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32 Cards in this Set

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What is introjection in reference to Gestalt therapy?
Introjection involves absorbing the values or behaviors of others, including the larger society, without really understanding or assimilating those values or behaviors. Introjection represents a disturbance in the boundary between self and others -- the person does or believes things that are not reflective of a self that is clearly distinct from others in the environment.
According to terror management theory (TMT), individuals utilize two things to manage the terror associated with the fear of death:
A cultural worldview and self-esteem. An outside group, person or differing ideas that clash may threaten the validation system (religion, political ideology) that provides a sense of security. Studies have found increased mortality salience, encountering or recently thinking about death, results in people strongly connecting to their worldview elements like religious beliefs or national pride and increased emergence of prejudices against an outside group in addition to creating a longing for structure, order, acceptance of quick, easy answers to problems and foregoing careful consideration of all options.
When looking at an item characteristic curve (ICC), what do the Y-intercept, the slope of the curve, and the position of the curve tell you?
Y-intercept: the probability of answering the item correctly.
Slope of the curve: ability to discriminate between high and low scorers.
Position of the curve: item difficulty.
The correlation obtained between two tests supposedly measuring the same ability will be affected most by the:
Reliability of the tests used.
What are the four interrelated components of transformational leadership, according to Bass.
Bass (1985) suggested that transformational leadership contains the interrelated components of:
1.) Idealized or charisma influence (attributed or behavioral; characterized by high morals and ethical standards),
2.) Inspirational motivation (provides followers with meaning and challenges for engaging in undertakings and shared goals),
3.) Intellectual stimulation (helps followers to question assumptions and to generate more creative solutions to problems), and
4.) Individualized consideration (treats each follower as an individual and provides coaching, mentoring and growth opportunities).
What is eta used for?
Eta is a correlational coefficient used for non-linear, or curvilinear, relationships.
What has been found to be true about step-fathers?
Stepparent-stepchild relationships have been investigated by Hetherington and others, who have found that stepfathers are generally uninvolved in the raising and discipline of their stepchildren (although the relationship between stepfathers and stepsons may improve somewhat over time).
Escape Conditioning
The concept of negative reinforcement involves increasing the likelihood of a behavior through the elimination of an aversive stimulus (the negative part). As you might recall, this is exactly what the dog does by learning to escape the electric shock by jumping to the other side of the cage. This is the classic example of escape conditioning. Jumping to the other side is reinforced by the elimination of the aversive stimulus.
Erikson's Developmental Stages
1.) Trust vs. Mistrust (Birth through first year)
2.) Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (1 to 3 years)
3.) Initiative vs. Guilt (3 to 6 years)
4.) Industry vs. Inferiority (6 years to puberty)
5.) Identity vs. Identity Confusion (Adolescence)
6.) Intimacy vs. Isolation (Young Adulthood)
7.) Generativity vs. Stagnation (Middle Adulthood)
8.) Ego Integrity vs. Despair (Old Age)
What is the Spearman-Brown formula used for?
The Spearman-Brown formula is specifically used to estimate the reliability of a test if it were lengthened or shortened.
What occurs at the reintegration stage of Helms' White and People of Color Racial Identity Model?
People resolve their conflicts by adopting the position that whites are superior.
What occurs at the pseudo-independence stage of Helms' White and People of Color Racial Identity Model?
People become dissatisfied with reintegration and re-examine their beliefs about racial inequalities.
What occurs at the Immersion-Emersion stage of Helms' White and People of Color Racial Identity Model?
People embrace their whiteness without rejecting members of minority groups and attempt to determine how they can feel proud of their own race without being racist.
What occurs at the Autonomy stage of Helms' White and People of Color Racial Identity Model?
Whites internalize a nonracist white identity and seek out cross-racial interactions.
What does Robert Sternberg’s triarchic model of intelligence consist of?
