is living in a trash can”
Stoics-Zeno
-“porch people” - Zeno-porch-“stoa” “Life= pain” do your duty
Etruscans
650 B.C. Etruscans had control of some settlements for hundreds of years
Romans borrowed Greek mythology and religion, borrowed most of their stuff from the Etruscans- army, architecture, politics, name-ROMA, structure of government
Struggle of the Orders 494 B.C.-287 B.C. Pg111
• Between the patricians and the plebians
• The common people want more of a voice, and get rid of all of there limits.
• 494 B.C. tribune- patricians& member of the Senate, he swore to find out what the common people thought and to speak for the plebians in the Senate
• 450 B.C. Twelve tables-carved on tablets the basics of Roman law. Public posting of the law. No standard of law.
patricians & plebians
The Senate-Election filled w. patricians
Assembly- Plebians- “common people”
Punic Wars(3) 264 B.C. 146 B.C
Punic Wars(3) 264 B.C. 146 B.C- Carthage and Rome, trade;
• Sicily-belonged to Carthage; Med Sea
• 1) Rome attack Carthage for Sicily; They won the war and get Sicily
• 2) Hannibal- a great Carthaginian military general. Decided to attack Rome. He planned sent them to Southern coast of Europe, and marched them to Rome from the land. Used Elephants to carry all the stuff. He didn’t calculate The Alps with the elephants, and loses time. He loses the war, but gets through the Alps. Romans take Corsica & Sardinia.
• 3) Romans sail to Carthage, tells them they are there to destroy them, and did it, then looted it. Pour salt all over, so it is inhabitable.
"strongmen"
“Strongmen”- challenge the Roman Republic government
• Military-
• reputation 4 success
• ambition
• popular
• Between 130 B.C. -140 B.C.- one strongman after another in power
• Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
• Consul
• A military who uses it t become a pol. leader a consul
• 59 B.C. leaves and conquers Gaul
• 49 B.C.-A decade later he comes back, senators are scared, they don’t know what he is doing
• Senators sent Julius a message if he crosses the Rubion River w/ his army, he wanted to be dictator. If he left them on the banks, he would turn the territory over to Rome. He brought his army. Many Senators left as Caesar came in.
• Caesar, wanted to be named dictator, w/ his army beside him, they agreed. Six month clause- Caesar kept renewing it and finally said make me dictator 4 life.
• He addressed the problems
-public works; unemployed farmers employed them building public buildings, new bath (social setting)
-He spent much time in Egypt, wanted to add it under his empire
- Accidentally burned down the library of Alexandria; Caesar married Cleopatra; he died in 44 B.C.
Battle of Actium (31. B.C.)
• Cleopatra married Antony- Antony promised that their son would control Rome
• So Octavian decides it is time to strike, Rome feels like they did not acquire all this territory to give it away to the Egyptians They back up Octavian

• Octavian wins the battle Actiem; Cleopatra committed suicide and killed her son, ending the Ptolemy; Octavious new ruler, he left Egypt
Octavian----> Augustus
• Octavious meets w/ the Senate, tells them the Republic is dead; and slowly strips them of their powers
• Octavian is now Caesar-Augustus- “the revered one”
• Becomes leader of the Roman State from 31 B.C.-14 A.D
• -principate- “first citizen”; leader
• -imperator- control of the army
• Charms the Senate w/ honors; titles; clothes, while he is taking away all their powers
• The Senate has one power left, they choose the emperor
• He did the same to the Assembly; It disappears
"softening vices"
“softening vices”- we have gotten soft by following things that we should not be following
~ abandonment of religion
~ gambling- “getting something for nothing”
~ decay of family- divorce rate; expelled from Rome, his daughter Julia cause she kept getting divorced
Praetorian Guard and Military Reforms
4. Military Reforms –made the army smaller; professionals could do the job
Augustus Secret Service. Guard the emperor
-in 194 A.D. they loose respect for the emperors and start a killing spree on the emperors
PAX ROMANA
“the good old days”when Caesar ruled
Marcus Aurelius (161-180)
hard worker; (Stoic) wrote a book on meditation and doing the best you can do. Had a blind spot w/ his children; his children weren’t the best choice Suggested that they choose one of his sons to be emperor
Nero
had his mother killed, Claudius’s stepson; talented musician; wrote plays; when they were produced, he would show up for a play and star in it, when he held up his hands they had to clap, people left bleeding cuz they had to clap so long; Killed Christians because they would not worship him; Nero committed suicide a couple of days before an assassination plot to kill him; his last words “ Rome has lost a great artist w/ my death”
Diocletian reforms
-inflation problems
-Maximum price caps- you can’t charge more than this price for necessities; enforced w/ the death penalty, but he couldn’t enforce it because the gov. was in such bad state
-TEMPORARILY wanted to divide Rome into two parts, it would be easier to control, it was too much to control for him or anybody else
-He was still the emperor
-He became the Augustus of the East
A good man would start out as Caesar
Then be promoted to Augustus, when the Emperor died the other Augustus becomes emperor
A training ground,
it doesn’t work cuz there is a dogfight for the emperor- his plan falls apart
- persecuted Christians

West East
Augustus-position Augustus- position
Caesar-position Caesar-position
Constantine
• Continued and completed Diocletian’s policies
• The city Constantinople he lived in a palace
• He deviated from his religion policies
