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43 Cards in this Set

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What is a polymer?
Molecular chains built from similar or identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds.
What is a monomer?
Repeating units that serveas the building blocks of a polymer.
Name and describe chemical reactions that are used to make and break polymers.
Make Polymers - Dehydration Reaction - Connects monomers by removing water molecule, which forms new bond.

Break polymers - Hydrolysis.
Polymers disassembled to monomers by addition of water. Hydrogen of water attaches to one monomer and hydroxly group attaching to other monomer.
How are monomers assembled to make polymers?
Two monomers are linked when dehydration removes a water molecule, then the two monomers link. When water lost, one monomer provides hydroxyl group while other provides Hydrogen.
Hydrolysis - what it requires and what it does with energy
Requires enzyme
Releases energy
Dehydration - what it requires and what it does with energy
Requires enzyme
Requires energy
Where do hydrolisis and dehydration occur?
Both occur within cell.
Hydrolisis can occur outside the cell.
Which of the four classes of biological molecules form polymers?
Carbohydrates, Nucleic Acids, Proteins
What is a macrolecule?
A giant molecule formed by the joing of smaller molecules, usually by a condensation reaction. Polysacharides, proteins, and nucleic acids are macromolecules.
Summarize diff. roles carbohydrates play in organims, and give ex. of each.
Energy Source
( Monosacharides - glucose, fructose and lactose )
Source of Calcium
( Monosacharides)
For storage
(Polysacharides - glycogen, starch, cellulose )
Structure
( Polysacharides)
Basic Strucuture of monosacharide
Have molecular formula in some form of CH2O. A sugar, a carbonyl group and multiple hydroxly groups. Also classified by number of carbon skeleton - normally 3-7 carbon long.
Explain term triose, pentose, and hexose.
Trioses - 3 carbon sugars
Pentose - 5 carbon sugars
Hexose - 6 Carbon sugars.
What type of structure do cellular monosacharides typically have?
Form of Rings
Give ex. of ways in which monosacharides differ leading to diff. isomers.
Isomer is a compound that has the same number of atoms of the same elements but diff. structures and hence diff. properties.

Glucose and Galactose differ only in the placement of parts around one asymmetric carbon. This small diff gives sugars distinctive shapes and behaviors.
Explain difference between alpha and beta glucose
Alpha glucose - has all hydroxyl groups attached to the #1 carbon positioned below plane of the ring.

Beta glucose - Hydroxly group attached to carbon 1 is above plane of the ring.
How are monosacharides assembled to make polysacharides?
Monosacharides joined by a glycosidic linkage ( a covalent bond formed between two monosacharides through dehydration reaction. )
What are disacharides?
Two monosacharides joing by glycosidic linkage. Ex. Maltose, Sucrose. Lactose
What are oligosacharide?
Consists of 3-10 monosacharides.
List 3 monosacharides and 3 disacharides commonly found in our diet.
3 Monosacharides:
Glucose, Fructose, Galactose

3 Disaccharides:
Sucrose, Maltose, Lactose
Discuss polysacharide glycogen and starch with regard to makeup, 3d structure, which org found, and where they are stored in org. Also why is branching imp factor for them.
Glycogen - Polymer of glucose. Extensively branched.Found in liver and muscle cells of humans and other vertebrates. Branching is imp because
Glycogen is branched to allow more efficient energy storage and to provide multiple attachment points for enzymes that add to its glucose monomers.

Starch - Helical shape, found in plants, stored as granules within cellular structures known as plastids, which include chloroplast.
Contrast starch and cellulose with regard to the following:
1. Makeup
2. 3d Structure
3. at what value are there struct. differences to plants.
4. which ones are humans able to break down?
Starch - Polymer of glucose monomer, Helical shape, All monomers in same orientation, thus alpha glucose. ( 1-4 linkage of alpha glucose monomers ). Structure makes it better to store, plants synthesize it to stockpile surplus glucose. Humans can also break this down.