Robert Sternberg’s triarchic model of intelligence consists of three interacting components:
1.) Componential, or analytical, aspect includes the methods used to process and analyze information;
2.) Experiential, or creative, aspect refers to how unfamiliar circumstances and tasks are dealt with; and
3.) Practical, or contextual, component refers to how people respond to their environment.
What model of intelligence did Howard Gardner develop?
Howard Gardner developed the theory of multiple intelligences which currently lists eight intelligences: linguistic, logical-mathematical, musical intelligence, bodily-kinesthetic, spatial, interpersonal, intrapersonal and naturalist.
What model of intelligence did David Perkins develop?
David Perkins identified three dimensions to intelligence: the neural, the experiential, and the reflective that are considered contrasting causal factors that all contribute to intelligence.
Of the Big Five personality traits, which are the least and most stable over time?
Least: Neuroticism
Most: Extraversion
What is multicultural competence in therapy most often attributed to?
Multicultural competence is most often attributed to one's level of awareness, knowledge, and skills. "Awareness" refers to awareness of one's own beliefs, values, and stereotypes. "Knowledge" refers to knowledge of the worldviews of clients with different cultural backgrounds. And "skills" refers to the skills that are most appropriate for clients with different cultural backgrounds.
What are the 3 types of "rigid triangles" that Minuchin defines?
Minuchin defines three types of "rigid triangles" that involve chronic boundary disturbances – triangulation; detouring; and a stable coalition.
What are self-directed work teams?
Self-directed work teams are self-directed; i.e., they determine their own goals, plan their own work processes, and may even hire their own replacements. A distinguishing characteristic of self-directed work teams is that members are generalists (versus specialists), and each member has (or learns) a broad range of skills. A possible downside of self-directed work teams is that they are associated with higher absenteeism than more traditional work groups.
Autoplastic vs. Alloplastic
Autoplastic (“self-change”) refers to changing or adapting to the environment by altering one’s own behaviors or responses.
Alloplastic refers to changing or adapting to the environment by effecting changes in the environment.
Canonical correlation
Canonical correlation is used when there are two or more predictor variables and two or more criterion variables.
Tetrachoric correlation
Tetrachoric correlation is a technique used to estimate the magnitude of the relationship between two continuous variables that have been dichotomized, such as dividing age into two groups: under 40 and over 40.
What are recognized as the diathesis in Abramson, Metalsky, and Alloy’s (1989) hopelessness model of depression?
A negative attributional style, or types of attributions such as internal, stable, and global attributions
What is a diathesis-stress model?
Diathesis-stress models state that illness is the result of diathesis (vulnerability) combined with stress, with the nature of the vulnerability depending on the type of theory.
According to Beck's cognitive theory, how does depression develop?
Beck’s cognitive theory, a diathesis-stress model, sugegsts that some people, when exposed to a negative life event (stress), are vulnerable to experiencing depression as they have depressogenic schemata (dysfunctional attitudes).
The item difficulty ("p") index yields information about the difficulty of test items in terms of a(n) _________ scale of measurement.
An item difficulty index indicates the percentage of individuals who answer a particular item correctly. For example, if an item has a difficulty index of .80, it means that 80% of test-takers answered the item correctly. Although it appears that the item difficulty index is a ratio scale of measurement, according to Anastasi (1982) it is actually an ordinal scale because it does not necessarily indicate equivalent differences in difficulty.
The discrimination hypothesis, frustration theory, and sequential theory are alternative explanations for the reason why...
organisms respond for a longer period of time during extinction trials when they were previously reinforced on an intermittent schedule than when they were reinforced on a continuous schedule. This is called the "partial reinforcement effect."
Kohlberg's theory of moral development is based on the assumption that progress through his hypothesized stages is related to...
... changes in social perspective. Kohlberg believed that the three levels of moral reasoning reflect different levels of cognitive development, which encompasses changes in social perspective-taking. At the conventional level, the person views an individual as a member of society and bases his/her moral judgments on that conceptualization.
What cohort has the highest rate of admission to inpatient mental health facilities?
Never married men (never married women have the lowest).