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55 Cards in this Set

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Cannon-Bard theory
The Cannon-Bard theory proposes that emotions and bodily reactions occur simultaneously. When an event is perceived (e.g., taking the exam), messages are sent at the same time to the hypothalamus, which arouses the body, and to the limbic system, which causes the subjective experience of anxiety
James-Lange theory
According to the James-Lange theory, emotions result from perceiving bodily reactions or responses. In this case, you perceived your bodily reaction (heart racing) and concluded you must be very anxious
Schacter's Two-Factor theory
Schacter's Two-Factor theory proposes that emotion results from both internal information (hypothalamus and limbic system) and external information (the context). According to this theory you would be experiencing physiological arousal (racing heart), and would then look to the environment (the licensing exam) to help you label the emotion as anxiety, rather than, for example excitement
General Adaptation Syndrome
Selye's General Adaptation Syndrome is a model of response to severe stress consisting of three stages: alarm, resistance, and exhaustion
Criterion Contamination
Criterion contamination occurs when the criterion is subjectively scored, and the rater has knowledge of the employees' predictor scores. In this case, you are aware of how employees performed in the assessment center (a predictor of future managerial success) and then rate them on the criterion (quarterly performance appraisals). When criterion contamination occurs, scores on the criterion are influenced by one's knowledge of predictor scores. For example, those employees who did well in the assessment center are given higher quarterly appraisals than those who did poorly. Criterion contamination results in a spuriously high criterion-related validity coefficient.
MMPI-2 Scale L
The L scale measures a naïve attempt to present favorably
MMPI-2 Scale F
The F scale measures infrequently endorsed items, and can be used to assess overall distress and pathology, attempts to fake bad, or random responding
MMPI-2 Scale K
the K scale measures guardedness or defensiveness. The K scale also serves as a moderator variable. Scores on the K scale are used to adjust for defensiveness, by adding points to a number of the clinical scales based on the K scale score
MMPI-2 Scales VRIN and TRIN
VRIN and TRIN specifically measure response inconsistency or random responding
The standard errors of the mean, measurement, and estimate express error in terms of:
• 1. standard deviation.
• 2. sampling error.
• 3. systematic error.
• 4. the testing situation.
All the standard error formulas express error in terms of standard deviation units. Sampling error (Response 2) applies to the standard error of the mean only. Systematic error (Response 3) does not apply to any of the standard error formulas. The testing situation (Response 4) is a source of error taken into account in the standard error of measurement only.
Differential Validity
Differential validity is one of three problems that can occur when using selection tests in hiring decisions. The other two problems are adverse impact and unfairness.
Differential validity is defined as obtaining different criterion-related validity coefficients for two different groups (e.g., .51 for males and .35 for females, or .46 for Caucasians and .27 for Hispanics).
Early research found differential validity to be a significant problem; however, more recent research has found that differential validity is actually relatively rare, and that earlier occurrences were simply an artifact of small sample size.
Standard Error of the Estimate
The standard error of estimate is affected by two variables, the standard deviation of the criterion and criterion-related validity. Intuitively, when validity is high, there should be little error in prediction, and when validity is low, there should be a lot of error in prediction. This is an indirect relationship. The standard error of estimate has a direct relationship with the standard deviation, in that the larger the SD, the larger the error, while conversely, the smaller the SD, the smaller the error
Reinforcement of Addictive Behaviors
Addictive behaviors are considered to be self-reinforcing in that the person does not depend on any external reinforcement
Behavioral Contrast
A situation in which two bxs are initially reinforced at equal levels and then one bx stops being reinforced. What typically occurs is that the bx that is no longer being reinforced decreases in frequency, while the bx that continues to be reinforced increases in frequency
Bandura's research looking at the impact of punishing a model for acting aggressively on male and female observers showed that

A. when the model is punished, male and female children are more likely to act aggressively than when the model is rewarded.

B. when the model is punished, performance (but not learning) of aggressive behaviors is reduced.

C. when the model is punished, learning and performance of aggressive behaviors are both reduced.

D. when the model is punished, male and female children are less likely to agree that aggressiveness is acceptable.
The Correct Answer is B
In his work on observational learning, Bandura found evidence for his theory that learning and performance are separate phenomena and that learning can occur without reinforcement. For example, in the study described in this question, children learned aggressive responses by watching an aggressive model (even when the model was punished) and, consequently, were able to imitate the aggressive behavior when told they would be rewarded for doing so. Interestingly, boys (but not girls) who were rewarded for imitating the aggressive model were more likely to do so when the model had been punished than when the model had been rewarded.
Taylor-Russell tables
Used to evaluate incremental validity, the benefit of using a test for improving selection decisions

There are three key variables that affect incremental validity: base rate, selection ratio, and criterion-related validity.

Base rate is the rate of successful hiring without using a test. A moderate base rate optimizes incremental validity.

Selection ratio is the ratio of number of openings to number of applicants, and a low selection ratio optimizes incremental validity.

