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Discribe Piaget's constructivism: assimilation and accommodation
Piaget created a theory of cognitive development based on the idea that people increase their cognitive skill based on information taken from both the environment and biological maturation. Individuals learn things in order to establish equilibrium between their current undestanding of the world and reality. This is done through two processes, assimilation and accomodation.

ASSIMILATION is incorporating new information into existing cognitive schema

ACCOMMODATION is modifying the existing schema in order to accomodate new knowledge.
Often, an individual will attempt to assimilate an unfamiliear object or event, and when this is unsuccessful the individual will realize that the new thing must be accommodates.
Discuss memory throughout life and giftedness.
Young children have a limited working memory, so they tend to focus on immediate problems without considering lon-term effects. By the age of ten, children should be using memory strategies like rehearsal, elaboration, and organization to place objects within long-term memory.

Most researchers believe that improvements in memory are due to better metacognition: that is, thinking about thinking.

Recent long-term memory is the most diminished with age, followed by the working memory component of short-term memory.

Remote long-term memory, sensory memory and memory span are not sidgnificatly dimisished with age. Moany elderly people can stemp the tied of memory loss by learning some mnemonic strategies.

According to research, gifted shildren tend to have better self-image and better metacognitive skills.
Metacognition
Recent LTM
Remote LTM/sensory Memory/Span
Antisocial PD
It is a general
lack of concern for the rights and feelings of
others.
In order to receive this diagnosis, the individual
must be at least 18, have had a history of
conduct disorder before age 15, and must have
shown at least three of the following symptoms
before the age of 15:
--failure to conform to social laws and norms;
--deceitfulness;
--impulsivity;
--reckless disregard for the safety of self and
others;
--consistent irresponsibility;
--and a lack of remorse.
Cluster B = dramatic,
emotional, or erratic