Cellulose - Polymer of Glucose, 1-4 linkage of Beta glucose monomers, this molecule is straight. Structure allows chain to form intermolecular weak interactions.
Summarize diff. roles lipids play in organisms
Lipids -

Fats - Energy nutrient, cushion organs, provide insulation. Major: store energy

Phospholipids:
Make up cell membrane

Steroids:
precursor for steroid hormones, bile, vitamin D, also in cell membrane. Used to make coenzymes. Make sex hormones.
Structural features of fatty acids
Long carbon skeleton, usually 16 or 18 carbon atoms long. Carbon at one end is part of carboxyl group and attached to this carboxyl group is a long hydrocarbon chain.
Explain diff. between saturated and unsaturated?
Saturated fat - term refers to hydrocarbon chain in fatty acid.. If there are no double bonds between carbon atoms, then as many H as possible are bonded to C skeleton, thus saturated with H.

Unsaturated - has one or more double bonds, formed by the removal of H atoms from carbon skeleton.Fatty Acid will have kink in hydrocarbon chain wherever a cis double bond occurs.
Explain cis vs. trans double bond config
Which config. most common in nature
Cis - double bond and hydrogens on same side.

Trans - double bond and hydrogen on opposite ends across.

Cis most common in nature.
What determines the omega number of a fatty acid?
first double bond, counting c's from the methyl end.
Structural features of fat?
Constructed from two kinds of smaller molecules, glycerol and fatty acids.
Glycerol is alcohol with 3 carbons, each bearing hydroxyl group.
What is meant by saturated and unsaturated fats
Saturated fats - fat made from saturated fatty acids.

Unsaturated fats - Built of one or more types of unsaturated fatty acids.
What are oils?
Unsaturated fats at room temperature.
What are the structural features of phospholipids?
Has two fatty acids attached to glycerol instead of 3 like fats. The 3rd hydroxly group of glycerol is joined to a phosphate group, which has a negative electrical charge.
What is glycerol?
Alcohol with 3 carbons each bearing a hydroxyl group.
How do phospholipids behave in cell?
Hydrocarbon tail are hydrophobic and excluded from water.Phosphate group is hydropholic. .When added to water they self assemble into double layers. Forms boundary between cell and outside env.
How does structure of fats differ from that of fats?
Fats - linear, formed by chains

Cholesterol - Carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings.
For what products does cholesterol serve as precursor?
Steroid hormones, bile, vitamin D, also found in cell membrane
Summarize diff. roles proteins play in org. give ex. of each
Energy Source/ C source -
Storage
Structural support
Intercellular signalling
movement
transport
defense
Enzymes
Are protein and polypeptide synonymous.
A protein is made of one or more polypeptide. Polypeptides are polymers of amino acids.
What is basic structure of an amino acid?
Possess both carboxyl group and amino groups. In the middle there is an alpha carbon. It has 4 diff. partners, a an amino group, a carboxyl group, a hydrogen atom and a variable group symbolized by R, R group differs with each amino acid.
Why do amino acids have distinct chemical properties?
To build the thousands of proteins needed by cells.
How are amino acids assembled to make polypeptides?
When 2 amino acids are positioned so that the carboxyl group of one is adjacent to the amino group of the other, they can become joined by a dehydration reaction, with removal of water molecule. The resulting covalent bond forms a peptide backbone. Repeated over and over.
Summarize structural feature of polypeptide chain
Amino acids are linked by peptide chain. At one end of the chain is a free amino group and at other end is a free carboxyl group.
Levels of Protein Structure - Primary Structure
unique sequence of amino acids. Determined by the inherited genetic information. The order of nucleotides in a gene determine the order of amino acids in a protein. Protein folds in a precise way, based on primary structure.
Protein structure - Secondary Structure
Coils and folds of polypeptide chains. Result of hydrogen bonds between the repearting constituents of polypeptide backbone.

- Alpha Helix - delicate coild held together by hydrogen bonding between every 4th amino acid.

- Beta pleated sheet - Two or more regions of the polypeptide chain lying side by side are connected by hydrogen bonds by two parallel polypeptide backbones.
Protein Structure - Tertiary
Results from overall shape of a polypeptide based on interaction between R groups of various amino groups.

- Hydrophobic interactions lead to this structure.
-hydrogen bonds
-ionic bonds
-van der waals