The criterion-related validity of the test is the correlation between scores on the test and scores on some outcome measure of performance or productivity. The higher the criterion-related validity, the better the incremental validity. While construct validity, test-retest reliability, and internal consistency reliability might all be important, it is specifically criterion-related that directly influences incremental validity.
Court-Ordered Assessment vs Court-Ordered Treatment
The Court for Assessment
The Client for Treatment
Withdrawal from EtOH and the class called sedatives, hypnotics, and anxiolytics
Withdrawal from these substances can potentially be fatal and involve hallucinations,insomnia, nightmares, anxiety, panic, muscular spasms or cramps, seizures
Withdrawal from amphetamines
Dysphoria, fatigue, unpleasant dreams, increased appetite, and psychomotor agitation or retardation
Opioid withdrawal
Flu-like symptoms
Reactive Attachment Disorder
Reactive Attachment Disorder of Infancy or Early Childhood occurs in reaction to "grossly pathological care" and results in "markedly disturbed . . . social relatedness."

In the disinhibited type of the disorder, there is "indiscriminant sociability," e.g., the child responds to strangers in an over-friendly way. In the inhibited type, the child is inhibited, hypervigilant, or highly ambivalent.
The shape of a z-score distribution
Is identical to (or follows) the shape of the raw score distribution
The shape of the distribution of percentile ranks
Flat or rectangular
Larry P. vs Riles
It was found that intelligence testing unfairly discriminated against minority students, resulting in too many being labeled as needing special education. As a result, intelligence testing alone can no longer be used in assigning minority students to special education services
Griggs vs Duke Power
It was ruled that certain tests, such as the Wonderlic, were unfair to use in making decisions about hiring and promotion. Broad, general testing was faulted, and testing was required to measure the specific skills required by a particular job. This has significantly affected the use of selection tests in industry
Most likely to work on boundary issues
Structural Family Therapists (e.g., Minuchin)

The key aspect of this treatment is focusing on the family's hierarchy and working on problematic boundary issues
Most likely to work on differentiation issues
Bowenian family systems therapists
Most likely to prescribe the symptom
Strategic Therapist (e.g., Haley)
Most likely to be concerned with double binds
Communications Family Therapists such as Satir, Jackson, and Bateson.

These therapists are sometimes known as the Mental Research Institute (MRI) group
Ipsative data
Results from a forced-choice format
The term used to describe single subject design research approaches
If a researcher changes a one-tailed test to a two-tailed test
Changing a one-tailed to a two-tailed test reduces power. Power is defined as the ability to correctly reject the null. If power is reduced, the researcher is less likely to correctly reject the null. Power and beta have an inverse relationship. So, if power is reduced, beta would increase, and the researcher would be more (not less) likely to incorrectly accept the null
DRO, or differential reinforcement for other behaviors, combines operant extinction for an undesired behavior with reinforcement for more appropriate behavior. For example a child is ignored when she whines, and complimented when she politely asks for what she wants.
Causes of Infant Mortality
1st congenital malformations

2nd low birth weight

3rd SIDS

5th respiratory distress

17th homicide
Erikson & Freud Developmental Stages
0-1 yr
Erikson: Trust vs. Mistrust (Strength is Hope)

Freud: Oral
Erikson & Freud Developmental Stages
1-3 yrs
Erikson: Autonomy vs Shame & Doubt (Strength is Will)

Freud: Anal
Erikson & Freud Developmental Stages
3-6 yrs
Erikson: Initiative vs Guilt (Strength is Purpose)

Freud: Phallic
Erikson & Freud Developmental Stages
6-12 yrs
Erikson: Industry vs Inferiority (Strength is Competence)

Freud: Latency
Erikson & Freud Developmental Stages
12-18 yrs
Erikson: Identity vs. role confusion (Strength is Fidelity)

Freud: Genital
Erikson & Freud Developmental Stages
18-35 yrs
Erikson: Intimacy vs. Isolation (Strength is Love)

Freud: Genital (cont'd)
Erikson & Freud Developmental Stages
35-60 yrs
Erikson: Generativity vs. Stagnation (Strength is Care)

Freud: Genital (cont'd)
Erikson & Freud Developmental Stages
60+ yrs
Erikson: Integrity vs. Despair (Strength is Wisdom)

Freud: Genital (cont'd)
Margaret Mahler’s Developmental stages
1. Normal infantile autism (1 month) unawareness of external world

2. Symbiosis (3-4 mos) baby and mother are one, no separation

3. Differentiation (5-10 mos) child distinguishes between self and other-Stranger anxiety

4. Practicing (10-16 mos) able to physically separate the self from mother-Separation anxiety

5. Rapprochement (16-24 mos)Needs mother to share child’s new skills & experience, great need for love

6. Object constancy (2-3 yrs) Ability to maintain the image of the mother when she is not present, unify good and bad in one representation
Ridley’s Cultural/Functional Paranoia: 4 types
• Cultural paranoia is healthy, involves suspicion of AfAm towards Whites
• Functional paranoia is pathological, involves suspicion of Clt towards professional

