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4 Leadership styles based on Situational Leadership Model
Hersey & Blanchard.
1.) Telling Style (high task, low relationship) = if employee is low on ability & willingness for responsibility;
2.) Selling Style (high task, high relationship) = if employee is low on ability, high willingness for responsibility;
3.) Participating Style (low task, high relationship) = if employee is high ability, low willingness for responsibility;
4.) Delegating Style (low task, low relationship) = if employee’s ability and willingness both high.
None
4 stages of Homosexual Identity Development Model (Troiden)
4 Stages: 1. Sensitization 2. Identity Confusion 3. Identity Assumption 4. Identity Commitment
A combination of low demandingness and low warmth describes what type of parent?
Rejecting-neglecting
A person with an optimistic attribution style make what kind of attributions to negative events?
In Seligman's theory of learned optimism, attributions of optimistic people are believed to be the opposite of attributions of depressed people. Since depressed people make internal, stable, and global attributions to negative events, optimistic people would tend to make external, unstable, and specific attributions in response to negative events.
A pianist comes to your office for therapy after having sustained a head injury in a recent car accident. He has lost sensation in the fingers of his left hand and feels he "must be going crazy" because this is such a strange occurrence. Before you pull out the DSM-IV, you refer him to a neurologist because you suspect the head injury may have caused damage to the a. precentral gyrus b. postcentral gyrus c. lateral fissure d. central sulcus
B. Loss of sensation due to brain injury is likely to involve the somatosensory cortex, which is located on the postcentral gyrus in the parietal lobe, not the pre central gyrus (answer A). The lateral fissure (answer C) separates the temporal lobe from the overlying frontal and parietal lobes and that the central sulcus (answer D) divides the frontal and parietal lobes.
A test's validity can never be higher than what?
A test's reliability sets an upper limit on its criterion-related validity. Specifically, a test's validity coefficient can never be higher than the square root of its reliability coefficient.
A therapist working from the perspective of Beck's cognitive therapy would approach the treatment of Panic Disorder by: a. having the client identify maladaptive thoughts that precede panic attacks and then restructuring those thoughts. b. Connecting the panic attacks to the client's overall attributional styles. c. Teaching the client methods of self-reinforcement to use when he or she is not having a panic attack and methods of self-punishment to use when he or she is having one. d. Identifying and modifying the client's interpretation of panic attacks and their associated physical symptoms.
D. Cognitive therapists believe that Panic Disorder is connected to "catastrophic misinterpretations" of bodily sensations, symptoms, and mentation. The client's castrophization of early signs of the attack such as hyperventilation results in a full-blown attack. Thus, at least initially, therapy focuses on identifying and modifying the client's misinterpretations of symptoms and thoughts immediately before and during the attack.
According to Anne Cleary's model of test fairness, a job selection test would be considered unfair if...
The slope and/or the y-intercept of the regression line is different for one subgroup than for another. The effect of these statistical phenomena is that differences between subgroups on predictor scores would not be reflective of differences between the groups on the criterion. For instance, low scorers in one subgroup might do just as well on the criterion as high scorers in the other subgroup.
According to Baltes and colleagues, flexitime has the highest effect on what job outcome?
Absenteeism (effect size .45) > productivity (effect size .15) > Satisfaction (effect size .04) > self-rated job performance
None
According to Beck, when faced with a negative event, a depressed person is most likely to maintain an ___ locus of control and ____ locus of responsibility
external & internal
According to Erik Erikson, an adolescent who is unsuccessful in resolving the identity vs. identity confusion psychosocial conflict will exhibit:
Either the extreme of "fanaticism" or "repudiation." Fanaticism occurs when the person becomes overzealous in identification to a particular role to the point that he or she is intolerant of others. Repudiation is the other maladaptive tendency in which the adolescent compensates for a lack of identity by fusing with a group that eagerly provides its members with details of an identity: religious cults, military organizations, or hate groups. The adolescent repudiates his or her membership in the world of adults. Successful resolution of the conflict, on the other hand, results in the virtue Erikson called "fidelity". Fidelity refers to loyalty, although not blind loyalty, to society's standards.
According to Lewin's field theory, what is behavior a function of?
According the Lewin's field theory, behavior is a function of the relationship between a person and his or her environment. Lewin used the following formula to express this relationship: B = f (P,E) where B is behavior, P is the person, and E is the environment.
According to Minuchin, failure of the therapist to do ?? might cause resistance in the family
join
According to Nancy Chodorow:
Girls are taught to remain attached to their mothers, while boys are taught to differentiate. Child rearing must be shared by parents
According to RET, irrational beliefs are acquired through:
Natural, biological tendencies
According to Sue et al. (1991), for what group is ethnic matching most (and least) beneficial?
The effects of ethnic matching differ for different minority groups. Specifically, ethnic matching seems most beneficial for Asian- and Hispanic-Americans, in that it improves therapy outcome and reduces premature termination. It has less of an effect on these variables for African-American clients.
According to the Ohio State University studies from the 1950s, what are the two dimensions of leadership?
Using a style approach, the Ohio State leadership studies identified two behavioral dimensions of leaders: initiating structure and consideration. These dimensions were treated as independent of each other in contrast to previous studies of leader behavior, which placed related dimensions along a single continuum of leadership ranging from employee to production-centered. In different models of leadership, the dimension of initiating structure is sometimes referred to as task-orientation and concern for production. The dimension of consideration has also been labeled employee orientation, relations-oriented and concern for people.
According to TJ Crow, what is Type I Schizophrenia due to?
Neurotransmitter abnormalities, and is more responsive to traditional antipsychotics
Acetylcholine
Found at neuromuscular junctions, it has an excitatory effect causing contractions. Defects cause impaired voluntary movement. It has inhibitory effect at heart/respiratory muscles. It plays a role in learning and memory, and it is believed to mediate sexual behavior and sleep
None
Alcohol Abuse and Dependence has a male to female ratio of about:
5:1 However, the ratio varies substantially, depending on the age group. Females tend to start drinking heavily later in life than do males and may develop Alcohol-Related Disorders later.
Alloy, Abramson, and Metalsky have revised the learned helplessness model of depression and de-emphasized the role of...?
Attributions, which are only important when they contribute to feelings of hopelessness.
Archway of Career Determinants
Super: It depicts personal and environmental factors that combine to determine a person's career path
Are children capable of lying, and if so, at what age?
Piaget argued that young children are cognitively incapable of deliberately lying, however, studies have found hat children as young as 2 or 3 deliberately lie. Although the lie most often to avoid punishment, they also do so for other reasons
At what rates do minorities utilize mental health services?
Hispanic and Asian Americans underutilize mental health services while African Americans overutilize them
None
Berry, who views acculturation as a multidimensional construct, would describe an integrated client as one who:
high retention of the minority culture and high maintenance of the mainstream culture.
Bowen's family systems therapy?
Viewed family dysfunction as part of an intergenerational process. Goal is to encourage differentiation of self in all family members. A lack of differntiation underlies the problems of triangulation, projection, emotional cutoff, and multigenerational dysfunction.
None
Career Maturity
A key concept in Super's theory. Career maturity results when a person masters the tasks at his or her developmental stage. The stages are: Growth (0-15 years); Exploration (15-24 yrs); Establishment (25-44 yrs); Maintenance (45-64); Decline (65+ yrs).
None
Catecholamines
Include norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamime. Associated with personality, mood, and drive states, as well as movement. A lack of norepinephrine at synapses assoc with depression.
Cattell's theory of intelligence
Cattell’s theory distinguished between fluid and crystallized intelligence.
CBT techniques: Paradoxical Intention
Instructing clients to do or wish for the things they fear. Prescribing the symptom. Purpose is to circumvent anticipatory anxiety. Most commonly used to treat insomnia. Results are mixed.
Client-therapist matching of ethnicity is a good predictor of what?
Overall there is a greater impact on premature termination rather than outcome, due to ethnic matching. It also seems that some groups are more likely to benefit than others. When there are benefits, they are usually related more to dropout rates than to treatment effectiveness.