This disorder may also include an inflated
opinion of self, superficial charm, and a lack of
empathy for others.
Histrionic PD
Histrionic personality disorder is excessive
emotionality and attention-seeking behavior.
Five symptoms like the following must be
present for a diagnosis:
--annoyance or discomfort when not receiving
attention;
--inappropriate sexual provocation;
--rapidly shifting and shallow emotions;
--vague and impressionistic speech;
--exaggerated expression of emotion;
--easily influenced by others;
--and misapprehension of relationships as more
intimate than they are.
Cluster B = dramatic,
emotional, or erratic
Narcissistic PD
Narcissistic personality disorder is grandiose
behavior along with a lack of empathy and a
need for admiration. The individual must exhibit
five symptoms for diagnosis, including:
--grandiose sense of self-importance;
--fantasies of own power and beauty;
--belief in personal uniqueness;
--need for excessive admiration;
--sense of entitlement;
--exploitative of others;
--and a lack of empathy.
Cluster B = dramatic,
emotional, or erratic
Explain the age and treatment of borderline
personality disorder.
Borderline personality disorder is most common
in people between the ages of 19 and 34. Most
individuals see substantial improvement over a
period of fifteen years; impulsive symptoms
seem to be the first to recede.
Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is often used
to treat borderline personality disorder; it
combines cognitive-behavioral therapy with the
assumption of Rogers that the patient must
accept his or her problem before any progress
can be made
DBT
Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is often used
to treat borderline personality disorder; it
combines cognitive-behavioral therapy with the
assumption of Rogers that the patient must
accept his or her problem before any progress
can be made.
There are three basic strategies associated with
dialectical behavior therapy:
--group skills training;
--individual outpatient therapy;
--and telephone consultations.
Regular DBT has reduced the number of
suicides and violent acts committed by
individuals with borderline personality disorder.
Dialectical Behavioral Therapy
Dependent PD
Describe dependent personality disorder and
obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.
Dependent personality disorder is an excessive
need to be taken care of.
The diagnosis requires five symptoms from
among:
--difficulty making decision without advice; --need for others to assume responsibility for
one’s actions;
--fear of disagreeing with others;
--difficulty self-initiating projects;
--and feelings of helplessness or discomfort
when alone.
Cluster C = involves the feelings of anxiety or fearfulness.
Obsessive-Compulsive PD
Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder is a
persistent preoccupation with organization and
mental/interpersonal control.
Four symptoms are required for the diagnosis
which include:
--preoccupation with rules, and details;
--perfectionism that interferes with progress;
--excessive devotion to work;
--counterproductive rigidity about beliefs and
morality;
--inability to throw away old objects;
--and a reluctance to delegate authority to
others.
Cluster C = involves the feelings of anxiety or fearfulness.
Avoidant PD
It is a pervasive pattern of social inhibition,
feelings of inadequacy, and hypersensitivity to
negative evaluation.
A person with this diagnosis will exhibit at least
four symptoms like:
--avoiding work or school activities that involve
interpersonal contact;
--being unwilling to associate with any person
who is not sure to approve of them;
--preoccupation with concerns about being
criticized or rejected;
-- conception of self as socially inept, inferior, or
unappealing to others;
--and a general reluctance to take personal
risks or engage in dangerous behavior.
Cluster C = involves the feelings of anxiety or fearfulness.
Borderline PD
Borderline personality disorder is a pervasive
pattern of instability in social relationships, selfimage,
and affect, coupled with marked
impulsivity.
A diagnosis requires five symptoms, which
include:
--frantic efforts to avoid being abandoned; --a pattern of unstable and intense personal
relationships, in which there is alternation
between idealization and devaluation;
--instability in self-image;
--potentially self-destructive impulsivity in at
least two areas;
-- recurrent suicide threats or gestures;
--affective instability;
--and chronic feelings of emptiness.
The changes in self-identity may manifest as
shifts in career goals and sexual identity;
impulsivity may manifest as unsafe sex,
reckless driving practices, and substance
abuse.
Cluster B = dramatic,
emotional, or erratic
Paranoid PD
Paranoid personality disorder is a pervasive
pattern of distrust and suspiciousness that
involves believing the actions and thoughts of
other people to be directed antagonistically
against oneself.
In order to make the diagnosis, the individual
must have at least four of the following
symptoms:
--suspects that others are somehow harming
him or her;
--doubts the trustworthiness of others;
--reluctant to confide in others;
--suspicious without justification about the
fidelity of one’s partner.
Cluster A = odd or eccetric disorders
Paranoid PD etiology
Personality disorders occur when an individual
has developed personality traits so maladaptive
and entrenched that they cause personal
distress or interfere significantly functioning.
Traits involved in Personality Disorders
Conscientiousness
Agreeableness/antagonism
Neuroticism
Openness to experience
Extraversion/introversion,
CANOE
5 Traits, according to DSM
Schizotypal PD
Pervasive social deficits and oddities of cognition,
perception, and behavior.
A diagnosis requires four of the following:
--ideas of reference;
--odd beliefs;
--magical thinking;
--bodily illusions;
--suspiciousness;
--social anxiety;
--inappropriate or constricted affect;
--and peculiarities in behavior or appearance.
Cluster A = odd or eccetric disorders
Schizoid PD
Pervasive lack
of interest in relationships with others, as well
as a limited range of emotional expression in
contacts with others.
For a diagnosis, at least four symptoms must
be present, including:
--avoidance of or displeasure in close
relationships;
--always chooses solitude;
--little interest in sexual relationships;