1. Intercultural non Paranoiac – low cultural low functional – disclosure to both AfAm & White

2. Functional Paranoiac – low cultural, high functional – no disclosure to both AfAm & White

3. Healthy cultural Paranoiac – high cultural, low functional – disclosure to AfAm only

4. Confluent Paranoiac – high cultural high functional – no disclosure, combination
Ethnic Group Orientation
African American–present, active, interdependent
Caucasian-future, active, independent
Hispanic-past/present, being in becoming, interdependence
Improve tx: incorporating element of Latino culture, increase services accessibility, select standard tx that best fit Latinos
Native-American-present, being in becoming, interdependence. Therapist is a catalyst. Highest lifetime rate of victimization by an intimate partner
Asian American-lower divorce rates and fewer families with a female head
Standard errors
All have direct relationships with the SD and an inverse relationship with the other variable (e.g., population standard deviation, reliability, validity , sample size, etc.)
Positive – most scores at the low end (negative tail)
Mean is > median, which is > mode

Negative – most scores that the high end (positive tail)
Mean is < median, which is < mode
Statistical Error
Type I Error – rejecting a true null hypothesis (i.e., differences were found when they do not actually exist); probability=alpha (level of significance)

Type II Error – retaining a false null hypothesis (i.e., no differences are found when differences actually exist); probability = beta
Therapies based on Classical Conditioning
*Systematic desensitization (Wolpe)
*Aversive conditioning – CS is paired with new stimulus that elicits strong neg response incompatible with old pleasurable response
*Sensate Focus
*Assertiveness Training

Classical Extinction
*Implosive therapy (Stampfl)– similar to flooding – conducted in the mind using psychoanalytic imagery
Therapies based on Operant Conditioning
*Token economy
*Contingency Contracting (Th helps Clts ID bxs they most want from ea other and then helps them negotiate contract for their exchange)
*DRO (aka DRI/DRA)-Diff Reinf of Other Bxs-Combines extinction and + reinforcement
*Premack Principle – using high-frequency behavior as RF for low-frequency behavior-e.g., child cannot go out and play until homework is completed

Aversive Control of Bx
*+ Punishment-Apply aversive stimulus after an undesirable bx has been emitted
*Escape Learning-Once aversive stimulus has started it can be stopped by emitting desired bx
*Avoidance Learning-Entirely avoid aversive stimulus if desired bx is emitted in time
*Overcorrection – Punishment that involves restitution or reparation & physical guidance
Cognitive Learning Theories
Stress the internal thought process that occur during learning; reject necessity for external RF for learning
*Tolman – viewed learning as “purposive” – directed toward specific goals
“Latent learning” – learning without RF
*Kohler – learning is a cognitive process – studied chimps
“Aha” experiences indicate learning is often result of insight rather than RF
*Bandura – observational model of learning
*Observe model, repeat behavior without RF
Use attention, retention, production, motivation
*Good for eliminating simple phobias
Interventions Based on Cognitive-Behaviorism
Ellis: REBT-Born from Ellis' dissatisfxn w/psychoanalysis
Emo disturbances result of irrational beliefs-ABC model

Beck: Cognitive Tx-more collaborative than REBT-Neg view of: Self, World, Future

Meichenbaum: CBM (Cog-Bx Mod) Self-Instructional Training & Stress Inoculation Training
Focus on self-statements
S-IT: Modeling & graduated practice
SIT: 1-edu & cog prep; 2-coping skills acq; 3-appl in imagination and in vivo

Rehm: Self-Control Model of Depression-Integration of cognitive and bx'l models of depression

Marlatt: Relapse Prevention-Assist pt to view relapse as a lepse to be learned from-ID triggers (most common thought to be pt's neg emo state)
PTSD - Dx Criteria
T - Trauma: the person experienced, witnessed or was confronted by actual or threatened serious injury, death, or threat to the physical integrity of self or other and the person experienced intense helplessness, fear, and horror

R - Reexperiences such traumatic events by intrusive thoughts, nightmares, flashbacks, or recollection of traumatic memories and images

A - Avoidance and emotional numbing emerge, expressed as detachment from others; flattening of affect; anhedonia; amotivation; and persistent avoidance of activity, places, persons, or events associated with the traumatic experience

U - Unable to function-Sxs are distressing and cause significant impairment in social, occupational, and interpersonal functioning

M - Month-These symptoms last more than 1 Month

A - Arousal increased-usu manifested by startle rxn, poor concentration, irritable mood, insomnia, and hypervigilance
GAD - Dx Criteria

Anxious, nervous or worried on most days about a number of events or activities
No control over the worry
Duration of 6 months


Concentration impairment

Energy decreased
Sleep impairment
Tension in muscles
Parkinson’s Dz - Dx Criteria
Pill rolling
Neck titubation
Shuffling gait
Occulogyric crisis
Nose tap
Small writing