None
Client-therapist matching of ethnicity is a good predictor of: a. treatment length b. treatment outcome c. both treatment length and outcome d. neither treatment length and outcome
A. While the findings are not entirely clear, overall there is a greater impact on premature termination rather than outcome, due to ethnic matching. It also seems that some groups are more likely to benefit than others. When there are benefits, they are usually related more to dropout rates than to treatment effectiveness.
Concepts in Transactional Analysis
1.) Ego States - (child, parent & adult); 2.) Strokes - recognition from others; 3.) Scripts - persons life plan; 4.) Life Position - One of 4 (I'm OK, you're OK)
Considerations in treating Asian clients
Approach: direct, structured, short-term; address problem as academic or vocational. Education about therapy process
Considerations in treating Hispanic clients
Prefer an active goal-orientation. Stress personal contact and attention. Consider family
Considerations in treating Native American clients
Importance of tribe and family. Approach: non-directive, history-oriented, accepting, cooperative. Goals: happiness, wisdom, peace with nature. Therapist attitude: reserved, open, accepting, listening
Continuing Education Credits (CE Credits) earned through an APA approved sponsor means that the program is:
An organization is approved by the APA to sponsor continuing education programs. The sponsor then becomes responsible for each program. The APA periodically asks for reports from the sponsor, but the specific program is not endorsed, sanctioned, or approved by the APA. Only the overall sponsorship is approved by the APA.
Cross-validation is necessary to:
a. determine how much of the original variability in a validity coefficient is due to error.
b. obtain a validity coefficient
c. assess the reliability of a test
d. analyze the results of a multiple hurdle test battery
A. Cross-validation entails revalidating a predictor after an original validity coefficient for the predictor is obtained. More specifically, it typically involves choosing items for a predictor, or tests for a predictive battery, based on how valid those items or tests are for a sample of people; afterwards, the validity of the retained predictor(s) is assessed using a second sample. Usually validity is lower for the cross-validations (second) sample than it is for the validation (original) sample. This is because the original validity coefficient reflects both actual predictive value and, to some degree, error (or the degree to which chance factors related to the characteristics of the validation sample inflated the validity coefficient). In other words, cross-validation indicates the degree to which the originally computed variability in a validity coefficient is due to error or chance factors.
None
Describe Interpersonal Psychotherapy
Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) is a manualized psychotherapy first designed for the treatment of nonbipolar, nonpsychotic major depression with the focus on the problems of depression and interpersonal distress. IPT focuses on interpersonal aspects of depression and uses the biopsychosocial model, which frames depression as a medical illness occurring in a social context. The goal of IPT is to alleviate symptoms with interpersonal relationships as a point of intervention. IPT has been found to be effective for the treatment of depression patients from adolescence to late life, for women with postpartum depression and for patients with medical comorbidity.
None
Describe Stuart's operant interpersonal therapy?
Richard Stuart applied operant conditioning and social exchange theory in the context of marital therapy. He encourages couples to focus on positive aspects of each other and to use reciprocal reinforcement or "quid pro quo." He maintained that in successful marriages rewards exceed costs and are built on positive reinforcement, rather than negative reinforcement, punishment, or coercion.
Directed Awareness
From Perls, the technique emphasizing increasing the client's awareness of psychological needs, feelings, and physical processes. Awareness in and of itself is therapeutic.
Does Panic Disorder occur in children?
Biederman et al (1997) found that panic disorder is quite rare, but does exist in kids and is often comorbid with other mood and behavioral disorders
Dose Dependent Effect (Howard et al)
8 sessions = 50% show improvement
26 sessions = 75% show improvement
52 sessions = 85%
None
Double-Bind Communication
Refers to the conflict created when a person receives two conflicting messages at different levels (I love you, while being pushed off lap)
During what time of life does job satisfaction go down?
Employees who don't achieve supervisory levels experience a decline in job satisfaction during middle age
Eagly et al looked at gender differences between men and women with regard to leadership style, emergence, or evaluation and found?
little difference between men and women with regards to any of the above
Emotional responses such as anger and fear are mediated by which of the following brain structures? a. amygdala b. pons c. thalamus d. hypothalamus
A. The amygdala is a limbic system structure that apparently functions to integrate and direct emotional behavior. It attaches emotional significance to sensory stimuli and mediates defensive and aggressive behavior (i.e., behavior based on fear and anger). Damage to the amygdala can produce Kluuver-Bucy syndrome, which involves, among another things, reduced fear and aggression.
Excluding the olfactory nerves, sensory afferent nerves run through which part of the brain? a. caudate nucleus b. cerebellum c. thalamus d. cingulate gyrus
C. The thalamus acts as a "relay station" for all the senses except smell. That is, it receives impulses from the senses and then transmits the information to other parts of the brain. Olfactory information is projected to various parts of the limbic system.
Excluding the olfactory nerves, sensory afferent nerves run through which part of the brain? a. caudate nucleus b. cerebellum c. thalamus d. cingulate gyrus
C. The thalamus acts as a "relay station" for all the senses except smell. That is, it receives impulses from the senses and then transmits the information to other parts of the brain. Olfactory information is projected to various parts of the limbic system.
From a humanistic perspective, pathology is due to:
defenses that interfere with one's natural tendency toward personal growth
From the perspective of Bandura's social learning theory, "functional value" refers to:
According to Bandura, a behavior has functional value when the person anticipates that performing it will result in desirable consequences (i.e., when the behavior serves a function).
GABA
Most common inhibitory NT (depresses activity in CNS). Low levels may be associated with anxiety. Deficits in motor regions of brain assoc with Huntington's Chorea
None
Galton's theory of intelligence
Galton postulated that intelligence is an inherited trait distributed normally across the population.
Glutamate
Major excitatory NT in CNS. Found in Hippocampus and believed to be associated with memory. Overactivity me be associated with brain damage after stroke.
Goal of Transactional Analysis
Alter maladaptive life positions and life scripts, and integrate the 3 ego states
Goal: Bowen's extended systems therapy
Differentiation of self
Goal-setting Theory
Goals serve two purposes -- they are the basis for motivation and they direct behavior. The most important contribution to a worker's willingness to work to achieve goals is conscious acceptance of and commitment to the goals. Goal attainment is maximized when goals are specific and moderately difficult, and when frequent feedback about progress is provided. Worker participation in goal-setting increases the chance that goals will be adopted.
Guilford's theory of intelligence
J.P. Guilford identified 120 elements using factor analysis that he proposed in sum comprise intelligence. Convergent thinking is the ability to group or analyze divergent ideas usually leading to a unifying concept or single solution. Divergent thinking is the ability to generate creative, new ideas or to elaborate or branch off from traditional approaches, such as in brainstorming or “thinking out of the box.”
Having a stepfather has greater benefits for boys or girls?
Boys -- boys adapt better and often eventually show better adjustment than male peers whose moms didn't remarry (Hetherington)
Helms' White Racial Identity Development Model
1.) Contact: lack of; 2.) Disintegration: confusing racial awareness; 3.) Reintegration: prejudice; 4.) Pseudo-independence: thoughtful revisiting of prejudice; 5.) Immersion-emersion: separate and equal, racially proud but not racist; 6.) Autonomy: integration; non-racist identity; seek interaction. Model designed to help therapists understand inter-racial tensions
High in demandingness and high in warmth describes what type of parenting?
Authoritative
Holland's Theory of Career Choice
Fxn of personality and sxl environment. Fit (congruence) between personality type (RIASEC) and environment will lead to increased satisfaction, productivity, and stability.
House's 4 leadership styles
1.) Instrumental (directive) Leaders - specific guidelines/rules/procedures,
2.) Supportive Leaders - focus on relationships,
3.) Participative Leaders - include workers in decision-making,
4.) Achievement oriented leaders - set challenging goals, encourage higher levels of performance.

Best type depends on characteristics of workers and work environment (like contingency model).
None
How did Vygotsky and Piaget differ in their theories of language development?
For Vygotsky, language is originally and primarily social. Thus a child's language and cognitive processes are greatly influenced by his social relationships and culture. From these experiences the child formulates his language. This is in contrast to Piaget who believed that universal internal cognitive structures or schema developed first within the child, and then were influenced by his surroundings.