--takes pleasure in few activities;
-- indifference to praise or criticism;
--and emotional coldness or detachment.
Cluster A = odd or eccetric disorders
Cluster A PDs
Cluster B PDs
Cluster C PDs
Paranoid, Schizoid, Schizotypal
Antisocial, Borderline, Histrionic, Narcissistic
Avoidant, Dependent, OCPD
PSS - odd, eccentric
ABHN- dramatic, emotional, erratic
ADO - anxious, fearful
Explain Acetylcholine (Ach)
Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter found in both the peripheral and central nervous systems. When it is released into the neuromuscular junction by the peripheral nervous system, it contracts the muscles. In the central nervous system, ACh is responsible for REM sleep, the maintenance of the circadian rhythm, and memory. The memory deficits associated with Alzheimer’s disease and other illnesses result from the degeneration of ACh cells in the entorhinal cortex and other regions of the brain that communicate with the hippocampus. There are two sorts of receptor for these cells: nicotinic receptors are excitatory, while muscarinic receptors are inhibitory. The chemical in cigarettes, nicotine, creates alertness by mimicking ACh at receptor sites
Describe the Neuron
Explain Acetylcholine (Ach)
Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter found in both the peripheral and central nervous systems. When it is released into the neuromuscular junction by the peripheral nervous system, it contracts the muscles. In the central nervous system, ACh is responsible for REM sleep, the maintenance of the circadian rhythm, and memory. The memory deficits associated with Alzheimer’s disease and other illnesses result from the degeneration of ACh cells in the entorhinal cortex and other regions of the brain that communicate with the hippocampus. There are two sorts of receptor for these cells: nicotinic receptors are excitatory, while muscarinic receptors are inhibitory. The chemical in cigarettes, nicotine, creates alertness by mimicking ACh at receptor sites
Describe the Neuron
The neuron, or nerve cell, is a cell that is instrumental in human processes and behavior. Most of the neurons that a human will ever have are present at birth. It is possible for neurons to regenerate throughout life. Most neurons have three basic components: dendrites, cell body (soma), and axon. The dendrites are like arms that receive information in the form of electrical impulses from other cells and relay it to the soma. The cell body then processes that information and passes it to the axon, which may then pass it along to other cells. Neurons typically have one axon which divides into a few branches, called collaterals. Axons are covered by a thin fatty substance known as the myelin sheath, which accelerates the conduction of nerve impulses. The process through which electrical impulses are passed within a cell is called conduction; communication between cells is performed through the release of neurotransmitting chemicals between the cells (in a gap known as a synapse).
Describe the Neuron
The neuron, or nerve cell, is a cell that is instrumental in human processes and behavior. Most of the neurons that a human will ever have are present at birth. It is possible for neurons to regenerate throughout life. Most neurons have three basic components: dendrites, cell body (soma), and axon. The dendrites are like arms that receive information in the form of electrical impulses from other cells and relay it to the soma. The cell body then processes that information and passes it to the axon, which may then pass it along to other cells. Neurons typically have one axon which divides into a few branches, called collaterals. Axons are covered by a thin fatty substance known as the myelin sheath, which accelerates the conduction of nerve impulses. The process through which electrical impulses are passed within a cell is called conduction; communication between cells is performed through the release of neurotransmitting chemicals between the cells (in a gap known as a synapse).
Compare and contrast GABA, glutamate, and endorphins.
Compare and contrast GABA, glutamate, and endorphins.
amma-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that influences sleep, eating, seizure, and anxiety disorders. It is believed that the development of Huntington’s disease is in part due to the degeneration of the cells in the basal ganglia that are responsible for secreting GABA. Glutamate, on the other hand, is an excitatory neurotransmitter involved in learning and the formation of long-term memories. When glutamate receptors are overexcited, the result can be seizures and/or brain damage. Endorphins are not neurotransmitters but neuromodulators: they have analgesic properties and are though to lower the sensitivity of postsynaptic neurons to neurotransmitters.
Explain the differences between Catecholamines and Seratonin.
The group of neurotransmitters known as the catecholamines includes norepinephrine, epinephrine (adrenaline), and dopamine. Substances like these affect personality, mood, memory, and sleep. Dopamine is instrumental in regulating movement, and in reinforcing substance addiction: elevated levels of dopamine in the mesolimbic areas of the brain are associated with the pleasant feelings engendered by stimulants, opiates, alcohol, and nicotine. Another important neurotransmitter (which is not a member of the catecholamines) is serotonin: this chemical is inhibitory in general. Serotonin increases are thought to be responsible for depression, while low levels are associated with depression, PTSD, OCD, and aggression.
Discuss spinal cord damage.
When the spinal cord is damaged at the cervical level, the result is quadriplegia. When it is damaged at the thoracic level, the result is paraplegia. When a spinal cord injury is complete, there will be a total lack of sensation and voluntary movement below the site of the injury. When the injury is incomplete, some sensory and motor function below the level of injury will be maintained. If the flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to and from the four cerebral ventricles is obstructed, then a condition called hydrocephalus may develop in which fluid backs up and there is an enlargement of the ventricles. A similar enlargement of the ventricles has been observed in individuals with schizophrenia.