-Religion is crumbling
He became a Christian when he saw a Cross
313- “Edict of Mulan” - made Christian a legal religion
West
Edict of Milan
13- “Edict of Mulan” - made Christianity a legal religion
Marcus Aurelius (161-180)
hard worker; (Stoic) wrote a book on meditation and doing the best you can do. Had a blind spot w/ his children; his children weren’t the best choice Suggested that they choose one of his sons to be emperor
Nero
had his mother killed, Claudius’s stepson; talented musician; wrote plays; when they were produced, he would show up for a play and star in it, when he held up his hands they had to clap, people left bleeding cuz they had to clap so long; Killed Christians because they would not worship him; Nero committed suicide a couple of days before an assassination plot to kill him; his last words “ Rome has lost a great artist w/ my death”
Diocletian reforms
-inflation problems
-Maximum price caps- you can’t charge more than this price for necessities; enforced w/ the death penalty, but he couldn’t enforce it because the gov. was in such bad state
-TEMPORARILY wanted to divide Rome into two parts, it would be easier to control, it was too much to control for him or anybody else
-He was still the emperor
-He became the Augustus of the East
A good man would start out as Caesar
Then be promoted to Augustus, when the Emperor died the other Augustus becomes emperor
A training ground,
it doesn’t work cuz there is a dogfight for the emperor- his plan falls apart
- persecuted Christians

West East
Augustus-position Augustus- position
Caesar-position Caesar-position
Constantine
• Continued and completed Diocletian’s policies
• The city Constantinople he lived in a palace
• He deviated from his religion policies
-Religion is crumbling
He became a Christian when he saw a Cross
313- “Edict of Mulan” - made Christian a legal religion
West
Edict of Milan
13- “Edict of Mulan” - made Christianity a legal religion
barbarian invasions
barbarians”(foreigners) –invasions for 300’s “mostly Germanic”
• Rome falls in stages
• “Goth”
• “Vandals”-Spain-Andalusia- Africa
• “Lombards”- Italy
• Franks- Roman Gaul becomes France
• Angles Saxon- England
Justinian & Byzantine State
Byzantine Empire
W E
Barbarian invasions
• East is now Byzantine State; the west is invaded by barbarians
• Justinian (527-505 B.C)
• Corpus Juris Civilis- Body of Civil of Law
• Saved Roman Writing
• Byzantium-“A new Rome” “The successor of Rome” “Last shadow of Rome”
• Hagia Sophia-The Church of Holy Wisdom-round structure with a dome, and used arches in a new way- their goal was to make the building look like the dome is suspended in air, w/ no support
• Try to expand the empire-tried to re capture what Augustus had
• Theodora- Justinian’s wife and biggest supporter (power couple)
Mohammad
Born in Mecca (a busy trading town)
• Orphaned before ten, lived with relatives, w/ aunts, then uncles, passed around
• Reputation as a reliable, honest caravan leader
• Hired to guard a wealthy widow’s caravan; they got married; only after her death, did he take multiple wives
• Followed a Arab polytheistic religion
• Spent lots of time outside of Mecca meditating
• One particular time an angel appeared and repeated “recite” he concluded that he was to recite what these visions meant to him
• A prophet not divine
5 pillars of faith
5 major points; beginning of a foundation for Islamic faith
• Creed-(one god) Allah, the last and greatest prophet of Allah is Muhammad
• Prayer- regular prayer life; ritual prayer five times a day oriented towards Mecca symbolizes submission- kneeling; prostration
• Almsgiving- willing to share anything you have; it is your responsibility to share what you have w/ people who need it
• Fasting; especially in Ramadon (time that coincides w/ the first appearance of Muhammad’s visions);a month of not eating during the day, eat in moderation at night- shows submission
• Pilgrimage (optional) takes you to Mecca once in your lifetime; went to Medina he fully develops Islam, shortly before he died he was moving back to Mecca, then he dies; there is a list of things you have to do, to complete the pilgrimage (3 days) focal point- Ka’aba “black stone” in Mecca- dark gray black stone- theory is that the Ka’aba stone was originally beige, if you touch it absorbs your sin, where the pilgrimage begins, you walk around the building a certain direction, then where it ends you walk around the building in the other direction
Charles Martel
• Charles Martel “mayor of the palace” clashed w/ the Muslims in 732 when they tried to invade France; if they had gotten in there would have been no one to stop them from taking over eastern Europe-called the Battle of Poitiers (Tours) 732
• After he becomes (Charles “the hammer” Martel)
Charlemagne (768-814)
Military expansion
1. Military- extended France to the north, the east, and to the south
• Spanish March took military control of the border between France and Spain and made it a demilitarized zone “no mans land”
Charlemagne (768-814)
Political/ administrative
. Political system-created a workable system
• Divided it into provinces- counts headed the provinces
• Sent in secret spies to make sure that everything was working properly, an that they were loyal to him
Charlemagne (768-814)
education/ culture
3. Education – set up a system of schools for his count’s sons ; he paid for it himself
• He encouraged art
• Paid people to develop new styles of writing
• Encouraged architecture
• Akin- new capital of France he let new people design it in a new way
• Einhard wrote a bio of Charlemagne’s life; He did not know how to read and write
• He decided he wanted to learn how to read and write; taught himself to read, he couldn’t write because he was too old