How does Caplan define theme interference?
A type of transference that occurs when a consultee's unresolved conflict related to a particularly type of client or situation interferes with his/her current performance with similar client or situations
How does Sue and Sue's Racial/Cultural Identity Development Model (R-CID) differ from Minority Identity Development Model (MID)?
Both models describe the same stages (conformity, dissonance, resistance and immersion, introspection, and integrative awareness) but the R/CID model elaborates on individuals' attitudes toward self and others.
1.) Conformity stage, a person depreciates the self (and others of the minority group) but appreciates the dominant majority group.
2.) Dissonance stage, minority individuals experience conflict between appreciation and depreciation of the self and the majority group.
3.) Resistance and Immersion stage, the individual appreciates the self and depreciates the majority group.
4.) Introspection stage, the person again experiences conflict and questions the basis of his or her appreciation and depreciation of self and others.
5.) Integrative Awareness stage, the person experiences self-appreciation and selective appreciation of the majority group.
None
How is paradoxical intention used by behavior therapists in treating anxiety?
As used by behavior therapists, paradoxical intention is based on the assumption that a person avoids a certain behavior because of the anticipatory anxiety the behavior arouses. When a person deliberately engages in the behavior, a condition of incompatibility is set up and this condition serves to eliminate the anticipatory anxiety. The idea is that engaging in the behavior (or a wish to engage in the behavior) is incompatible with fear of that behavior and, consequently, the fear is neutralized.
How many stages are emphasized in Adlerian psychotherapy?
12: Classical Alderian psychotherapy is characterized as a diplomatic, warm, empathetic, and Socratic style of treatment. For teaching purposes, Adlerian psychotherapy can be divided into twelve stages, and within each stage, cognitive, affective, and behavioral changes are gradually advanced. The stages reflect progressive strategies for awakening a client’s underdeveloped feeling of community. There are six different phases in this psychotherapy and within these phases there can be up to three stages. These are not rigid, systematized steps as therapy is considered a creative practice and unique for the individual.
Humanistic Psychology
Sometimes referred to as the "third force," humanistic schools of psychology emphasize the individual's inherent capacity for growth, creativity, and self-actualization. The focus is usually on the person's here-and-now state.
Impressive aphasia is to Wernicke's area as what type of aphasia is to Broca's area. a. expressive b. global c. sensory d. receptive
A. Both expressive aphasia and motor aphasia are alternative names for Broca's aphasia. Global aphasia (answer B)is due to damage to several regions of the brain including the cortex and basal ganglia. Answers C (sensory) and D (receptive) and impressive are all alternative names for Wernicke's aphasia.
In brief dynamically based therapy, is positive transference better or worse than negative transference?
Better -- positive transferences are considered more beneficial than negative transference because they promote a positive therapeutic relationships are less likely to lead to full scale transference neurosis.
In communication-interaction therapy, what do "report" and "command" functions refer to?
Family therapists from the Mental Research Institute in Palo Alto such as Gregory Bateson, Virginia Satir, and Jay Haley described communication as having a "report function" that contains the content or informational aspect of the communication, and the "command function", that is often conveyed nonverbally and exemplifies the relationship between the communicators.
In Super's theory of career development, the rainbow is used to illustrate:
The different roles a person assumes during the course of his or her life.
In the learned helplessness model of depression, what types of attributions does the individual make?
According to the learned helplessness model, depression is associated with an attributional style whereby negative events are viewed as stable over time rather than transient, global rather than specific, and internal rather than external.
Job Enlargement
Redesigning the job so that it involves more tasks, without an increase in the worker's autonomy and responsibility.
Job Enrichment
Redesigning work to provide more independence of actions and/or a larger scope of work responsibility. An attempt to meet the hypothesized needs of self-esteem and self-actualization.
Lewin's Field Theory
Focus on the "Life Space" (the person and his or her environment). The Life Space focuses on the immediate present.
Life Career Rainbow
Super's Life Career Rainbow refers to nine major roles that individuals adopt throughout their career development (e.g. student, parent, spouse, worker).
Locus of Control
(IC + IR) = Western Culture (IC + ER) = Minority group when believe in own ability to shape lives but recognize external barriers (such as discrimination) (EC + IR) = Marginalized individuals who feel they have little control over their fate, yet blame self for plight (instead of racism, etc.) (EC + ER) = Feel that have little control over life and blame the system for it.
Low in demandingness and high in warmth describes what type of parenting?
Permissive
Meta-analysis was first used in psychological research by:
Gene Glass coined the term "meta-analysis" in 1976 and Smith and Glass first used the technique in their psychotherapy outcome studies in 1977. A prior version of the technique was actually developed by Karl Pearson in 1904 (who is better known for his correlation coefficient); however, it was Smith & Glass' classic study that modified and popularized the technique.
Miller-Tiedeman and Tiedeman's concepts of personal vs. common reality
Personal authoritative reality: what an individual feels is right for self
Common reality: what "they" say should do, i.e. need good educ for good job
None
Name and describe the four kinds of group tasks.
1.) Additive tasks: permit the addition of individual efforts so that the outcome is a combination of individual contributions.
2.) Conjunctive tasks: everyone must achieve a given goal in order for the task to be complete. As a result, task performance depends on the performance of the least competent group member.
3.) Disjunctive tasks: the group must choose one of many alternative ways to do the task. Thus, performance on a task depends on the performance of the most competent group member, because if one person can complete the task, the task gets completed.
4.) Compensatory tasks: the average performance of all group members represents the group's product.
None
Overcorrection involves what three steps?
1.) restitution, 2.) guided movement, and 3.) positive practice.
Piaget Stages of development
1.) Sensorimotor Stage (birth to 2 years): Learning through sensory information and motor activity. Achievements: Object Permanence and Deferred Imitation
2.) Peroperational Stage (2 to 7 years): Limited by centration and irreversibility. Egocentrism underlies animism and magical thinking.
3.) Concrete Operational (7 to 12 years): Development of reversibility, decentration, conservation, transitivity (ability to mentally sort), and hierarchical classification.
4.) Formal Operational Stage (12 onward): Hypothetical deductive reasoning and propositional thought. Adolescent egocentrism.
None
Research suggests that __________is the single best treatment for Agoraphobia.
In-vivo flooding: exposing an individual to anxiety-provoking stimuli while preventing an avoidance response.
Self-concept and Career
Person's abilities, interests, values, personality traits etc. Most people chose career consistent with self concept
Self-Perception Theory (Who and What)
Bem: When internal cues are weak or difficult to interpret, people infer how they feel or act by observing their behavior and the situation in which it takes place.
Seratonin
Associated with variety of personality, mood and drive states. A lack is connected to depression. Plays a role in anxiety, aggression, sleep, modulation of pain, and obesity.
Signs of the personality characteristic of social inhibition are usually present at what age?
Reliable predictors of social inhibition have been detected in early infancy -- as early as the ages of 2-4 months. For instance, infants who display high levels of negative affect and motor activity in response to novel stimuli tend to display social inhibition later on in life. These and other findings suggest that inhibition and other personality characteristics related to basic temperament are stable and have a strong genetic basis.
Situational Leadership Model
Hersey and Blanchard. Describe leadership in terms of task and relationship orientation. Optimal style depends on employee JOB MATURITY (i.e., ability/willingness to accept responsibility)
Sleep Stages
Stage 1: Transitional stage in which alpha waves disappear and give way to theta
Stage 2: Theta waves with intermittent sleep spindles and K-complexes
Stage 3: Appearance of large, slow delta waves, which become dominant in stage 4
Stage 4: Deep breathing, slowed heart rate, reduced BP (Stage 3 and 4 = slow-wave, delta, or deep sleep)
Stage 5: REM; EEG like awake state
None
Solution-Focused Therapy
Solution-focused therapy is a form of brief therapy that focuses on solutions rather than problems or their causes. Underlying this approach is the assumption that clients possess the resources needed to achieve their goals. However, a solution-focused therapist would not likely tell clients to solve the conflict by themselves. Rather, the therapist would work with them to generate solutions to their problem. Solution-focused therapists also use direct and indirect compliments and future-oriented questions -- such as the miracle question.
Spinal Cord's four regions
Cervical (innervates ring and little fingers)
Thoracic (innervates the hand and arm)
Lumbar (innervates hip, thigh, and leg)
Sacral (innervates trunk)
None
Stages in Prochaska and DeClemente's Transtheoretical Model of Change
1) Precontemplation: little insight of need for change 2) Contemplation: considering change (in the next 6 months) but not committed to it. 3) Preparation: clear intent to take action within the next month; may have begun taking small steps. 4) Action: considerable time and energy devoted to change; obvious to others 5) Maintenance: change has lasted 6 months, person consolidating change and taking steps to prevent relapse. May last as long as a lifetime.
Stages of crisis intervention
1.) Formulation: crisis identification, 2.) Implementation: assessment of prior life, setting of short term goals, and implementation of goals, & 3.) Termination: progress assessment, discussion of termination, and beyond
Stages of the minority development model (MID)
1.) Conformity,
2.) Dissonance,
3.) Resistance and immersion,
4.) Introspection, &
5.) Synergistic articulation and awareness
None
Super's Career and Life Development Theory
Sequential stages, each of which must be mastered to progress. Key Words: Self-concept, career maturity, Life Career Rainbow (9 major roles that an individual adopts during the stages of career development)
the CDC study found a 3% increase in preterm singleton births from 1989 to 1996, with the greatest increase in which group?
Non-Hispanic Whites (increased 8%) Non Hispanic blacks (decreased 9.9%) Hispanics (decreased 3.5%) American Indians/Alaskan Natives (decreased 2.8%)
The differential diagnosis between Schizoid Personality Disorder and Avoidant Personality Disorder is based on: a. degree of isolation b. odd behaviors c. self-centeredness d. fear of rejection
D. Schizoid Personality Disorder is characterized by a pattern of indifference to social relations and a limited range of emotional expression in social situations. Avoidant Personality Disorder is characterized by social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation. Individuals with both these disorder are likely to avoid social relationships. However, those with Avoidant Personality Disorder do so due to timidity and fear of criticism, disapproval, or rejection. Individuals with Schizoid Personality Disorder, by contrast, do so out of indifference to social relationships and a preference for social activities.
The four main stages of neural development are:
proliferation, migration, differentiation, myelination
The head of a psychological clinic hires a consultant to help therapists deal with some particularly difficult cases at the agency. This is an example of...
client-centered case consultation. By contrast, in consultee-centered case consultation, the focus is on problems in the consultee (e.g., psychological problems, lack of skill) rather than on problems in the clients.
The research has generally found that authoritative parents are more likely to have well-adjusted children, true or false?
TRUE
The symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder can be alleviated through cognitive-behavioral treatments and mediation interventions that reduce activity in the: a. reticular activating system b. inferior colliculus c. caudate nucleus d. locus coeruleus
C. The caudate nucleus appears to be overactive in people diagnosed with OCD. L.R. Baxter reports that both behavioral interventions and drug therapy affect metabolic rate in the caudate nucleus. the reticular activating system (answer A), which you should remember by now, is involved in attention and arousal. The inferior colliculus (answer B), controls auditory reflexes, and the locus coeruleus (answer D) may be associated with Depression and Panic Disorder.
The theories of Piaget, Vygotsky, and those adopting an info processing perspective are all based on what assumption?
Cognitive development entails increasing internalization and control of cognitive strategies and operations
The theorist identified with ERG theory is:
a. Alderfer
b. McClelland
c. Herzberg
d. Locke
A) Alderfer (1972) reduced Maslow's five needs to three: existence, relatedness, and growth. He also believed that needs don't necessarily progress from lower to higher levels and that people can be motivated by more than one need at a time. McClelland (answer B) used the Thematic Apperception Test to identify the needs that underlie job motivation. Herzberg (answer C) is associated with the two-factor theory of satisfaction and motivation and Locke (answer D) developed goal-setting theory.
None
Theories of Career Choice
Super - self-concept; Roe - personality & basic needs; Holland - personality types
Theories of Emotion
.) James-Lange: Autonomic arousal then interpret as emotion. 2.) Cannon-Bard: Arousal accompanies emotional feeling rather than causing it. 3.) Schacter & Singer: Cognitive Arousal Theory, physiological arousal results in cognitive attribution, which dictates emotion experienced. 4.) Lazarus: A thought must precede the emotional experience and physiological arousal.
Thurstone's theory of intelligence
Thurstone applied his method of factor analysis to intelligence leading to his proposed theory of Primary Mental Abilities (that individuals possess varying degrees of sub-components of intelligence).
Tiedeman & O'Hare's Decision Making Model
Based on Erikson's psychosocial theory of ego identity. Career-rel correlates to Erikson's 8 psychosocial crisis resolutions
Transactional Analysis: Who, What, How
WHO = Eric Berne.
WHAT =
Ego States: child, parent, adult.
Interactions (transactions) are primarily between ego states.
Strokes: positive or negative recognition from others.
Scripts: person's life plan, characteristic pattern of giving and receiving strokes.
4 Life Positions: 1) I'm OK - You're OK; 2) I'm OK - You're not OK, etc. All children begin in 1st life position, then modified by parenting.
Transactions: Complementary, Crossed (adult:child), Ulterior (dual message) Games: Ulterior transactions ("Now I've Got You, You SOB"). HOW = Alter maladaptive life positions and life scripts and integrate three ego states.
None
Treatment of choice for agoraphobia
Flooding, with 75% long term improvement
Tricyclic antidepressants, as compared to MAO inhibitors, a. are more effective in the treatment of the vegetative symptoms of depression. b. are more effective in the treatment of atypical depression. c. are less effective in the treatment of panic disorder. d. are associated with a greater range of dangerous side effects.
A. The tricyclic antidepressants include imipramine, clomimpramine, and amitriptyline. In the treatment of depression, they are most effective in relieving vegetative symptoms such as appetitive, sleep, and motor disturbances. By contrast, the MAO inhibitors are more effective in the treatment of atypical depressions.
types of group tasks (4)
1.) Additive - individual contributions added together, 2.) Compensatory Task - inputs averaged together, 3.) Disjunctive Task - group selects one solution, 4.) Conjunctive Task - group's overall performance limited by worst-performing member
What are assessment centers and what does a leaderless group discussion provide?
Assessment centers are used for the hiring, promotion, and training of managerial-level employees. A leaderless group discussion (as part of an assessment center or alone) provides info about a mgr's communication, decision making, and leadership skills
What are Caplan's four types of mental health consultation?
1.) client centered case consultation
2.) consultee centered case consultation
3.) program centered administrative consultation
4.) consultee centered administrative consultation
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What are Down Syndrome and Klinefelter Syndrome a result of?
An extra chromosome.
What are just noticeable differences?
Psychophysicists use just noticeable differences and similar measurements to study the relationship between changes in physical stimuli and the psychological responses to those changes. JNDs are considered to be equal, but the corresponding physical stimuli aren't.
What are Kohlberg's 3 stages of moral development?
Preconventional, conventional, and postconventional
What are latent trait analysis (LTA) and latent class analysis (LCA)?
These are used to identify the underlying latent structure of a set of observed data. The techniques differ in that in LTA, the latent variable that determines the structure is continuous whereas in LCA, the latent variable is nominal.
What are Marfan’s syndrome and Von Willebrand’s disease due to?
These disorders are genetic disorders caused by an autosomal dominant gene, meaning that they occur in the presence of only one gene on a chromosome that is not a sex (X or Y) chromosome. Von Willebrand's disease, which causes blood clotting defects, is the most common hereditary bleeding disorder, affecting at least 1% of the population. Marfan’s syndrome affects the connective tissue and it is estimated that at least 1 in 5,000 people in the United States have the disorder.
What are Maslow’s five basic needs?
Maslow’s five basic needs, arranged in hierarchical order of importance, are physiological, safety, social, esteem and self-actualization.
What are Prader-Willi syndrome and cru-du-chat caused by.
A chromosomal deletion, which occurs when part of a chromosome is missing.