Charlemagne (768-814)
HRE
• He had a close relationship w/ the church
• On Dec. 25 800 Charlemagne was given a new title-“Holy Roman Emperor” by the Pope
• The pope wants Charlemagne to rebuild the Roman empire; which shows the desire for the Pax Romana- “the good old days” when Augustus ruled
• When Charlemagne died he left everything to his son Louis “the Pious”
Treaty of Verdun
• Treaty of Verdun- 842/843- official deed splitting of the French State
feudalism
replacement for a strong central government if a strong central gov. doesn’t exist ( when there is no one to take a stand feudal system got the job done...but were very restrictive you could not change your life in any way – could not climb your social status , everything still belonged to king
feudal stool
Feudalism – replacement to strong gov. political & economic system , social system
- If any of the 3 legs began to weaken if gets very shaky
trade revival
Trade-northern Italian cities; trade was revived; offered other options than being stuck on the manor
• Crusades –series of campaigns from late 900s to 1000, took Christian armies from heart of Europe to the Middle East to take control of important properties back from the Muslims; was not successful, were multiple crusades –but traders went back to the Middle east w/ intentions of trading spices and other things
Scholasticism
overriding theme- focuses on learning of the past, after a short time it will give way to “let’s look toward the future
• Peter Abelard- Sic et Non (Yes and No)
• Thomas Aquinas Summa Theologica- best descriptions of God
Gothic architecture
pointed arch; glass makers had perfected making flat and stained glass; flying buttresses comes out from the side of the building like a prop
William I (the conqueror)
Harold Godwinson chosen king
• He has a challenger for the kingship a French noble who was related to English as well- William was duke of Normandy
• William says give me the kingship or my military will take it. William headed north and Harold headed south, their armies clash and the battle of Hastings
• Harold is killed, so the French win because the English knights give up
• So he becomes William I king of England takes the title “William the Conqueror” feudalism disappears
• He announced to all the knights you loses your armies, your castles,
• Doomsday book 1086- the census he wants to know who lives in England and what they own so he can tax them- the English knew so they tried to lie- the Danes knew so they surprised the English so they called it the Doomsday book.
• Dramatic change from feudal system to a power-tripping king
Henry II
tradition & judicial reforms
• Henry II (1154-1189) - adored by the people but screwed it up at the end
• Tax collecting-Tax farming sell the right to collect taxes to the highest bidder, they had little supervision they charged people extra, and pocketed the money. Henry figured out and changed the system
Exchequer- treasurer; created a series of traveling tax collectors, they traveled on a circuit. They are told how much money to get from every individual family, the family would pay publicly and give you a receipt
• Pipe Rolls- recording of tax records
Writ- a legal order commanding something to be done; cost a fraction of a penny
Battle of Hastings
William headed north and Harold headed south, their armies clash and the battle of Hastings
Magna Carta (1215)
Nobles kidnapped him as said sign this document or die, he signed it, it was the Magna Carta- the king, John I, was under the law, the king cannot raise taxes w/o asking the people no taxation w/o representation
John I
• Henry son, King John I (1199-1216) not the immediate successor his brother Richard was king first, got kidnapped and ransomed so England pays almost all the money so when John became king they had little money; so John raised taxes
• John wanted to help choose the Archbishop of Canterbury; the pope says I don’t think so, They threatened to kick John out of the church-he did not care. Then the pope threatened interdict- closed down all the churches in your country and did for a while
• John loses Normandy an embarrassment to England- on a tour of Normandy he got married to a gorgeous French girl, but she was engaged to a noble, the penalty of dishonoring a fellow man he loses his position as duke of Normandy
• Nobles kidnapped him as said sign this document or die, he signed it, it was the Magna Carta- the king, John I, was under the law, the king cannot raise taxes w/o asking the people no taxation w/o representation
burg, burgher, charter
• Burg- centers of trade; cities; closely controlled by burghers-applied to the king for the charter to create these cities
Investiture Controversy
• Henry gets kicked out of the church (ex-comminication) he doesn’t exist anymore in the church’s eyes; he doesn’t care; but his advisors remind him that if he doesn’t exist in the church’s eyes, they can call for a new emperor
• Interdict- the pope closes all the churches no weddings and no funerals
• Henry goes to see the pope, he knocks on the door and the pope said “there is no such person as Henry IV Holy Roman Empire” and closes the door; Henry decides to take off his shoes (a sign of humility) he knocks again the pope says again said “there is no such person as Henry IV Holy Roman Empire”, Henry stood there for 4 days until the pope would see him, so the pope finally saw him and brought him back in the church, but said “my people will not work for you” so after hundreds of years Rome still has no state structure
Minoans
traders; was the 1st beginning of Greek civilization
Augustus Caesar
political reforms
wiping out the republic and creating the Roman empire