What are the 4 stages of Cross's Black Racial (Nigresence) Identity Development Model
1.) Pre-encounter = whites are seen as the ideal, while African Americans are denigrated.
2.) Encounter = leads to an interest in developing an African-American identity and a preference for a therapist of one's own race.
3.) Immersion/Emersion = involves a struggle between old and emerging ideas about race. There is an initial idealization of African-Americans and a denigrating of whites. Toward the end of this stage the person becomes less emotionally immersed and moves toward internalization of a new identity.
4.) Internalization/Commitment = the individual adopts an African-American world view.
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What are the diagnostic criteria for Somatization disorder?
4 pain, 2 gastrointestinal, 1 sexual, 1 pseudoneurological
What are the dimensions of Berry's Acculturation Model?
Note: NOT STAGES
1.) separation,
2.) marginalization,
3.) assimilation, and
4.) integration
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What are the early signs of Dementia due to HIV Disease are
Dementia due to HIV Disease includes cognitive, personality, and motor symptoms. Common symptoms include cognitive slowing, impaired attention, and forgetfulness; apathy and social withdrawal; and clumsiness and leg weakness.
What are the five types of decision-makers identified by Driver, Brousseau, and Hunsaker (1993)? What are they based on?
The five types are: Decisive, Flexible, Hierarchic, Integrative, and Systemic. These types are based on how much information is considered and how many alternative solutions are sought.
What are the four sections of the 2002 Ethics Code and what does they each emphasize?
1.) The Introduction “discusses the intent, organization, procedural considerations, and scope of application of the Ethics Code.”
2. & 3.) The purpose of both the Preamble and General Principles is to provide “aspirational goals to guide psychologists toward the highest ideals of psychology.”
4.) The Ethical Standards “set forth enforceable rules.”
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What are the MAOIs
Phenalzine (Nardil) & tranylcypromine (Parnate).
*Block enzymes that break down norepinephrine and serotonin
**Good for treating atypical depression
***Can cause hypertensive crisis if taken with foods or drugs that contain tyramine
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What are the methods of prevention?
Primary - designed to keep a problem from developing
Secondary - aimed at early identification and intervention
Tertiary - to prevent a problem from becoming chronic or to prevent relapse
None
What are the seven phases identified by Burke?
Entry, contracting, diagnosis, feedback, planning change, intervention, and evaluation
What are the SSRIs
Fluoxetine (Prozac), sertraline (Zoloft), & paroxetine (Paxil).

*May worsen sleep and anxiety problems
None
What are the stages of Alzheimer's disease?
Stage 1: lasts 2-4 years, short-term memory loss begins. Patients in this stage frequently complain about forgetting where they placed things.
Stage 2: lasts 2-10 years, there is further memory impairment (mostly explicit rather than implicit) and they begin having difficulty performing complex tasks, such as balancing a checkbook or going grocery shopping. They may get lost in familiar places and become apathetic.
Stage 3: lasts 1-3 years, there is serious impairment in most areas. During Stage 3 they may lose the ability to speak and become unable to recognize family, friends, or even themselves. They lose all capacity to care for themselves and have difficulty walking, are incontinent, and are ultimately bedridden and often die of an opportunistic respiratory infection.
None
What are the stages of Atkinson, Morten, and Sue's Minority Identity Development Model?
conformity, dissonance, resistance and immersion, introspection, and articulation and awareness
What are the stages of the Racial Identity Attitude Scale, developed by Helms and Parham (1996), and on whose theory is it based?
The Racial Identity Attitude Scale, developed by Helms and Parham (1996), is based on Cross' (1971, 1978) stages of African-American identity development. The stages are pre-encounter, encounter, immersion-emersion, and internalization.
What are the stages of W.E. Cross' model?
Pre-encounter
Encounter
Immersion-emersion
Internalization
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What are the three styles of leadership proposed by Lewin, Lipitt, and White?
Autocratic leaders make decisions alone, democratic leaders involve subordinates in decision-making, and laissez-faire leaders allow subordinates to make decisions on their own with little guidance.
What are the Tricyclic antidepressants
Clomipramine (Anafranil),
Amitryptaline (Elavil), &
Imipramine (Tofranil).

*Block uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin at synapse
**Good for treating vegetative signs of depression. Also good for panic attacks, agoraphobia, and obsessive states
None
What are three general strategies to bring about change in an organization?
1.) empirical-rational, 2.) power-coercive, and 3.) normative-reeducative
What did Neugarten's research show?
From her research on the personality characteristics of adults aged 40-70, Neugarten (1968) found midlife to be characterized by a shift in perspective (time from birth vs. time to death). This finding followed the Kansas City Study findings that people around age 50 experience a transition from active to passive mastery and outer to inner-world orientation.
What did Rutter list as accurate predictors of child psychopathology?
Rutter listed low socioeconomic status, severe marital discord, large family size, parental criminality, and placement of children outside the home as predictors of child psychopathology.
What disorder(s) are caused by a chromosome deletion?
Prader-Willi syndrome and cru-du-chat
What disorder(s) are caused by an extra chromosome?
Down Syndrome and Klinefelter Syndrome
What disorder(s) is caused by a missing chromosome?
Turner Syndrome
What do "class-bound values," "culture-bound values" and "language variables" refer to?
Sue and Sue (1999) described three premises from the Western perspectives of counseling, based on the assumption of individualism, that can have an effect on the therapeutic relationship.
1.) Class-bound values include valuing of time boundaries or a strict adherence to time schedules, an ambiguous and unstructured approach to problem solving, and the emphasis on long- range goals and solutions.
2.) Culture-bound values focus on individualism versus collectivism, cause and effect relationships for client problems, emphasis on emotional/verbal expressiveness, active participation and openness to discussing intimate aspects of the client’s life, and the separation of physical and mental well-being.
3.) Language variables are those in which standard English and verbal communication are stressed.
None
What do "personal fable" and "imaginary audience" refer to?
"personal fable" is the idea that one is unique and not subject to the natural laws that govern others (such as the concept of mortality). "Imaginary audience" is the idea that one is always the center of other's attention.
What do "proximal/distal" and "sufficient/necessary" refer to in the hopelessness theory of depression?
"Proximal," means that in a chain of causal factors, the factor occurs at the end of the chain – closest to the resulting symptoms of depression. "Sufficient" means that the factor is enough to cause depression, whereas "necessary" would mean that other factors could also cause depression.
What do gonadotrophins do and where are they released and why?
Gonadotrophins are released by the pituitary gland as the result of signals from the hypothalamus. They stimulate the gonads to release their hormones (estrogen in females, androgens in males). They regulate the female cycle
What do homoscedasticity and heteroscedasticity refer to?
Homoscedasticity means that data points are evenly scattered around the regression line. Heteroscedasticity means the scatter is uneven at different points of the continuum. For instance, there might be high variability around the regression line at low x (predictor) values, and low variability around the line at high x values. In other words, heteroscedasticity refers to a differential level of scatter, not high scatter.
What do therapists working from the perspective of Beck's cognitive therapy think causes Panic Disorder, and how would they treat it?
Cognitive therapists believe that Panic Disorder is connected to "catastrophic misinterpretations" of bodily sensations, symptoms, and mentation. The client's "overcastrophization" of early signs of the attack such as hyperventilation results in a full-blown attack. Thus, at least initially, therapy focuses on identifying and modifying the client's misinterpretations of symptoms and thoughts immediately before and during the attack.
What does "circular model of causality" refer to?
"Circular model of causality" is a concept in communication-interaction therapy that describes a symptom as both a cause and an effect of dysfunctional communication patterns.
What does "differentiation" and "reintegration" refer to in terms of career development?
Tiedeman & O'Hare based their career development model on Erikson's psychosocial theory of ego identity development. They proposed that a person develops a vocational identity through a process of many differentiations and reintegrations throughout one's lifespan. Differentiation comes from the realization that a particular career does not "fit" with one's personality. Integration involves identification with a career.
What does "Principles of Equifinality" refer to?
"Principles of equifinality" refers to the idea that no matter where the system change occurs, the end result is the same.
What does "self-indoctrination" refer to?
Ellis, the founder of RET, viewed behavioral disorders as stemming from both biological predisposition and early life experiences but argued that their maintenance was due primarily to self-indoctrination. Specifically, during early childhood, children tend to internalize the critical attitude of their parents and then perpetuate that attitude as they grow older.
What does Edgar Schein's concept of career anchors refer to?
A person’s career anchor is his or her self-concept consisting of self-perceived talents and abilities, basic values, motives, and needs as they pertain to the career. Schein says that people are primarily motivated by one of eight anchors — priorities that define how they see themselves and how they see their work.
What does Lewin's field theory predict?
That a person's behavior is a function of the person and his/her environment in the immediate present
What does Reality Therapy emphasize?
Reality therapy is a confrontive form of therapy. It strives to teach clients specific behaviors that will enable them to fulfill their needs and the therapist-client relationship is viewed as a crucial aspect of therapy. Reality therapists also model responsible behaviors for their clients.
What does Social Identity Theory posit?
According to Tajfel (1982), people strive to maintain and enhance their self-esteem, and this is associated with two components: personal and social identity. Social identity theory states that social identity, the aspect of self-esteem based on group membership, is enhanced by believing one’s own group (the ingroup) is attractive and belittling the members of the other groups (the outgroups).
What familial relationships are strongest in Hispanic American families?
Parent-child (and especially mother-son and father-son relationship)
What generalizations can be made about secondary memory, visuospatial skills, attention, and creativity in aging?
Secondary, visuospatial skills, and attention all decline with ago, creativity seems to continue well into old age
What genetic disorder(s) are caused by an autosomal dominant gene?
Huntington's Chorea, Marfan’s syndrome and Von Willebrand’s disease.
What information does an Item Characteristic Curve (ICC) give you?
Item characteristic curves (ICCs), which are associated with item response theory, are graphs that depict individual test items in terms of the percentage of individuals in different ability groups who answered the item correctly. For example, an ICC for an individual test item might show that 80% of people in the highest ability group, 40% of people in the middle ability group, and 5% of people in the lowest ability group answered the item correctly. Although costly to derive, ICCs provide much information about individual test items, including their difficulty, discriminability, and probability that the item will be guessed correctly.
What is "criterion deficiency"?
Criterion deficiency refers to what is missed or deficient in the criterion used. For example, if typing speed is used as the sole criterion for determining successful job performance by a secretary, it would be a deficient criterion, since typing speed is only one of several skills needed to be a successful secretary. CD may reduce the validity of a job performance measure, even if it is reliable.
What is a needs assessment used for?
A needs assessment involves identifying the needs of the organization. A needs assessment is often conducted to determine which employees need training and what should be included in that training.
What is an extinction burst?
If refers to the temporary increase in behavior that occurs when reinforcement is removed
What is Bem’s gender schema theory?
Bem’s gender schema theory states children develop schema about what is expected of them as girls or boys and then apply those schemas to their own behavior. Because it emphasizes both social, notably sociocultural factors, and cognitive processes, it is classified as a social-cognitive approach.
What is blocking?
Blocking occurs when a CS is presented simultaneously with a second stimulus just before the US. Although it would seem that the second stimulus should acquire the properties of a CS from this procedure, that's not what happens. Instead, the second stimulus does not produce a conditioned response.
What is Boyd-Franklin's multi-system model?
Interventions with AA clients should incorporate multiple systems including immediate and extended family, social service agencies, and the church
What is Capgras' syndrome?
The belief that a familiar person has been replaced by an imposter who has an identical or similar appearance.
What is Cluster Analysis?
Cluster analysis is used to identify homogeneous subgroups in a heterogeneous collection of observations.
What is Cohen’s d?
Cohen’s d is used as an index of effect size. It is a measure of the mean difference between two groups.
What is Differential Item Functioning (DIF), and how is it detected?
Differential item functioning (DIF), or item bias analysis, refers to a difference in the probability of individuals from different subpopulations making a correct or positive response to an item, who are equal on the latent or underlying attribute measured by the test. The SIBTEST or simultaneous item bias test, Mantel-Haenszel, and Lord’s chi-square are statistical techniques used to identify DIF.
What is equilibration?
As defined by Piaget, equilibration is a state of cognitive balance. The need for balance is what motivates the individual to assimilate and accommodate new information.
What is eta squared?
Eta squared is the square of the correlation coefficient (i.e., the correlation between the treatment and the outcome) and is used as an index of effect size.
What is feedback in Burke's scheme?
It is the fourth phase and involves providing clients with information that the consultant obtained and analyzed during the diagnosis phase so that clients understand the situation and then decide what actions to take
What is flooding?
In flooding, a person is exposed to a feared stimulus in order to extinguish the fear. The theory underlying the technique is that the feared stimulus was previously a conditioned stimulus paired with an unconditioned aversive stimulus that naturally produces fear.
What is Frame-of-Reference training used for?
Frame-of-reference training is used to improve rater accuracy by teaching raters to focus on the various characteristics and requirements that contribute to good job performance.
What is Heteronomous Morality and whose name is it associated with?
Heteronomous morality is a term use by Piaget to describe preschool children who believe that rules are absolute and unchangeable.
What is J.W. Berry known for?
Work on acculturation, which he distinguishes from enculturation. According to Berry, enculturation involves three types of culture transmission: vertical (influence from parents), horizontal (peers), and oblique (other adults and institutions)
What is Klinefelter's Syndrome?
Klinefelter's Syndrome only affects males and is caused by an extra X chromosome (XXY). Males with this disorder have typical masculine interests in childhood and develop a normal male identity, but they show an incomplete development of secondary sex characteristics and are often sterile. Klinefelter's does not typically cause severe mental retardation, although most experience some degree of impairment in language and some do have mild mental retardation
What is Lazarus' theory of emotion?
Lazarus’ theory proposes that a thought must precede any emotion or physiological arousal.
What is McGuire's inoculation theory?
McGuire's inoculation theory proposes that a particular attitude or belief can be strengthened by exposing someone to the opposing belief -- especially when the opposing argument is weak or the person is supplied with counter-arguments against the opposing belief. Note that this is analogous to medical inoculation, which involves injection of a weak form of a germ so the body can build up defenses against that germ.
What is meant by the Approach-Approach conflict?
Associated with Lewin's Field Theory: When faced with an approach-approach conflict (i.e., 2 desirable goals), the selected choice becomes more attractive while the other choice becomes less attractive.
What is Nancy Chodorow's main argument?
Chodorow uses the principles of object relations theory to show that girls are taught to stay attached to their same sex mother while boys are taught to differentiate from their mothers. Chodorow argues that the present system represents a gendered division of labor and that changes in gender relations will only occur when men and women are equally responsible for child rearing.
What is needed for a successful malpractice lawsuit against a psychologist?
“dereliction of a duty directly causing damage.”
What is overextension in language?
Overextension is the application of a word to a wider collection of objects or events than is appropriate (car for tractor, truck, SUV)
What is overlearning most effective for?
Any kind of practice is best when it is spaced (distributed) rather than massed, and overlearning is most effective for concrete material (dates, grammatical rules)
What is overlearning?
It refers to practicing or rehearsing beyond the first time the information is errorlessly reproduced
What is projective identification?
Projecting feelings onto objects and then identifying with the object
What is psychophysics?
The study of the relationship between stimulus magnitude and perception of that stimulus
What is Q-technique factor analysis?
Q-technique factor analysis determines how many types of people a sample of people represents.
What is REM-rebound?
When REM sleep is suppressed, a sudden rebound effect occurs soon after the removal of the suppressing agent. Most drugs suppress REM sleep.
What is reparation defined by Klein?
It refers to an infant's attempts to repair a damaged mother image
What is Richard Troiden associated with?
Richard Troiden outlined a four-stage age-graded model of homosexual identity formation: 1.) sensitization, 2.) identity confusion, 3.) identity assumption, 4.) commitment.
What is Self-in-Relation theory?
Self-in-Relation theory is a feminist theory which emphasizes the importance of one's connections with others, particularly a daughter's relationship with her mother. The development of the self is viewed as progressing from infantile dependence towards a mature state of interdependence.
What is splitting?
The process of keeping good and bad parts of an object and oneself separate
What is Standard Error of the:
1.) Estimate
2.) Mean
3.) Measurement
1.) Estimate: tells us how far we can expect to be off when making predictions based on a regression (prediction) equation. It's a way to assess how well the equation "fits" the data. The higher the correlation coefficient, the lower the error of estimate.
2.) Mean: tells us how closely our sample mean approximates the population mean.
3.) Measurement: tells us how accurately an obtained score on a test estimates someone's true score on that test, if a true score were ever possible to obtain.
None
What is stimulus generalization also called?
Mediated Generalization. In this context, the term "mediated" means that the picture has never been paired with the original source of anxiety (i.e., the accident). Therefore, in order for the picture to cause anxiety, some cognitive mediation must be taking place.
What is Structural Equation Modeling (SEM)
Structural equation modeling is a multivariate technique used to evaluate the causal (predictive) influences or test causal hypotheses about the relationships among a set of factors.
What is Structural Equation Modeling?
Structural equation modeling is a technique used to evaluate or confirm the cause-and-effect or hypothesized relationship between both measured and latent variables.
What is Structured Learning Therapy (SLT) effective in treating, and what is the approach?
Structured Learning Therapy incorporates social skills training, an early approach to the treatment of depression, along with modeling, role-playing, skill instruction, and performance appraisal.
What is the basic premise of House's path-goal theory?
As its name implies, path-goal theory predicts that leaders will be most successful when they show followers the path for achieving goals. Path-goal theory is also a contingency theory, which means that it proposes that the best leadership style depends on certain characteristics of the situation.
What is the best way to maximize internal validity?
Known as the “great equalizer,” randomization of subjects to groups is the most powerful way for controlling extraneous variables. Unlike random assignment that occurs after subjects are selected, random selection refers to a method of selecting subjects to participate from the population being studied. Random selection influences external validity.
What is the best way to reduce rater errors such as the halo and leniency biases?
A number of special types of rating scales designed to reduce rater bias (such as the forced-choice and the Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales) have been derived, and, in fact, there is some research to show that they are effective in doing so. However, no rating scale will be effective unless raters are trained adequately in its use. Indeed, research shows that relevant training can minimize some rating errors -- specifically, the halo effect, constant error such as the leniency or strictness bias, and contrast effects.
What is the Central Limit Theorem?
According to the central limit theorem, the shape of a sampling distribution of means approaches normality as sample size increases.
What is the coefficient of determination?
The coefficient of determination is calculated by squaring a correlation coefficient. As compared to the correlation coefficient, it provides a more direct way of interpreting the calculated relationship between two variables. Specifically, it indicates the proportion of variability shared by the two variables, or the proportion of variability in one variable that can be accounted for by variability in the other.
What is the concordance rate for a biological offspring of one schizophrenic parent?
13%
What is the concordance rate for a parent of an individual who receives a diagnosis of Schizophrenia?
6%
What is the concordance rate for schizophrenia in the general populations?
1%
What is the concordance rate of Schizophrenia in biological siblings?
9%
What is the difference between "hygiene factors" and "motivators" in Herzberg's two-factor theory?
Hygiene factors are extrinsic to the work and result in job dissatisfaction when absent, but do not lead to job satisfaction when present. Motivators are intrinsic to work (i.e. have to do with the job itself), and they result in job satisfaction when present, but do not necessarily lead to dissatisfaction when absent.
None
What is the difference between inductive and deductive reasoning?
Inductive reasoning involves reasoning from a particular fact to a general rule. Deductive reasoning, is reasoning from a general law to a particular case.
What is the difference between point biserial and biserial correlation coefficients?
The point-biserial coefficient is used when a dichotomous variable (e.g., gender) is correlated with continuous variable (e.g., IQ score). The biserial coefficient is used to correlate an artificial dichotomy with a continuous variable.
What is the difference between point biserial and biserial correlation coefficients?
The point-biserial coefficient is used when a dichotomous variable (e.g., gender) is correlated with continuous variable (e.g., IQ score). The biserial coefficient is used to correlate an artificial dichotomy with a continuous variable.
What is the difference between traditional organizational culture and quality-oriented culture?
The latter emphasize rewarding group performance and organization-level achievement rather than individual achievement (which is characteristic of the traditional approach). *"Total Quality" organizations focus on using cross-training so that each worker can perform a variety of tasks; viewing workers as requiring continuous learning and development; and basing rewards on long-term (versus short-term) achievement.
What is the doctrine of comparable worth?
The doctrine of comparable worth states that workers (in particular, men and women) should get equal pay for performing jobs that have equivalent worth. A job evaluation is a method of determining the worth or value of jobs in an organization. Note that many critics believe that current methods of job evaluation contain inherent gender biases. Statistics clearly show that women earn less than men, and some believe that one reason for this is that job evaluation methods undervalue the work that women perform.
What is the Elaboration Likelihood Model?
According to the Elaboration Likelihood Model, there are two routes of communication: a central route and a peripheral route. A listener is most susceptible to persuasion via the peripheral route when the communicator is appealing (e.g., is of high status), the listener is uninvolved with the message or is distracted, and/or the message appeals to fear.
What is the equipotentiality law?
Intact areas of the brain can assume to functions of areas that have been destroyed
What is the final stage of W.E. Cross's model and what is it characterized by?
Internalization -- characterized by the development of "inner security" as identity conflicts are resolved and increasing biculturalism/multiculturalism
What is the Latin square design?
If the number of participants is too small to permit the use of a completely counterbalanced research design, then researchers may use a type of partial counterbalancing like the Latin square design. This design is useful for determining what exact sequences of treatment will be administered to the different participant groups.
What is the law of contiguity?
Learning depends on the proximity of stimuli in space and time
What is the matching law?
The relative frequency of responding to an alternative corresponds to the frequency of reinforcement for responding to that alternative
What is the multistore model of memory?
Memory has three components, sensory, short term, and long term. Short term memory has a limited capacity and a limited duration, sensory memory contains info from all senses but retains that info for a brief period (.5 second)
What is the paired comparison technique?
The paired comparison technique involves comparing each person to every other person in the organization in reference to one or more variables such as productivity. It is a time-consuming and expensive process but results in highly precise and differentiated evaluations of each person in the group evaluated.
What is the primary goal of Gestalt Therapy?
Gestalt therapy strives to increase an individual's awareness of the self, the environment, and the nature of the self-environment boundary.
What is the purpose of a trainability test in industrial settings?
A trainability test is designed to determine whether or not potential employees are suitable for training. It is not designed to be directly predictive of how well the person will do on the job itself. Instead, it would more directly indicate how well the person would do on a job sample, which is likely to be a part of the training sessions. In fact, trainability tests typically include job samples and are described as a type of job sample.
What is the Solomon four-group design?
The Solomon four-group design is a true experimental design used to evaluate the effects of pretesting, since some groups are pretested and others are not.
What is Thorndike's law of effect?
A behavior that is followed by a satisfying consequence will be likely to occur again
What is Total Quality Management (TQM)?
TQM is an organizational philosophy that focuses on maximizing customer service and satisfaction. An important characteristic of TQM is its involvement of employees in all aspects of decision-making, and failures are often due to management's unwillingness to do this.
What is Turner Syndrome a result of?
A missing chromosome. It only occurs in females and involves the absence of one X chromosome.
What is undifferentiated somatoform disorder?
An individual has one or more physical symptoms that are not due to a physical cause and don't meet criteria for Somatization
What is Vivienne Cass associated with?
The first non-pathologizing model of homosexual identity formation. Vivienne Cass proposed individuals go through a six-stage, non-age specific, process of homosexual identity development. The stages are: 1.) Identity awareness (conscious of being different); 2.) Identity comparison (believes may be homosexual, acts heterosexual); 3.) Identity tolerance (realizes is homosexual); 4.) Identity acceptance (begins to explore gay community); 5.) Identity pride (becomes active in gay community); and 6.) Synthesis (fully accepts self and others).
What management philosophy incorporates traditional American (Theory A) and Japanese (Theory J) philosophies?
Ouchi’s Theory Z, which advocates individual responsibility, consensual-decision making, slow promotion, and holistic knowledge of the organization
What model is Hanley-Hackenbruch associated with?
Hanley-Hackenbruch developed a three-stage mode of homosexual identity formation: 1.) Prohibition; 2.) Ambivalence/practicing or compulsion/exploration; and 3.) Consolidation/integration.
What model is Sophie associated with?
Sophie postulated a four-stage coming out process: 1.) First awareness, 2.) Testing and exploration, 3.) Identity acceptance, and 4.) Commitment.
What percent of individuals diagnosed with Panic Disorder also have Agoraphobia in community samples according to the DSM-IV-TR?
The DSM-IV-TR reports prevalence rates for Panic Disorder of 1 to 2% in community samples and states that “approximately one-third to one-half of individuals diagnosed with Panic Disorder in community samples also have Agoraphobia.”
None
What percentage of Parkinson’s patients is depressed?
40% This can be due both to the disease and a reaction process
What role does GABA have in the progression of Huntington's disease?
Huntington's Disease is believed to begin when cells within the striatum (caudate and putamen) of the basal ganglia begin to be destroyed. The striatum is responsible for producing GABA, which regulates the levels of dopamine in the brain through an inhibitory process. The death of the striatum cells causes decreased amounts of GABA, which leads to an overproduction of dopamine and results in chorea (uncontrollable and irregular muscle movements, especially of the arms, legs, and face).
What theory says "Individuals progress from infantile dependency to mature interdependency"
Self-In-Relation Theory
What theory uses the term "Life Space"?
Associated with Lewin's Field Theory: "Life space" is also a central concept in field theory but refers to everything in a person's psychological environment
What therapeutic approach is William Glasser associated with, and what is the goal of therapy?
According to Glasser’s Reality Therapy, when an individual is capable of fulfilling his or her own needs for survival, power, belonging, freedom and fun, without harming self or infringing on the rights of others, then he or she has developed a “success identity.” When the needs are met irresponsibly then the individual has developed a “failure identity.”
What type of decision-making model is Herbert Simon linked with, and what does it emphasize?
Bounded rationality (administrative) model of decision making, which proposes that decision makers are not always completely rational in making choices. Instead, time and resources limit their consideration of alternatives, so they tend to consider alternatives only until a satisfactory one is identified.
What type of mothering is associated with insecure/avoidant attachment?
Ainsworth found that babies with this type of pattern often had mothers who were either very impatient and nonresponsive, or alternatively overstimulating.
When are groups better than individuals, and vise versa?
Groups have higher productivity when they have team goals, and when they are cohesive and have a supportive leader. Groups are not as good in decision-making, and when there is a highly directive leader.
Which family therapist emphasized the role of boundary disturbances within a family system? What are examples of boundary disturbance in this context?
According to Minuchin, boundaries in a family system can be described as enmeshed or disengaged; the two terms represent opposite ends of a continuum. Enmeshed boundaries are overly diffuse; the result is a family in which members are overly close and dependent. Disengagement describes boundaries that are overly rigid; members of a disengaged family tend to be isolated from each other.
Which of the following is associated with high inter-rater reliability?
a. Mutually exclusive rating categories
b. highly correlated rating categories
c. use of a coefficient of equivalence
d. use of the correction for attenuation formula
A. Inter-rater reliability is increased when non-correlated, mutually exclusive rating categories are used. This makes it easier for raters to determine which category a behavior fits under.
None
White Racial Identity Development Model (Helms)
6 Stages: 1. Contact 2. Disintegration 3. Reintegration 4. Pseudo-independence 5. Immersion-Emersion 6. Autonomy
Who referred to a person's life plan as a "script"?
Eric Berne called a person's life plan a script, and espoused that it reflected the person's characteristic pattern of giving and receiving strokes.
Who would say that "people view the world through cognitive schema"
George Kelly. Also said that interpretation of event is more important than events themselves.
Who would say that "psychopathology is caused by a maladaptive style of life"
Alfred Adler
Whose names is associated with Social Learning Theory of Career Decision Making (SLTCDM), and what does this theory say?
Krumboltz’s Social Learning Theory of Career Decision Making (SLTCDM) includes four types of influences on making career decisions: genetic characteristics and special abilities; environmental conditions and events; learning experiences; and performance standards and values. Social learning influences can be positive or negative factors.
Why does Gilligan consider adolescence to be a critical period for females, and what types of experiences might they need at this time?
Gilligan argues that girls are vulnerable during adolescence because they're experiencing a "relational crisis" involving psychological separation from self, others, and world. Girls need experiences that help them "resist disconnection"
With a diagnosis of Schizophrenia, the risk of the same diagnosis for a monozygotic twin is how many times greater than the risk for a dizygotic twin?
a. one time
b. two and a half times
c. four times
d. six and a half times
B. The risk for an identical (monozygotic) twin to be diagnosed is about 46% and for fraternal (17%). 46 is about two and a half times 17, and thus "closest" to correct.
None
With respect to creativity and problem-solving, heterogeneity of group has been found to...
Be positively related to creativity and decision-making effectiveness.
With respect to relationship status (i.e., single, married, etc.), what group has the highest rate of suicide?
Divorced persons.
You explain that cocaine affects the brain in following manner: a. it increases epinephrine b. it increases glutamate c. it decreases serotonin d. it increases dopamine
D. Cocaine is believed to block the reuptake of dopamine. As dopamine collects in the neurons of the limbic system, it continues to stimulate receiving cells.
What are Kohlberg's stages of moral development?
Instrumental hedonistic orientation
social relations orientation,
social contract and individual rights orientation,
universal ethical principles orientation.
The behavioral technique known as flooding is based on what theoretical principle?
The technique is based on the principle of classical extinction, which involves repeatedly presenting a conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus.
When is Spearman Rho used?
The Spearman Rho is a correlation coefficient used to correlate two variables that have been ordinally ranked.
What does Identity Process Theory propose?
Identity process theory proposes that adjustment to aging can be conceptualized as involving the three processes of identity assimilation (maintaining self-consistency), identity accommodation (making changes in the self), and identity balance (maintaining a sense of self but changing when necessary). Research indicates only identity balance is positively related to internal state awareness, suggesting that the ability to incorporate age-related changes within an identity and at the same time maintain a consistent and positive view of the self is most conducive to successful aging.
When do children begin to recognize racial differences based on physical traits?
Children's ethnic perspective-taking ability (EPTA) has been evaluated and described in several stages. In the first stage, which develops between 3 and 4 years, children first begin to describe ethnicity in terms of physical traits (e.g., skin color, clothes, physical features). In the next stage, which occurs between 5 and 9 years, they become able to accurately apply ethnic labels to themselves and others and they rely on other objective cues such as language and food preference, as well as physical appearance in ethnic labeling. In the next stage, from 7-12 years, children express a social perspective of ethnicity, including prejudice. And between 10 and 15 years, they begin to immerse themselves into their ethnic group.
Tolman’s Cognitive Learning Theory
According to Tolman’s Cognitive Learning Theory, learning is the result of conditioning and cognitive understanding. The acquisition of cognitive structures or cognitive maps underlies the concept of latent learning or learning that occurs without reinforcement and does not immediately manifest in behavior.
What is Briquet’s syndrome?
Termed after the physican who described the condition in the 1850s, Briquet’s syndrome, or Somatization Disorder, is a chronic Somatoform Disorder with multiple physical symptoms that cannot be explained entirely by a general medical condition or the effects of a substance.
In working with a triangulated family, a structural family therapist would...
Minuchin, the founder of structural family therapy, defines triangulation as a family boundary problem in which each parent demands that the child side with him or her against the other parent. According to Minuchin, the therapist's goal in this and other situations in which parents attempt to deflect conflict onto children is to restructure the parent-child and spousal subsystems so they function correctly. This involves introducing some stress into the family system to upset the family's balance and block the family from its normal way of interacting. For example, Minuchin describes strategies such as prohibiting children from talking about symptomatic behavior with their parents, rewarding parents for their capacity to nurture and support each other, and restructuring the parents in a coalition against their child.